(Appendix 1)

Earlier we interpreted that the opening of the first seal of Revelation begins the three and a half year reign of the Antichrist. After his conquests at the beginning of his reign he then makes war with the saints and overcomes them, which is the fifth seal. When the sixth seal is opened, two and a half years into his reign, John saw that:

"...the sun became black as sackcloth of hair, and the moon became like blood. And the stars of heaven fell to the ground..." (Revelation 6:12-13).

As a result of these cosmic disturbances the inhabitants of the earth said to the mountains and rocks:

"Fall on us and hide us from the face of Him who sits on the throne and from the wrath of the Lamb! For the great day of His wrath has come, and who is able to stand?" (Revelation 6:16-17).

An Old Testament parallel to the above is:

"...the wrath of the Lord of hosts, And ... the day of His fierce wrath" (Isaiah 13:13).

Here in Revelation we have two events telescoped together so that they appear as only one. The "wrath of the Lamb", which comprises the seventh seal, is a separate event from the "great day of His wrath", and follows the last seal, as we shall see.

The "wrath of the Lamb" is synonymous with the "day of the LORD" as can be concluded from:

"Behold, the day of the LORD comes, Cruel, with both wrath and fierce anger. To lay the land desolate; And He will destroy its sinners from it. For the stars of heaven and their constellations Will not give their light; The sun will be darkened in its going forth, And the moon will not cause its light to shine" (Isaiah 13:9-10).

"The great day of the LORD is near... The noise of the day of the LORD is bitter... That day is a day of wrath, A day of trouble and distress... A day of trumpet and alarm..." (Zephaniah 1:14-16).

The first concept to be drawn from the above is that the wrath of the Lamb is a "day" in duration. But what sort of day is it? Is it a literal day or a prophetic day? A prophetic day, using the day for a year concept, is one literal year. We see this prophetic concept illustrated in Isaiah 34:8 :-

"For it is the day of the Lord's vengeance,
 The year of his recompense for the cause of Zion".

This verse is a synonymous parallelism. This is where "the second or subsequent line repeats or reinforces the sense of the first line" (Fee & Stuart, p.180). So here a "day" implies a years duration.

(When we put Revelation 8:1-2, 11:15 with 15:1 we see that the wrath of the Lamb comprises seven trumpets. With the fifth trumpet being the "first woe" we see that it last five months, which adds extra weight to the argument that the wrath of the Lamb is a period of one year).

But Revelation 6:16-17 is not a synonymous parallelism. "The wrath of the Lamb" and "the great day of His wrath" are two separate but subsequent events. "The wrath of the Lamb is a prophetic day while "the great day of His wrath" is a literal day. Why do we say that?

The second concept from the above is that "the day of the Lord", or the "wrath of the Lamb", is a "Set-subset relationship". The "wrath of the Lamb" is the set while the "wrath of the Lamb" and "the great day of His wrath are the subsets. Therefore the "wrath of the Lamb" may refer either to the whole set-period of one year and one day, which is Christ's direct intervention in the affairs of this world to bring it to a close, or to the specific "wrath of the Lamb" of one year, which is the first stage of that intervention.

It would appear that this construct is the figure of speech synecdoche (where the part is put for the whole) - therefore the specific "wrath of the Lamb", the part, may refer to the two combined subsequent events. We saw early that the people of 'the house of Judah' may be referred to as Jews, which is also a synecdoche, in that the term Jews, in the national sense, included both Benjamites and Levites.

Another illustration of this concept of synecdoche is the Feast of Tabernacles. The term "Feast of Tabernacles", is used by John in his gospel (John 7:2) for the eight day festival that concludes God's annual festival seasons. But the Feast of Tabernacles is specifically the first seven days of this festival. The final day, "the last day, the great day of the feast" (John 7:37), is a separate feast (cp. Leviticus 23:34-36). Therefore, the seven day "Feast of Tabernacles" is followed by "the great day of the Feast of Tabernacles".

So when we look at Isaiah 13:9 which reads in part: "...the day of the LORD comes, Cruel, with both wrath and fierce anger", with Isaiah 13:13, which reads in part: "...the wrath of the Lord of hosts, And...the day of His fierce wrath", we may draw the conclusion that Isaiah 13:9 reinforces the set-subset concept of the "day of the LORD.

So here in Revelation we have the "wrath of the Lamb" followed by the "great day of His wrath". The "wrath of the Lamb" corresponds to the "day of the Lord" while the "fierceness of His wrath" corresponds to "that great day of God Almighty", when Christ engages the nations in battle, as we will see, (cp. Rev 6:17 with 16:14). This battle is stage two of Christ's intervention to bring this age to a close.

The wrath of the Lamb - 1 year

The day of the Lord - 1 year

The 'fierceness' of His wrath - 1 day

That 'great day' of the Lord - 1 day

(We noted earlier in Revelation 17, in relation to Babylon and Babylon the Great, that we have this concept of a certain period of time followed subsequently by a short concentrated period of that time; it appears that this principle does not apply to the 'great day' of the Feast of Tabernacles at least in relation to time, see below).

The seventh and final trumpet of the series of trumpets that make up the seventh seal is sounded in Revelation 11:15. But we are not told what makes up this trumpet until Revelation 15 where we pick up the chronological story line of the Book of Revelation:

"Then I saw another sign in heaven, great and marvellous: seven angels having the seven last plagues, for in them the wrath of God is complete" (Revelation 15:1).

"Then I heard a loud voice from the temple saying to the seven angels, "Go and pour out the bowls of the wrath of God on the earth"" (Revelation 16:1).

We believe that the seventh trumpet comprises these seven bowl plagues. These seven plagues, contained in bowls, completes the wrath of God in its specific sense. But there is still "the battle of that great day of God Almighty" (Revelation 16:14) to come.

During the description of the seventh bowl plague, after more than six sevenths of the specific "wrath of God" is over, it is said:

"And great Babylon was remembered before God, to give her the cup of the wine of the fierceness of His wrath" (Revelation 16:19).

(This remembrance of Babylon to give her "the cup of the wine of the fierceness of His wrath" is different to and comes one year after the time the voice from heaven said  "...and God remembered her iniquities... Therefore her plagues will come in one day" (Revelation 18:5-8a). The specific "wrath of the Lamb" is associated with plagues; the "fierceness of his wrath" is associated with fire (v.8b). Revelation 18:8 is a telescopic verse. There is a one prophetic day - one year - of the Trumpet plagues followed by Babylon being "utterly burnt with fire").  

The above statement of Revelation 16:19 would seem, at first glance, to be out of place when at the close of the pouring out of this seventh bowl "the wrath of God is complete" (Revelation 15:1).

The 'fierce' wrath begins after the plague of the seventh bowl. At the end of the seventh plague "men blasphemed God because of the plague of hail" (Revelation 16:21). It would seem that mankind had not yet learnt its lesson and that there still remains one more "great day" to bring man's mis-rule of the earth to an end.

The phrases "to give her the cup of the wine of the fierceness of His wrath" (Revelation 16:19), "the great day of His wrath" (Revelation 6:17) and "the battle of that great day of God Almighty" (Revelation 16:14) all describe one event. But there are still two more descriptions of this "day".

(The symbolism connected with this "the great day of His wrath" (Revelation 6:17) helps us to understanding it; see also the typology below).

"And great Babylon was remembered before God, to give her the cup of the wine of the fierceness (Greek = thumos) of His wrath (Greek = orge)" (Revelation 16:19).

The first point is that the combination of Greek words employed in the verse implies an added intensity. This combination of words is used in the verses below:

"Then a third angel followed them, saying with a loud voice, "If anyone worships the beast and his image, and receives his mark on his forehead or on his hand, he himself shall also drink of the wine of the wrath (Gk.thumos) of God, which is poured out full strength into the cup of His indignation (Gk.orge). He shall be tormented with fire and brimstone in the presence of the holy angels and in the presence of the Lamb"" (Revelation 14:9-11).

"Now out of His mouth goes a sharp sword, that with it He should strike the nations. And He Himself will rule them with a rod of iron. He Himself treads the winepress of the fierceness (Gk.thumos) and wrath (Gk.orge) of Almighty God..." (Revelation 19:15).

The second point is that the Greek word for 'bowls' used for the containers holding the plagues, is not the same word used for "cup". The "bowls" of the seven angels contained plagues, while the "cup" contains "wine".

Wine symbolically may represent doctrines, both secular and religious, that make a system of idolatry' as in Revelation 17:2; or it may also represent 'blood'. At the Passover Christ said "This cup is the new covenant in My blood, which is shed for you" Luke 22:20. "Cup", by the figure of speech Metonymy, (where the subject is put for something pertaining to it), symbolizes 'wine'.

The Greek word for "cup" used by Luke is the same word used in Revelation. In this great day of God Almighty "wine" is to be predominantly associated with "blood". The "cup" is also to be connected with this day, as opposed to the "bowls" which are associated with the specific "wrath of the Lamb".

Bullinger defines the bowl/vial as "having more breadth than depth". Then he goes on to say:

"Here, the "vials" (AV) are the drink-offerings belonging to the sacrifices... The seven Seals had unfolded the mystery; the seven Trumpets proclaim and open the war; now seven "Vials" prepare the sacrifice for the last great slaughter..." (A Critical Lexicon and Concordance to the English and Greek New Testament, page 847).

So the plagues in this sense are similar to the drink-offerings which accompany the sacrifices. In the description of the effects of the pouring out of the bowl plagues in Revelation 16 there is no actual shedding of human blood recorded. The drink-offering bowls are contrasted to the "cup" which contains "wine" which symbolizes the blood associated with the slaughter in "the battle of that great day of God Almighty" (Revelation 16:14).

The torment from these bowl plagues - the seventh trumpet - which appear to provide no relief through death, have the effect of stirring the nations to great anger to want to fight against Christ. Not only that they are the means to get the nations gathered together and prepared for this great battle.

Looking at the first three columns of the chart below we see the combination of the Greek words mentioned above implying the intensity of this event. There is also an association directly or indirectly with "wine" and a container for that "wine". In the first two we have "cup" and "wine" delineated separately while in the third the "winepress" implies that through the treading down there will be wine/blood in the symbolic winepress.

(In Revelation 14 the torment from the "fire and brimstone" is not to be associated with the seven trumpets, it is separate from them and corresponds to Revelation 18:8b; Revelation 14 and 18 are part of the retro-prospective prophecies incorporated in the chronological plot of the Book of Revelation).

The Great Day of God Almighty

Revelation 16

And great Babylon was remembered before God, to give her the cup of the wine of the fierceness (Gk.thumos) of His wrath (Gk.orge) (v.19).

Revelation 14

Then a third angel followed them, saying with a loud voice, "If anyone worships the beast and his image, and receives his mark on his forehead or on his hand, he himself shall also drink of the wine of the wrath (Gk.thumos) of God, which is poured out full strength into the cup of His indignation (Gk.orge). He shall be tormented with fire and brimstone in the presence of the holy angels and in the presence of the Lamb (vv.9-10).

Revelation 19

Now out of His mouth goes a sharp sword, that with it He should strike the nations. And He Himself will rule them with a rod of iron. He Himself treads the winepress of the fierceness (Gk.thumos) and wrath (Gk.orge) of Almighty God... (v.15).

Revelation 14

So the angel thrust in his sickle into the earth and gathered the vine of the earth, and threw it into the great winepress of the wrath of God. And the winepress was trampled outside the city, and blood came out of the winepress, up to the horses' bridles, for one thousand six hundred furlongs (vv.19-20).

Revelation 6

For the great day of His wrath has come, and who is able to stand?" (v.17)

Revelation 16

For they are spirits of demons, performing signs, which go out to the kings of the earth and of the whole world, to gather them to battle of that great day of God Almighty (vv.14-17).

Revelation 18

And she will be utterly burnt with fire (v.8b).

We believe that the seven scriptures above are referring to the same event.

Therefore the seven bowl plagues complete the specific "wrath of the Lamb" (Revelation 15:1). The seven bowl plagues together comprise the seventh and "last trumpet" (1 Corinthians 15:22) of this series. It was during the final act of the wrath of God that "great Babylon was remembered before God, to give her the cup of the wine of the fierceness of His wrath" (Revelation 16:19).

But before John continues with the chronological story flow of events where Christ "Himself treads the winepress of the fierceness (Gk.thumos) and wrath (Gk.orge) of Almighty God..." (Revelation 19:15), in "the battle of that great day" (Revelation 16:15), he brings us up to date in chapters Revelation 17 and 18 on just who and what Babylon is and why it has come up in remembrance to 'be thrown down, and not found anymore' (Revelation 18:21).


The fifth bowl plague is poured out on the kingdom of the beast-person. The Antichrist may at this time flee Jerusalem and then meet with the kings of the earth who, because of the sixth plague, will gather at Armageddon to prepare for "the battle of that great day of God Almighty". The seventh plague is then poured out. As a result of the great earthquake Jerusalem, "the great city, was divided into three parts, and the cities of the nations fell" (Revelation 16:19). Not only that the hail that follows will bring the nations to fever pitch to fight Christ. Then begins "the battle of that great day of God Almighty" (Revelation 16:14).

It would appear that the earthquake of the seventh bowl occurs at Christ's return:

"Then the LORD will go forth And fight against those nations, as he fights in the day of battle, And in that day His feet will stand on the Mount of Olives, Which faces Jerusalem on the east. And the Mount of Olives shall be split in two, From east to west, Making a very large valley; Half of the mountain will shall move toward the north and half of it towards the south. Then you shall flee through My mountain valley..." (Zechariah 14:4).

This valley may be the winepress of Revelation 14:

"So the angel thrust in his sickle into the earth and gathered the vine of the earth, and threw it into the great winepress of the wrath of God. And the winepress was trampled outside the city, and blood came out of the winepress, up to the horses' bridles, for one thousand six hundred furlongs" (verses 19-20).

Though we may be reading too much into it we would like to note that:

Moses is a type of Christ. Moses led God's people out of Egypt. In Revelation 11:8 Jerusalem is figuratively caused Egypt. The seven last plagues are the antitypes of the 10 plagues that fell on Egypt (cp. also the Song of Moses in Revelation 15:3-4). These seven last plagues in their scope also fall on figurative Egypt. Ancient Israel left Egypt after the plagues but in their escape from Pharaoh they were confronted by the Red Sea. The Red Sea was opened providing a way of escape. The way of escape then became a grave for the Egyptians. The remnant of the people (cp. Zechariah 14:2, 5) flee figurative Egypt but the Mount of Olives is a hindrance to their escape - "it was inconveniently steep as an escape-route from the city" (Joyce Baldwin, Zechariah, Tyndale, page 201) - and so it is split into two so that "you shall flee through My mountain valley" (Zechariah 14:5). Then this mountain valley becomes Christ's winepress for those nations that fight against Him. (This yet future valley may be the valley of Jehoshaphat (Bullinger: Jehovah hath judged) of Joel:

"Let the nations be wakened, and come up to the Valley of Jehoshaphat; For their I will sit to judge all the surrounding nations. Put in the sickle, for the harvest is ripe. Come, go down; For the winepress is full, The vats overflow - For their wickedness is great." Multitudes, multitudes in the valley of decision! For the day of the LORD is near in the valley of decision" (Joel 3:13-14).

The remnant fleeing Jerusalem is representative of all Israel, that is the Jews, Anglo-Saxon-Celtic and kindred peoples, who will survive the future oppression and captivity. Ancient Israel coming out of Egypt is a type of the future:

"As I live," says the Lord GOD, "surely with a mighty hand, with an outstretched arm, and with fury poured out, I will rule over you. I will bring you out from the peoples and gather you out of the countries where you are scattered, with a mighty hand, with an outstretched arm, and with fury poured out. And I will bring you into the wilderness of the peoples, and there I will plead my case with you face to face. Just as I pleaded My case with your fathers in the wilderness of the land of Egypt, so I will plead My case with you," says the Lord GOD. "I will make you pass under the rod, and I will bring you into the bond of the covenant...and I will be hallowed in you before the Gentiles. Then you shall know that I am the LORD, when I bring you into the land of Israel, into the country for which I raised My hand in an oath to give to your father's..." (Ezekiel 20:33-42).

(Note: Pharaoh is a type of the Beast; his magicians are a type of the false prophet; ancient Egypt is a type of Jerusalem in the last three and a half years of this age; while Moses and Aaron are types of the two witnesses).

Jerusalem in the end-time is also figuratively called Sodom (Revelation 11:8). It was after Lot and his daughters had left Sodom that "...the LORD rained brimstone and fire on Sodom and Gomorrah from the LORD out of the heavens. So He overthrew those cities, all the plain, all the inhabitants of the cities, and what grew on the ground" (Genesis 19:24-25). It would appear that after the remnant "...shall flee through My mountain valley" (Zechariah 14:2,5) that the armies of the beast will enter it, and so their wheels will figuratively fall off (cp. Exodus 14:25), when Christ "Himself shall tread the wine press of the fierceness and wrath of Almighty God" (Revelation 19:15); and those who have worshipped the beast "shall be tormented with fire and brimstone in the presence of the holy angels and in the presence of the Lamb" (Revelation 14:10).

If we may continue to speak as fools there is another parallel with another group of people leaving literal Jerusalem which type events in the last days:

"So when He crosses the brook Cedron to a garden (1), which had been a favourite resort for Himself and His disciples, what is happening is that the second Adam is deliberately entering upon the final conflict with the prince of evil, reversing the situation in the garden of Eden where the serpent took the initiative in the assault of the first Adam..." (R.V.G. Tasker, John, Tyndale, page 194).

Jesus Christ and his 11 disciples after the Passover meal "sung a hymn" and "went out to the Mount Olives....and came to the place called Gethsemane" (Matthew 26:30,36). D.A. Carson points out that:

"Gethsemane" (v.36) means "oil press," and here probably gave the name to the chorion ("place"), usually a field or an enclosed piece of ground (cf. John 18:4, "went out") to which it was attached... on the eastern slopes of Mount Olivet, separated from Jerusalem by the Kidron" (Matthew, Expositor's, Volume 8, page 543).

David Brown notes that it is ""called Gethsemane" from the olives with which it was filled" (John, JFB, Volume 3, page 458). The 'olive press' in the end-time may then become a part of "the great winepress of the wrath of God" (Revelation 14:19).

Christ in His prayer in the garden said:

""O My Father, if it is possible, let this cup pass from Me..."" (Matthew 26:39).

Walter L. Liefeld believes that:

"Jesus would not have been as concerned with the physical pain of his death as with the spiritual desolation of bearing our sin and its judgment on the cross (2 Cor 5:21; 1 Peter 2:24). Moreover, in the OT the wrath of God expressed against sin was sometimes referred to by the metaphor of a cup (e.g., Ps 11:6...; cf. Ps 75:8; Isa 51:17; Jer 25:15-17)" (Luke, Expositor's, Volume 8,  page 1032).

While Tasker infers that:

"... evil can only be overcome if Jesus Himself drinks the cup of the wrath of God, and He is under divine necessity to drink that cup alone and to drink it to the full" (John, Tyndale, page 195).

Brown's comment on the agony in the garden then sets the scene:

"Jesus had passed through every stage of His suffering history except the last, but that last was to be the great and dreadful stage... And how far off was his seizure? Not more probably than one brief hour. Like the "silence in heaven for the space of half an hour," between the breaking of the apocalyptic seals and the peal of the trumpets of war, so was this brief, breathless silence, before the final stage of Christ's career" (Luke, JFB, Volume 3, page 331).

The suffering and death of Jesus Christ foreshadowed the "wrath of God" in the end-time. The typology of the events surrounding the 'wrath on Christ' look forward to the "wrath of the Lamb" (Revelation 6:16) at the close of this age.

"When He opened the seventh seal, there was silence in heaven for about half an hour. And I saw the seven angels who stand before God, and to them were given seven trumpets" (Revelation 8:1).

The spitting, beating, striking and scourging parallel the six trumpets of the seventh seal. The crucifixion parallels the seven last plagues, which are the seventh trumpet, while his death through the spear piercing his side pictures the great day of God Almighty. The earthquake of the seventh plague corresponds to the earthquake at Christ's death.

The shed blood from the 'wrath on the Lamb' pays for our sins individually, while the shed blood from the 'wrath of the Lamb' pays for mankind's cumulative sins collectively when that iniquity is full at the end of the age, as we saw in Revelation 18.

"...Why did the heathen rage, and the people imagine vain things? The kings of the earth stood up, and the rulers were gathered together against the Lord, and against his Christ. For of a truth against thy holy child Jesus, whom thou hast anointed, both Herod, and Pontius Pilate, with the Gentiles, and the people of Israel, were gathered together" (Acts 4:25-27; cp. Psalm 2:1-2).

"The incipient fulfilment <the type> in Acts 4:25-27 is a pledge of the final one <the antitype>" (A.R. Fausset, Book of Psalms, JFB, Volume 2, page 106).

Before we look at the 'wrath on the Lamb' and the "wrath of the Lamb", in the chart below, we see that Pilate/Herod and Caiaphas/Ananias are types of the beast and false prophet. They are responsible for the 'wrath on Christ'. But Malchus and Judas are also types of the beast and false prophet.

"Then Jesus said to the chief priests, captains of the temple, and the elders who had come to Him, "Have you come out, as a against a robber, with swords and clubs? when I was with you in the temple, you did not try to seize Me. But this is your hour, and the power of darkness" (Luke 22:52-53).

"The makeup of the crowd - religious, political and military leaders" (Liefeld, Luke, Expositor's, Volume 8, page 1034) are representatives all the world in opposition to God in the end time.

Malchus (John 18:10) as a servant of the high priest (the church) could be said to be the false prophet while Judas, as he is from the tribe of Judah, the royal house of Israel (the state), could be said to be the Beast:

"...on the one hand we see Judas and his 'army' representative of the world which is tainted by evil in its religion and its politics, and relies on physical force to achieve its objects" (Tasker, John, pages 194-5).

But Malchus (Aramaic: King) may be said to be the Beast as he is the servant of Caiaphas who would then be a type of Satan:

"The use of the definite article "the" with "servant" may indicate that Malchus was the special deputy of the high priest in this action and that he was in the forefront of confrontation" (Merrill C. Tenney, John, Expositor's, Volume 9, page 169).

The coming of Malchus and Judas to the garden on the eastern slopes of the Mount of Olives types the coming of the beast and false prophet and their armies to fight against Christ when he returns to the Mount of Olives. The striking of Malchus by Peter with his sword looks forward to "Now out of His mouth goes a sharp sword, that with it should strike the nations" (Revelation 19:15; cp. God's angels (Matt 26:53) with the Christ's armies (Revelation 19:14)). The oil-press, which was filled with olives, will become a part of the great winepress of God filled with blood. But instead of Christ being arrested the beast and false prophet are "captured" (Revelation 19:20), and they too die outside the city, not at Golgotha but in Tophet.

"Captured" in the AV is translated "taken" which Bullinger points out equals "arrested" and that in Acts 12:4 and 2 Cor 11:32 it is translated "apprehended", and that the verb is used in John 7:30; 10:39 (Companion Bible, note on Revelation 19:20).

"Therefore they sought to take Him; but no one laid a hand on Him, because His hour had not yet come" (John 7:30; cp. the hedge around Israel - Isaiah 5:5; Isaiah 22:8).

The typology of the events surrounding the death of Christ lends extra weight to the conclusion that Christ returns at the close of the seventh trumpet. But there is more to these events in that Christ is the antitype of the nation of Israel:

"And He [God] said to Me [Christ], 'You are My servant, O Israel... It is too small a thing that You should be My Servant To raise up the tribes of Jacob, And to restore the preserved ones of Israel; [so] I will also give You as a light to the Gentiles, That You should be My salvation to the ends of the earth,'" (Isaiah 49:3,6; cp. Luke 2:25-32).

Earlier we saw that the head of gold of the dream-image of Daniel was both Nebuchadnezzar and the neo-Babylonian empire - the kingdom being personified by its king. So, according to this Biblical principle of the inherent connection between a king and his kingdom, God in Isaiah 49:3 calls Christ Israel.

Alfred Edersheim explains:

"...The Messiah and His history are not represented in the Old Testament as something separate from, or superadded to, Israel. The history, the institutions, and the predictions of Israel run up to Him. He is the typical Israelite, nay typical Israel itself - alike the crown, the completion, and the representative of Israel... His organic connection with Israel is marked by the designations, 'Seed of Abraham' and 'Son of David,' while at the same time He was essentially, what Israel was, subordinately and typically: 'Thou art my Son - this day have I begotten Thee.' Hence also, in strictest truthfulness, the Evangelist could apply to the Messiah, what referred to Israel, and see it fulfilled in His history: 'Out of Egypt I called my Son' (Matt 2:15). And this other correlate idea, of Israel as 'the Servant of the Lord,' is also fully concentrated in the Messiah as the Representative Israelite..." (The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah, page 114).

We see the 'Servants of the Lord' in Isaiah 40 through 66. This section is a telescopic prophecy where basically the type is firstly, the house of Judah in Babylonian captivity for their sin, secondly Cyrus as God's anointed deliver, and finally the return of the remnant to Jerusalem and Judah. But prophecy is concerned with the transcendent antitypical fulfilment. A.R. Fausset captures this intent with his comment in regard to "my servant":

"The law of prophetic suggestion leads Isaiah from Cyrus to the far greater Deliverer, behind whom the former is lost sight of" (comment on Isaiah 42:1, JFB, Volume 2, page 693).

Not only is Cyrus lost sight of but most of the typical concerns of this prophecy. The context is the "last days". The captivity and oppression here is on both houses of Israel - the Jews, Anglo-Saxon-Celtic and kindred peoples - in the three and a half year tribulation. Christ, the true Cyrus, is the deliver and the restorer of Israel and a blessing to the nations in the Kingdom of God.   

In this section of Isaiah we also have two suffering servants. Firstly, Christ: "For the transgressions of My people He was stricken... Yet it pleased the LORD to bruise Him... By His knowledge My righteous Servant shall justify many, for He shall bear their iniquities" (Isaiah 53:8,10-11); and secondly, Israel: "Who is blind but My servant.... Who gave Jacob for plunder, and Israel to the robbers? Was it not the LORD, He against whom we have sinned?...Therefore He has poured on him the fury of His anger And the strength of battle;..." (Isaiah 42:18, 24-25). The type looks forward to the antitype.

The wrath on the Lamb, specifically the 'cup' he mentioned in Matthew is the antitype of the cup poured out on Israel in the "last days": "Thus says your Lord... "See, I have taken out of your hand The cup of trembling, The dregs of the cup of My fury; You shall no longer drink it" (Isaiah 51:22).

In stage one of God's plan individual Israel and collective Israel, in the beginning, are called out of Egypt ("Out of Egypt I called My Son" (Hosea 11:1, Matthew 2:15) and at the end, as we have seen, drink the cup of God's wrath.

Wrath on the Lamb

Wrath of the Lamb


...But at last two false witnesses came forward and said, "this fellow said, 'I am able to destroy the temple of God and to build it in three days.' (Matthew 26:60-61).

..."Rise and measure the temple of God... And I will give power to my witnesses, and they will prophesy one thousand two hundred and sixty days, clothed in sackcloth." (Revelation 11:1,3).


Then the high priest tore his clothes, saying, "He has spoken blasphemy!...Look, now you have heard His blasphemy! What do you think?" they answered and said, "He is deserving of death." (Matthew 26:65-66).

They blasphemed the God of heaven because of the their pains and their sores, and did not repent of their deeds (Rev 16:11, cp. v.11,21).

Crown, Robe and Title

And the soldiers twisted a crown of thorns and put it on his head, and they put on Him a purple robe. Then they said,  "Hail, King of the Jews!" (John 19:2-3).

And on His head were many crowns... He was clothed with a robe dipped in blood, and His name is called The Word of God (Revelation 19:12-13).

Written Title

Now Pilate wrote a title and put in on the cross. And the writing was: JESUS OF NAZARETH, THE KING OF THE JEWS (John 19:19).

And He has on His robe and on His thigh a name written: KING OF KINGS AND LORD OF LORDS (Revelation 19:16, cp.v.12).


Now when they led him away...<to be crucified>...Jesus turned to...<the women in the multitude that followed Him and>...said, "Daughters of Jerusalem, do not weep for Me, but weep for yourselves and for your children. For the days are coming in which...they will begin 'to say to the mountains, "Fall on us!" and to the hills, "Cover us!" (Luke 23:30).

And the kings of the earth, the great men, the rich men, the commanders, the mighty men, every slave and every free man, hid themselves in the caves and the rocks of the mountains, and said to the mountain and the rocks, "Fall on us and hide us from the face of Him who sits on the throne and from the wrath of the Lamb! For the great day of His wrath has come, and who is able to stand?" (Revelation 6:15-17).


Now from the sixth hour until the third hour there was darkness over all the land (Matthew 27:45).

Then the fifth angel poured out his bowl on the throne of the beast, and his kingdom became full of darkness... (Revelation 16:10).

Loud Voice/Shout - Spear/Sword - Pierced

...and about three o'clock Jesus called out with a loud voice, exclaiming ... 'O My God! My God! To what have You forsaken me? ... But another taking a spear pierced His side ... Jesus, however, having again called out with a loud voice, resigned His spirit (Matthew 27-46-50, Fenton translation).

And another Scripture says, "they shall look on Him whom they pierced" (John 19:37).

For the Lord Himself will descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of an archangel, and with the trumpet of God... (1 Thessalonians 4:16a).

Now out of His mouth goes a sharp sword, that with it he should strike the nations (Revelation 19:15a).

Behold, He is coming in the clouds, and every eye will see Him, even they who pierced Him (Revelation 1:7).


...and the earth quaked, and the rocks were
split, and the graves were opened; and many bodies of the saints who had fallen asleep were raised; and coming out of the graves after His resurrection, they went into the holy city and appeared to many (Matthew 27:51-53).

The seventh bowl plague, which completes the
seventh and last trumpet, includes: "...a great
earthquake, such a mighty and great earthquake as had not occurred since men
were on the earth" (Revelation 16:18).

...We shall not all sleep, but we all shall be changed - in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trumpet. For the trumpet will sound, and the dead will be raised (1 Corinthians 15:51-52; cp. Revelation 20:4:6).

The 'servants' have both suffered at the end of their first stages so now they will be glorified together. One aspect of this is seen below:


Thus says the LORD,
The Redeemer of Israel, their Holy One,      
To Him whom man despises,
To Him whom the nation abhors,
To the Servant of rulers:
"Kings shall see and arise,
Princes also shall worship,...
(Isaiah 49:7).


Thus says the Lord GOD:
Behold, I will lift up My hand in an oath to the nations... They shall bring your sins in their arms, and your daughters shall be carried on their shoulders; Kings shall be your foster fathers, And their queens your nursing mothers; They shall bow down to you with their faces to the earth... (Isaiah 49:23).

Israel, the 'servant of the LORD', as a nation will also be taking God's salvation to the ends of the earth. In the time between the advents it is the Church (the Israel of God, Galatians 6:16), which Christ set up in person during His three and a half year ministry, which takes the gospel to the world while Christ is in heaven. In the age to come when Christ is King of Kings and Lord of Lords ruling over the earth he will set up in person His kingdom but after that He will be operating in the invisible realm of the earth, the upper house so to speak, with national Israel taking the good news to the world (the prince of Israel (Ezekiel 44-48) is the human representative of Christ in the world tomorrow - Christ's appearing to Paul, and when He was the Angel of the Lord in the Old Testament His appearing to Moses, Joshua, Daniel and others are types of His working with His nation in the Millennium):

"Now therefore, if you will indeed obey My voice and keep My covenant, then you shall be as special treasure to Me a kingdom of priests and a holy nation" (Exodus 19:5-6).

"But you shall be named the Priests of the LORD, They shall call you the Servants of our God" (Isaiah 61:6).

(See the booklets entitled The Kingdom of God - What, Where and When?, God and Christ at Work, and The New Covenant - The Sarah and Keturah Administrations, which will explain in more detail some of the points, and more, raised above and below).


"For the LORD will have mercy on Jacob, and will still choose Israel, and settle them in their own land. The strangers will be joined with them, and they will cling to the house of Jacob. Then people will take them and bring them to their place, and the house of Israel will possess them for servants and maids in the land of the LORD; they will take them captive whose captives they were, and rule over their oppressors" (Isaiah 14:1).

"Do not let the son of a foreigner who has joined himself to the LORD Speak, saying, "The LORD has utterly separated me from His people";... For thus says the LORD...."the sons of the foreigner Who join themselves to the LORD, to serve Him, And to love the name of the LORD, to be His servants - Everyone who keeps from defiling the Sabbath, And holds fast My covenant - Even them I will bring to My holy mountain..." ....The LORD GOD, who gathers the outcasts of Israel, says, "Yet I will gather to him Others besides those who are gathered to him" (Isaiah 56:3-8).

"Thus you shall divide this land among yourselves according to the tribes of Israel. It shall be that you will divide it by lot as an inheritance for yourselves, and for the strangers who dwell among you and who bear children among you. They shall be to you as native-born among the children of Israel; they will have an inheritance with you among the tribes of Israel. And it shall be that in whatever tribe the stranger dwells, there you shall give him his inheritance," says the LORD GOD" (Ezekiel 47:21-23).

That this great work of God is not considered exclusive to racial Israel is seen in the above Scriptures. Some non-Israelites will be considered as "native-born" Israelites (cp. the type - Exodus 12:38, 20:10, 22:21; Joshua 6:25), while some will be servants of Israel in Israel (cp. Joshua 9 with Isaiah 61:5), while the rest will be nations under Israel's  benevolent rule.

The era of Pax Britannica and Pax Americana is a type of the rule that the Jews, Anglo-Saxon-Celtic peoples and kindred peoples, that is the remnant of modern Israel left after the great tribulation, will begin to exercise in a godly way in the Kingdom of God. We see this in Micah, where the antitype is described, (the type is the 19th, 20th & 21st centuries of which verses 10-15 refer):

"Then the remnant of Jacob Shall be in the midst of many peoples, Like dew from the LORD, Like showers on the grass, that tarry for no man Nor wait for the sons of men. And the remnant of Jacob Shall be among the Gentiles, In the midst of many peoples, Like a lion among the beasts of the forest, Like a young lion among flocks of sheep, Who, if he passes through, both treads down and tears in pieces, And none can deliver. Your hand shall be lifted against your adversaries, And all your enemies shall be cut off" (Micah 5:7-9).

Frank Delitzsch captures the ultimate reality behind the first three verses of Isaiah 14:

"For according to the prophet's meaning, to be ruled by the people of God is the true happiness of the nations, and to allow themselves to be so ruled is their true liberty" (Commentary on the Book of Isaiah, KD, page 199).

The corollary to this is that to be ruled by God and His Christ mankind finds true happiness, and in submitting to that rule mankind obtains true liberty - something Babylon could never provide.


The typology of Israel's conquest of Jericho adds extra weight to the argument that the "great day of God Almighty" occurs immediately after the pouring out of the seven bowl plagues of the seventh  trumpet. It also pictures the "wrath of the Lamb". This may be seen in the verses below:

"You shall march around the city, all your men of war, you shall go all around the city once" (Joshua 6:3a).

"And Joshua rose early in the morning, and the priest took up the ark of the LORD. Then seven priests bearing seven trumpets of rams' horns before the ark of the LORD went on continually and blew with trumpets. And the armed men went before them. But the rear guard came after the ark of the LORD, while the priests continued blowing the trumpets" (Joshua 6:12-13).

"This shall you do six days" (Joshua 6:3a).

"And I saw the seven angels which stood before God; and to them were given seven trumpets [salpigx]" (Revelation 8:2).

"And the seven angels which had the seven trumpets [salpigx] prepared themselves to sound [salpizo]" (Revelation 8:6)

The six days of marching, of once around Jericho, picture the sounding of the trumpets by the first six angels of the seventh seal in the book of Revelation.

"But the seventh day you shall march around the city seven times, and the priests shall blow [salpizo, LXX] the trumpets [salpigx, LXX]" (Joshua 6:4b).

The seventh day of marching, seven times around Jericho, picture the sounding of the seventh trumpet (Revelation 11:15). After the retro-perspective prophecy of Revelation 12-14 we learn, in the chronological story line of Revelation, that the seventh trumpet comprises seven angels and their plagues (Revelation 15-16).

"On that day only they marched around the city seven times. And the seventh time it happened, when the priests blew with the trumpets, Joshua said unto the people, Shout..." (Joshua 6:15b-16a).

"So the people shouted when the priests blew with the trumpets: and it came to pass, when the people heard the sound of the trumpet, and the people shouted with a great shout, that the wall fell down flat..." (Joshua 6:20a).

"For the Lord himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God: and the dead in Christ shall rise first" (1Thessalonians 4:16).

"...Then the people went up into the city, every man straight before him, and they took the city. And they utterly destroyed all that was in the city, both man and woman, young and old, ox and sheep and donkey, with the edge of the sword" (Joshua 6:20b-21).

"And the remnant were slain with the sword of him that sat upon the horse, which sword proceeded out of his mouth: and all the fowls were filled with their flesh" (Revelation 19:21).

"... they burned the city and all that was in it with fire..." (Joshua 6:24).

"Therefore shall her plagues come in one day, death, and mourning, and famine; and she shall be utterly burned with fire..." (Revelation 18:8)

After the seventh time around Jericho, on the seventh day, the battle begins. After the seventh of seven plagues is poured out "the battle of that great day of God Almighty" (Revelation 16:14) begins. This battle in the chronological story line of the book of Revelation is in chapter 19.

God's people in Jericho and Jerusalem before the battle

"... was not Rahab the harlot justified by works, when she had received the messengers, and had sent them out another way?" (James 2:25).

"I will gather all the nations to Jerusalem to fight against it; the city will be captured, the houses ransacked, and the women raped. Half of the city will go into exile, but the rest of the people will not be taken from the city" (Zechariah 14:2, NIV).

"And the LORD said unto him, Go through the midst of the city, through the midst of Jerusalem, and set a mark upon the foreheads of the men that sigh and that cry for all the abominations that be done in the midst thereof. And to the others he said in mine hearing, Go ye after him through the city, and smite: let not your eye spare, neither have ye pity: Slay utterly old and young, both maids, and little children, and women: but come not near any man upon whom is the mark; and begin at my sanctuary..." (Ezekiel 9:4-6).


"And Joshua the son of Nun sent out of Shittim two men to spy secretly, saying, Go view the land, even Jericho. And they went, and came into an harlot's house, named Rahab, and lodged there" (Joshua 2:1).

"And I will give power unto my two witnesses, and they shall prophesy a thousand two hundred and threescore days, clothed in sackcloth... And their dead bodies shall lie in the street of the great city, which spiritually is called Sodom and Egypt, where also our Lord was crucified" (Revelation 11:3, 8).

The two spies 'type' the two witnesses. Rahab the harlot, and her father's household, looking after the two spies suggests that a 'household' of God's people will provide support to the two witnesses during their three and a half year preaching; (cp. also the widow of Zarephath, and her household, support of Elijah (1 Kings 17:10,15).

While the two spies and Elijah the Tishbite 'escaped' the King of Jericho and Ahab/Jezebel respectively the two witness are not so lucky.

Sealing/Sign of Protection

"Now then, please swear to me by the LORD that you will show kindness to my family, because I have shown kindness to you. Give me a sure sign that you will spare the lives of my father and mother, my brothers and sisters, and all who belong to them, and that you will save us from death." And the men answered her, Our life for yours, if ye utter not this our business. And it shall be, when the LORD hath given us the land, that we will deal kindly and truly with thee...  The men said to her, ?This oath you made us swear will not be binding on us  unless, when we enter the land, you have tied this scarlet cord in the window through which you let us down, and unless you have brought your father and mother, your brothers and all your family into your house" (Joshua 2:12-14 & 17-18, NIV).

"Saying, Hurt not the earth, neither the sea, nor the trees, till we have sealed the servants of our God in their foreheads" (Revelation 7:3).
"They were told not to harm the grass of the earth or any plant or tree, but only those people who did not have the seal of God on their foreheads" (Revelation 9:4).


"And the young men that were spies went in, and brought out Rahab, and her father, and her mother, and her brethren, and all that she had; and they brought out all her kindred, and left them without the camp of Israel... and she dwelleth in Israel even unto this day" (Joshua 6:23, 25b).

"And ye shall flee to the valley of the mountains; for the valley of the mountains shall reach unto Azal: yea, ye shall flee, like as ye fled from before the earthquake in the days of Uzziah king of Judah: and the LORD my God shall come, and all the saints with thee" (Zechariah 14:5).


"On that day his [Jesus] feet will stand on the Mount of Olives, east of Jerusalem..." (Zechariah 14:4, NIV).

"As they approached Jerusalem and came to Bethphage and Bethany at the Mount of Olives, Jesus..." (Mark 11:1, NIV).

"Interpreters have long recognized the role of Zechariah 14 in Mark's account of Jesus' entry into Jerusalem (Mark 11). Jesus begins on the Mount of Olives (Mark 11:1), which is where God stands in Zech 14:4. Entering Jerusalem, in a way that reflects Zech 9:9, Jesus is hailed as King (Mark 11:9-10), echoing Zech 14:9. Jesus comes finally to the Temple (Mark 11:15), as all people do in Zech 14:20-21. In the Temple, Jesus drives out those engaged in trade (Mark 11:15-16), interpreting Zechariah 14:2 as does the Targum to Zachariah... in Mark, two chapters later, when Jesus is on the Mount of Olives (Mark 13:3; again echoing Zech 14:4), he tells his disciples that the way to the future will involve war and suffering no less awful than that envisioned by Zechariah, before the "Son of man comes with great power and glory"" (Mark 13:26)... (Ben C. Ollenburger, Zechariah, NIB, p.840).

Battle Plan

"Jericho ... was the key to the conquest of the whole land, the possession of which would open the way to the whole, as it were, into their hands...

"Through this arrangement, that the walls of Jericho were not to fall till after they had been marched round for seven days, and not till after this had been repeated seven times on the seventh day, and then amidst the blast of the jubilee trumpets and the war-cry of the soldiers of the people of God, the destruction of this town, the key to Canaan, was intended by God to become a type of the final destruction at the last day of the power of this world, which exalted itself against the kingdom of God. In this way He not only showed to His congregation that it would not be all at once, but only after long-continued conflict, and at the end of the world, that the worldly power by which it was opposed would be overthrown, but also proved to the enemies of His kingdom, that however long their power may sustain itself in opposition to the kingdom of God, it would at last be destroyed in a moment...

"Thus the fall of Jericho became the symbol and type of the overthrow of every worldly power before the Lord, when he should come to lead His people into Canaan and establish the kingdom upon the earth... [and he] ... destroys one worldly power after another, and thus maintains and extends His kingdom upon earth" (C.F. Keil, Commentary on the Book of Joshua, KD, pp.50-52).

Jericho was the first city to be overthrown in the conquest of Canaan, when the iniquity of the Amorites was full (Genesis 15:16). Jerusalem is the first city in Christ's overthrow of this world when the iniquity of the age is full. But the conquest is not over with the defeat of the 'beast'. The typology of the conquest of Canaan provides possible scenarios of events to follow the "great day of God Almighty".

It is most likely that the fall of Jericho pictures God's Feast of Trumpets. It would appear then that the coalition that Adoni-zedec king of Jerusalem organizes and then fights against Israel pictures the Day of Atonement, the next feast which occurs nine days later, and the Feast of Tabernacles, five days after that types the setting up of the Tabernacle at Shiloh after the conquest of the Land of Canaan.  The last battle of the campaign is a coalition organized by Jabin the king of Hazor which also fights against Israel. Looking briefly then at the typology:

(1)  Adoni-zedec, king of Jerusalem would then be a type of Satan. After the battle Adoni-zedec and the four Amorite kings fled and hid in the cave at Makkedah. When Joshua heard about this he gave the order to:

"Roll large stones against the mouth of the cave, and set men by it to guard them" (10:18).

"Then I saw an angel coming down from heaven, having the key to the bottomless pit and a great chain in his hand, He laid hold of the dragon, that serpent of old, who is the Devil and Satan, and bound him for a thousand years; and he cast him into the bottomless pit, and shut him up, and set a seal on him, so that he should deceive the nations no more till the thousand years were finished" (Revelation 20:1-3a).

After one or more days Joshua gave the order to:

""Open the mouth of the cave, and bring out those kings to him from the cave." ... So it was when they brought out those kings to Joshua, that Joshua ... said to the captains of the men of war ... "Come near,  put your feet on the necks of these kings." And they drew near and put their feet on their necks ... And after Joshua struck them and killed them ... and ... cast them into the cave where they had been hid, and laid large stones against the cave's mouth" (Joshua 10:22-27).

The antitype:

"Now when the thousand years have expired, Satan will be released from his prison and will go out to deceive the nations" (Revelation 20:7-8).

"And I will put enmity Between you [Satan] and the woman. And between your seed and her Seed; He [Christ] shall bruise your head, and you shall bruise His heal" (Genesis 3:15).

"The devil, who deceive them, was cast into the lake of fire and brimstone where the beast and the false prophet were. And they will be tormented day and night forever and ever" (Revelation 20:10).

(2) Jabin king of Hazor, who organized a northern Canaan alliance of kings to fight against Israel would then be a type of Gog:

"... Jabin king of Hazor ... sent to Jobab king of Madon, to the king of Shimron, to the king of Achshaph, and to the kings who were from the north, in the mountains, in the plain south of Chinneroth, in the lowland, and in the heights of Dor on the west, to the Canaanite in the east and west, the Amorite, the Hittite, the Perizzite, the Jebusite in the mountains, and the Hivites below Hermon in the land of Mizpah.

"So they went out, they and all their armies with them, as many people as the sand that is on the seashore in multitude, with very many horses and chariots.

"And when all those kings met together, they came ... to fight against Israel" (Joshua 11:1-5).

The antitype:

"... Behold, I am against you, O Gog of the land of Magog, the prince of Rosh, Meshech and Tubal. I will turn you around, put hooks into your jaws, and lead you out, with all your army, horses, and horsemen ... Persia, Ethiopia, and Libya are with them ... Gomer and all its troops; the house of Togarmah from the far north and all its troops - many people are with" (Ezekiel 38:3-6).

"You will ascend, coming like a storm, covering the land like a cloud, you and all your troops and many people with you" (Ezekiel 38:9).

"and I will ... bring you against the mountains of Israel" (Ezekiel 39:2).

With the defeat of Jabin the conquest was at an end. From the summary of this seven year campaign (Joshua 11:16-23) it was recorded:

"So Joshua took the whole land, according to all that the LORD had said to Moses; and Joshua gave it as an inheritance to Israel according to their divisions by their tribes. Then the land rested from war" (Joshua 11:23).

Donald H. Madig qualifies the situation:

"When the writer says that "Joshua took this entire land," he means that he gained control of the whole region even though he did not take every city...

"'Then the land had rest from war' is a profound declaration and a fitting conclusion for the first section of the book. It is prophetic of the "rest" that will come when all evil has been conquered and Christ is made King of Kings and Lord of Lords (Rev 11:15; 19:16)" (Joshua, EBC, Vol.3, pp.311-12).

After the defeat of Jabin the land was divided amongst the tribes of Israel (Joshua 13-21). During this time we find that:

"As soon as the tribe of Ephraim had received its inheritance, Joshua commanded the whole congregation to assemble in Shiloh, and there set up the tabernacle, in order that, as the land was conquered, the worship of Jehovah might henceforth be regularly observed in accordance with the law. The selection of Shiloh ... is to ... be found in the name of the place, viz., Shiloh, i.e., rest, which called to mind Shiloh (Gen 49:10), and therefore appeared to be pre-eminently suitable to the resting place of the sanctuary of the Lord, where his name was to dwell in Israel, until He should come who was to give true rest to His people as the Prince of Peace" (Keil, Joshua, KD, page 135).

After the defeat of Gog  Ezekiel, in his last vision, is "shown the new temple and the new organization of the services of God, together with the new division of the land of Canaan among the tribes of Israel" (Keil, Ezekiel, page 342).

Looking at the typology of Joshua and the structure of Ezekiel we would say that the defeat of Gog is just prior to the beginning of the Millennium. So that in the typology of God's Holy Days, (enumerated in Leviticus 23), this defeat precedes the First Day of the Feast of Tabernacles. Therefore the First Day of this Feast would picture God, through Christ, coming to dwell in His Temple:

"And behold the glory of the God of Israel came from the way of the east ... And the glory of the LORD came into the temple ...and behold, the glory of the LORD filled the temple... And He said to me, "Son of man,  this is the place of My throne and the place of the soles of My feet, where I will dwell  in the midst of the children of Israel forever" (Ezekiel 43:2-7a).

(Note: Jesus Christ is 'the glory of the Lord' (cp. John 1:14; Hebrews 1:3; 2 Corinthians 3:18; 4:6), and the physical manifestation of His reality is the cloud and fire (Exodus 24:16-17; cp. Acts 2:2-4)).

The Feast of Tabernacles is a type of the great antitype pictured by the Last Great Day of the Feast of Tabernacles (John 7:37):

"And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt (Gk. skenoo = tabernacle) among us..." (John 1:14).

"In the last day, that great day of the feast, Jesus stood and cried, saying, If any man thirst, let him come unto me, and drink. He that believeth on me, as the scripture hath said, out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water" (John 7:37-38).

"Now I saw a new heaven and a new earth, for the first heaven and the first heaven and the first earth had passed away. Then I, John saw the holy city, New Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God ... and I heard a voice from heaven saying, "Behold the tabernacle of God is with men, and He will dwell (Gk. skenoo = tabernacle) with them, and they shall be His people, God Himself will be with them and be their God... And he that sat upon the throne said, Behold, I make all things new... I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end. I will give unto him that is athirst of the fountain of the water of life freely" (Revelation 21:1-3,5-6).

"In the light of the whole Scripture, it appears that the Millennium is like a "firstfruits" of the eternal state. The Millennium will be like a preview of the eternal messianic kingdom that will be revealed fully in the eternal state. Therefore, because the two are alike in nature, they share distinct similarities. Yet because they are both different revealed time periods, they would likewise reflect some dissimilarites..." (Ralph H. Alexander, Ezekiel, EBC, Vol.6, page 945, note on Does Ezekiel 40-48 Relate to the Millennium or to the Eternal State?).

So, in the typology from Christ's return, Israel in peace and safety (Ezekiel 38:11) pictures the Millennium, Gog's rebellion is a type of Satan's final rebellion (Revelation 20:7-10), and the Millennium pictures the direct reign of God the Father.

"The city has no need of the sun or of the moon to shine in it, for the glory of God illuminated it ... Its gates shall not be shut at all by day (there shall be no night there)" (Revelation 21:23, 25).

Morris comments:

"Earthly cities shut their gates when darkness comes. Not this city. Indeed darkness cannot come to it for there is perpetual light within it" (Revelation, Tyndale, p.247).

The earthly type:

"Order the Israelites to bring you pure beaten olive oil for illumination, so that a lamp may stand to burn perpetually. In the Tent of Meeting outside the veil that faces the Testimony..." (Exodus 27:20-21, New Berkeley Version).

Then when God comes to the earth personally it may be said to be a "great day" because:

"Day extends indefinitely without interruption because darkness never comes"
 (Mounce, Revelation, NICNT, p.397).

What does the typology of Joshua picture with his receiving of "Timnath Serah in the mountains of Ephraim" and/ or his death? - "Israel served the LORD ... all the days of the elders who outlived Joshua, who had know all the works of the LORD which He had done for Israel" (Joshua 24:31).

It may be that we need to consider the renewed covenant that God makes with Israel. This is a type of the new covenant that God made with the Church - the Israel of God. Christ set up the church in his three and a half  year ministry. After His resurrection, that is after confirming the 'Sarah' new covenant and overcoming Satan though His death (cp. Exodus 24:8) , he spent 40 days in which He taught His disciples more about "the things pertaining to the kingdom of God" (Acts 1:3; cp. Exodus 24:18 - during the forty days and forty nights Moses received all the instructions on the tabernacle and its furnishings. This would imply, perhaps, that Israel's deliverance from Egypt would parallel Christ's temptation; the giving of the Law would parallel Christ's instruction to the disciples prior to instituting the new covenant, especially the sermon on the Mount, a type of Mount Sinai; and the transfiguration with Exodus 33:18-23). Then He ascended to heaven and ten days later the Holy Spirit descended upon the church.

John R. W. Stott in discussing Ephesians 2:20-22 points out that:

"... the church ... may be likened ... to the temple... What is the purpose of the new temple? In principle, it is the same as the purpose of the old, namely to be a dwelling place of God (verse 22) ... he promised to manifest his glory (the shekinah) in the temple's inner sanctuary, in order to symbolize that he dwelt among his people. The new temple ... is where God dwells ... What then, has replaced the shekinah and the means of manifestation? Paul answers the question here. The church is both a holy temple in the Lord ... and a dwelling place of God in the Spirit" (The Message of Ephesians, Bible Speaks Today, pages 106-109).

This would be similar to the 'day' and the 'great day' of the Lord. Christ intervenes from heaven with the seven trumpet plagues of the 'wrath of the Lamb' but personally returns to the earth for the battle of "the great day of God Almighty" (Rev 16:14). So for the seven days of the Feast of Tabernacles God, though in heaven, but through the glory of the Lord, is dwelling in a temporary dwelling but on the last day He returns to dwell personally. In the directions for the Feast of Tabernacles Israel was to live in temporary dwellings for seven days (Leviticus 23:40-43) which ultimately looked forward to God, through Christ, dwelling in the Temple during the Millennium and the time up until both God and Jesus Christ literally 'tabernacle' on the earth pictured by the Last Great Day of the Feast of Tabernacles.

It may be that after Satan is put away, and before the 'glory of the LORD' enters the temple, Christ will return, not to God's administrative sphere of heaven, but to His administrative sphere in the invisible realm of the earth, recently vacated by Satan and the demons.

It would then appear that prior to this Christ will spend around three and a half years in the 'visible' realm of the earth. Just as there were two stages, separated by death, in the Antichrist's career so with Christ. Christ spent roughly three and a half years setting up His church - the Israel of God - so it would appear that he completes the prophetic 7-year week (Daniel 9:26-27) at His return by setting up the nation of Israel as His servant, over a period of roughly three and a half years.

If Christ returns around the Feast of Trumpets then three years and a half years later would bring us to the beginning of a new religious year. In this eighth year "the glory of the Lord" will most likely return to the new Temple. The return will follow the pattern below:

"...for seven days shall He consecrate you [Aaron and his sons] ... Therefore you shall abide at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation day and night seven days ... and it came to pass on the eight day ... Aaron lifted up his hand toward the People, and blessed them, and came down from offering of the sin offering, and the burnt offering, and peace offerings. And Moses and Aaron went into the tabernacle of the congregation, and came out and blessed the People: and the glory of the Lord appeared unto all the people" (Leviticus 8:33, 35, 9:1, 22-23).

In the first month, in the fourteenth day of the month, ye shall have the passover, a feast of seven days; unleavened bread shall be eaten. And upon that day shall the prince prepare for himself and for all the people of the land a bullock for a sin offering (Ezekiel 45:21-22).

"... it certainly seems to open up the prospect of a wider and deeper apprehension of the religious truths which are differentiated and specialised in the Old Testament dispensation, to be reunited in that great Atoning Sacrifice, in which the blood of the new covenant has been shed for many for the remission of sins" (John Skinner, The Book of Ezekiel, p.484).

Could the Passover 'bullock' picture the 'cutting' of the New/Renewed Covenant with Israel and could the first day of Unleavened Bread picture Christ returning to Israel to dwell in the Millennial Temple?

Israel serving "the LORD ... all the days of the elders who outlived Joshua, [and] who had known all the works of the LORD which He had done for Israel" (Joshua 24:31) therefore pictures the Millennium.


"And it came to pass, when Joshua was by Jericho, that he lifted up his eyes and looked, and behold, a Man stood opposite him with His sword drawn in His hand. And Joshua went up to Him and said to Him, "Are you for us or for our adversaries?" So He said, "No, but as Commander of the army of the LORD I have now come." And Joshua fell on his face to the earth and worshipped, and said to Him, "What does my Lord say to his servant?" Then the commander of the LORD's army said to Joshua, "Take your scandals off your foot, for the place where you stand is holy." And Joshua did so" (Joshua 5:13-15).

With the earth divided into two realms - the visible and invisible - two battles/campaigns have to take place to gain control of Jericho and the land of Canaan. This principle is seen in the final confrontation of this age:

"It shall come to pass in that day That the LORD will punish on high the host of exalted ones, And on the earth the kings of the earth" (Isaiah 24:21).

This is also the reality for the people of God today:

"For we do not wrestle against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this age, against spiritual hosts of wickedness in the heavenly places" (Ephesians 6:12).

So this is why the Commander of the army of the LORD, that is Jesus Christ, is also involved in the Conquest of Canaan.

We also see the reality of the two spheres of this earth in operation in Daniel 10. We believe that "the certain man clothed in linen" is also the Commander of the army of the LORD. In Daniel 10 "the prince of the kingdom of Persia" withstood Him twenty-one days before He was able to come to Daniel, (cp. Genesis 32 where "the Man", that is Jesus Christ, wrestled with Jacob all night).

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