8:1a In the third year of the reign of king Belshazzar a vision appeared unto me , even unto me Daniel
10:1 In the third year of Cyrus king of Persia ... Daniel ... had understanding of the vision.
8:2a And I saw in a vision...
11:2a And now will I show thee the truth...
8:9a And out of one of them came forth a little horn,
11:21a And in his estate shall stand up a vile person,
8:9b-c which waxed exceeding great, toward the south, and toward the east,
11:35 And some of them of understanding shall fall, to try them, and to purge, and to make them white, even to the time of the end: because it is yet for a time appointed.
Telescopic-Interval or Time-Gap
8:9d and [waxed great] toward the pleasant land.
8:11 Yea, he magnified himself even to the prince of the host,
11:36 And the king shall do according to his will; and he shall exalt himself, and magnify himself above every god,
8:17b he said unto me, Understand, O son of man: for at the time ['eth] of the end [qets] shall be the vision.
12:9 And he said ... the words are closed up and sealed till the time ['eth] of the end [qets].
"There are a number of parallels between the vision of chapter 8 and that of chapters 10-12. Both accounts are set by a canal (8:2) or river (10:4; 12:5-7). In both chapters Daniel is overwhelmed by the visions (8:18, 27; 10:9, 15), and angels strengthen him (8:18; 10:10-11, 16, 18) and instructs him about the end times (8:19-26; 10:2-12:4). In both instances, the heavenly visitor affirms that the revelation given is true (8:26; 11:2). In both narratives a celestial being asks, "How long?" (8:13; 12:6). Both include a timetable... (8:14; 12:7, 11, 12). In both cases Daniel is told to seal up the vision (8:26; 12:4)" (William D. Nelson, Daniel, W. Ward Gasque, et al., General Editors, Understanding the Bible Commentary Series (UBCS), (Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 2012), p.309).
"This chapter  introduces a spoken apocalypse rather that a visionary one. The essence of what is communicated is given in a long verbal narrative" (Ronald S. Wallace, The Message of Daniel, J. A. Motyer & John R. W. Stott, Series Editors, The Bible Speaks Today (BST), (Leicester: Inter-Varsity Press, 1979), p.182).
"With this chapter the predictive portion of Daniel's fourth time of revelation begins...
"The stress of the message is on Antiochus Epiphanes (vv. 21-35) and the Antichrist (vv. 36-45), the former typifying the latter. Again an implied time gap exists between the two. Neither is identified by name, but only by description of character and actions, something found true also in the previous contexts considered..." (Leon J. Wood, A Commentary on Daniel, (Eugene: Wipf and Stock Publishers, 1973), p.280).
INTRODUCING THE 'TELESCOPIC LEAP'
Da 11:35 And some of them of understanding shall fall, to try them, and to purge, and to make them white, even to the time ['eth] of the end [qets]: because it is yet for a time appointed [mo'ed].
"The purging process is indicated in verse 35 to continue "to the time of the end." It is clear from this reference that the persecution of Antiochus are not the time of the end, even though they foreshadow them. The mention of "the time of the end" in verse 35 is notice, however, that from verse 36 on, the prophecy leaps the centuries that intervene to the last generation prior to God's judgment of Gentile power and its rulers. Beginning in verse 36, prophecy is unfolded that is as yet unfulfilled" (John F. Walvoord, Daniel - The Key to Prophetic Revelation, (Chicago: Moody Press, 1971), p.269).
"The entire section from Daniel 11:36 to 12:3 continues a revelation of the major factors of the time of the end which may be summarized as follows: (1) a world ruler, (2) a world religion, (3) a world war, (4) a time of great tribulation for Israel, (5) deliverance for the people of God at the end of the tribulation, (6) resurrection... and (7) reward of the righteous. All of these factors are introduced in this section. Added elsewhere in the Scriptures are the additional facts that this time of the end begins with the breaking of the covenant by "the prince that shall come" (Dan 9:26-27); that the "time of the end" will last for three and one-half years (Dan 7:25; 12:7; Rev 13:5); that the time of the end is the same as the time of Jacob's trouble and the great tribulation (Jer 30:7; Mt 24:21). Minor additional details are supplied in Revelation 6-19" (John F. Walvoord, Daniel - The Key to Prophetic Revelation, pp.281-82).
THE END-TIME KING
Da 11:36 And the king shall do according to his will; and he shall exalt himself, and magnify himself above every god, and shall speak marvellous things against the God of gods, and shall prosper till the indignation be accomplished: for that that is determined shall be done.
"Up to this point, the prophecy dealing with the Persian and Grecian Empires has been fulfilled minutely and with amazing precision. Beginning with verse 36, however, an entirely different situation obtains...
"Because of the completely unsatisfactory explanation of an historical fulfillment of verse 36-45 in contrast with the precise fulfillment of the earlier portion, conservative expositor's relate this passage to the climax of history culminating in the second advent of Christ. This, of course, is in keeping with the total tenor of Daniel's prophecies which characteristically have their climax at the end of this interadvent age and the triumph of the kingdom of heaven which the Son of man will accomplish when he returns. This passage, therefore, is to be considered as contemporaneous with the climax of chapter 2, the destruction of the image, and the destruction of the little horn of Daniel 7, a period described in the book of Revelation, chapter 6-19" (John F. Walvoord, Daniel - The Key to Prophetic Revelation, pp.270-71).
Da 12:1b and there shall be a time of trouble, such as never was since there was a nation even to that same time: and at that time thy people shall be delivered, every one that shall be found written in the book.
"According to verse 36, the king is an absolute ruler who "shall do according to his will." If this is the great tribulation, as intimated in Daniel 12:1, when the Roman ruler is a world ruler, it is difficult to contemplate any other ruler who could be absolute in authority, especially in an area so close to the center of Roman power as Palestine. There can be only one king who does absolutely according to his will in this period and this must be ... [the Antichrist]. Although other rulers will be associated with him, such as the ten horns of Revelation 17:12 and the false prophet of Revelation 13:11-18, none of these can be described as absolute rulers.
"Further evidence is found in the fact that he not only assumes complete political rule but also the role of God. According to verse 36, "he shall exalt himself, and magnify himself above every god." In his claim for deity, which he demands that all recognize on pain of death (Rev 13:15), he clearly asserts his supremacy over all others... According to verse 36, he shall also blaspheme against the true God and prosper for a time until he comes to his end" (John F. Walvoord, Daniel - The Key to Prophetic Revelation, p.272).
Da 11:36a And the king shall do according to his will;
"Antiochus was characterized by an insolent, self-centered manner, demanding that all be done as he wanted; and now its is stated that the Antichrist, as indicated also in prior texts considered (7:25; 8:24; cf. Rev.13:7; 17:13), will be of the same kind" (Leon J. Wood, A Commentary on Daniel, p.305).
"As king the Antichrist not only has pride but he also has power, which leads him to assert his own soveregnty so that he will "do as he pleases" " (Tremper Longman III, Daniel, Terry Muck, General Editor, The NIV Application Commentary Series (NIVAC), (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1999), p.283).
Da 11:36b and he shall exalt himself, and magnify himself above every god,
2Th 2:4 Who opposeth and exalteth himself above all that is called God, or that is worshipped;
2 Macc 6:2a also to pollute the temple in Jerusalem and to call it the temple of Olympian Zeus (NRSV)
"Antiochus was proud, but not to the point of magnifying himself above every god, for he worshiped the gods of Greece and demanded the same of the Jews. The Antichrist, however, will indeed try to set himself above every god (cf. 2 Thess. 2:4), blaspheming God's name (cf. Rev. 13:6) and attempting even to change to change God's natural laws (cf. Dan. 7:25)" (Leon J. Wood, A Commentary on Daniel, p.305).
Da 11:36c and shall speak marvellous things [pala'] against the God of gods,
"Astonishing things: The word used (root, pala', "to separate") is a plural niphal participle, meaning literally "things done astonishingly, unbelievably." The thought of uniqueness is connoted. This person will speak against God that will be unique to himself - different, apparently, from what any other would dare to speak, in degree of insolence and self-exaltation" (Leon J. Wood, A Commentary on Daniel, p.305).
"In Hebrew, "x of x" indicates the superlative, as in "Song of Songs" (Song 1:1), which is "the greatest song"; "holy of holies" or "the Most Holy Place" (Exod. 26:33, 34); and "vanity of vanities," which means "most vain" (Eccl. 1:2; NIV "meaningless"). The term "God of gods," then, means "the greatest God," which for Israelites monotheists signified the one true God, who was and is greater than all other "gods" (falsely so called)" (William B. Nelson, Daniel, UBCS, p.286).
Da 11:36d and shall prosper till the indignation [za'am] be accomplished [kalah]:
Da 8:19a ... I will make thee know what shall be in the last end of the indignation [za'am] :
"The indignation: The word used (za'am) is the same word as in 8:19, a parallel context, where it was found to refer to the Tribulation period, when the Antichrist is the mighty Roman king. The same time is in view here, the thought being that the Antichrist will succeed in his actions until the completion of the time..." (Leon J. Wood, A Commentary on Daniel, pp.305-06).
Da 11:36e for that that is determined [nekheratsah] shall be done [ne'esatah].
"God is supremely in charge of history, even when the Antichrist rules. What the Antichrist will do will be only that God has beforehand determined" (Leon J. Wood, A Commentary on Daniel, p.306).
"Several words in this verse are familiar from other texts... The language is similar to Isaiah's: "For the Lord God of hosts will make a full end [kalah], as decreed [wenekheratsah], in all the earth" (Isa. 10:23 NRSV). "For in a very little while my indignation [zaam] will come to an end [wekalah], and my anger will be directed to their destruction" (Isa. 10:25 NRSV)... Likewise, Gabriel says that "desolations have been decreed [nekheretset]" (Dan 9:26) and the king will "set up an abomination that causes ... until the end [kalah] that is decreed [nekheratsah] is poured out on him" (Dan. 9:27)" (William B. Nelson, Daniel, UBCS, p.307).
Da 11:37a Neither shall he regard the God of his fathers,
"An unnatural attitude on the part of this ruler is now presented - an attitude involving three matters on, which men normally agree with approval. The Antichrist, however, shall not "regard" (root, bin, "to understand" or "to regard with understanding") any of the three. Gods of his fathers: Men normally hold to, or at least respect, the god(s) of their ancestors, but this man would not do so" (Leon J. Wood, A Commentary on Daniel, p.306).
"The first clause of v.37 ... hardly fits Antiochus either. On the contrary, his deliberate policy was to compel his Jewish subjects to worship the god of his fathers on pain of death" (Gleason L. Archer, Daniel, Frank E. Gaebelein, Editor, The Expositor's Bible Commentary (EBC), (Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1992), Vol.7, p.144).
Da 11:37b nor the desire of women, nor regard any god: for he shall magnify himself above all.
"The phrase "the desire of women" is in itself ambiguous..." (Albert Barnes' Notes on the Bible, e-sword.net).
Eze 8:14b and, behold, there sat women weeping for Tammuz
Da 11:37 ... the God of his fathers ... desire of women ... any god
"... it is almost imperative that it be an object of worship that is here referred to" (Pulpit Commentary, e-sword.net)
"The 'desire of women' must, from the context, be the designation of some divinity..." (Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges, e-sword.net).
2 Sa 1:26b thy love to me was wonderful, passing the love of women.
Neither shall he regard the God of his fathers,
nor the desire of women
nor regard any god:
for he shall magnify himself above all.
"After it has been said in the first clause: he shall set himself free from all religious reverence transmitted from his fathers, from all piety toward the gods in which he had been trained, it is then added in the second clause: not merely so, but generally from all piety toward men and God, from all the tender affections of the love of men and of God. The "love of women" is named as an example selected from the sphere of human piety, as that affection of human love and attachment for which even the most selfish and most savage of men feel some sensibility" (C. F. Keil, Daniel, Rev M. G. Easton, Translator, Commentary on the Old Testament, C. F. Keil and F. Delitzsch (KD), (Peabody: Hendrickson Publishers, Inc, 2006), Vol.9, p.804-05).
"But in the sacrifices he [Antiochus] furnished to cities and in the honours he paid to the gods he far surpassed all his predecessors, as we can tell from the temple of Olympian Zeus at Athens and the statues round the altar at Delos" (Polybius, penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/ Polybius/26*.html).
"Verse 37 goes on to emphasize that this little horn will have no regard for any god ('ak-kol-'eloah lo' yabin, "will not give heed to [attend to] any god"). This hardly applies to Antiochus, who exalted Zeus on the reverse side of his coinage ... [and] contributed generously to the great temple of Zeus Olympius in Athens ... Zeus Olympius was certainly a god of this fathers. This, therefore could only apply to his eschatological antitype, the Beast of the last days... there will be no appeal from his will to the will of heavenly deities who might outrank him or sit in judgment over him" (Gleason L. Archer Jr., Daniel, EBC, Vol.7, p.145).
"Not only will this man not regard the God of his fathers, but he will not regard any god at all. He will deny God, taking the place of God Himself, as he claims supreme power and authority (2 Thess. 2:4)" (Leon J. Wood, A Commentary on Daniel, p.306).
Da 11:38 But in his estate shall he honour the God of forces: and a god whom his fathers knew not shall he honour with gold, and silver, and with precious stones, and pleasant things [hemudot].
"The "god of fortresses" is the personification of war, and the thought is this: he will regard no other god, but only war; the taking of fortresses he will make his god; and he will worship this god above all as the means of his gaining the world-power. Of this god, war as the object of deification, it might be said that his fathers knew nothing, because no other king had made war his religion, his god to whom he offered up in sacrifice all, gold, silver, precious stones, jewels" (C. F. Keil, Daniel, KD, Vol.9, p.805).
"Pagans have always honored their gods by making images of precious metals and stones, but the Antichrist will honor his by the expenditure of these valuables. Warfare has always been expensive, and this will be as true as ever for this ruler" (Leon J. Wood, A Commentary on Daniel, p.307).
"In other words, he is a complete materialist in contrast to all previous religions and all previous men who claim divine qualities. This is blasphemy to the ultimate, the exultation of human power and attainment. He is Satan's masterpiece, a human being who is Satan's substitute for Jesus Christ, hence properly identified as the Antichrist" (John F. Walvoord, Daniel - The Key to Prophetic Revelation, p.276).
Da 11:39 Thus shall he do in the most strong holds with a strange god, whom he shall acknowledge and increase with glory: and he shall cause them to rule over many, and shall divide the land for gain.
"Napoleon established a new nobility of princes, dukes, counts, barons and knights... He ensured that as many people as possible had a stake in the empire" (Desmond Seward, Napoleon and Hitler, p.106).
"Literally translated this reads, "strongholds of fortress" (mibtsere ma'uzzim). The Antichrist will not hold back from attacking any stronghold, as he puts his reliance in his war machine" (Leon J. Wood, A Commentary on Daniel, p.307).
"The NIV goes too far with the translation: he will attack the mightiest fortresses with the help of a foreign god (11:39)... the Hebrew has no verb here meaning "attack." The MT has the more general verb, 'asah, "to do." Of course, with "fortresses" as the object, it is possible to understand what he is "doing" to the fortresses as "attacking." However, if the MT is followed, the verb could be translated "to deal with" as in the NRSV: "He shall deal with the strongest fortresses." This communicates the ambiguity of the Hebrew. "Dealing with fortresses," may mean building them, strengthening them, or placing troops in them; it does not have to mean attacking them" (William B. Nelson, Daniel, UBCS, p.287 & 307).
"... fortified, i.e., strong fortresses, are not the fortified walls and houses, but the inhabitants of the fortified cities" (C. F. Keil, Daniel, KD, Vol.9, p.806).
"This makes more sense and connects better with the next two parts of the verse, because all three clauses are about people" (William B. Nelson, Daniel, UBCS, p.287).
"With these he does according to his will with the help of his god, i.e., of war, namely in this, that ... the king will bestow honour, power, and possessions on those who acknowledge him and conduct themselves according to his will, and they accord with the character of Antichrist in a yet higher degree than with that of Antiochus" (C. F. Keil, Daniel, KD, Vol.9, p.806).
"Those who recognize him he will highly honor:... The thought ... is that among those whom he conquers, [and those who collaborate from the start], he will honor those who readily give obeisance. To rule over many: They will be given positions of leadership, presumably either as officers in his own government or as subrulers over conquered provinces. Allotting land as a reward: Literally, this states that "he will allot land in connection with a reward." The thought is that the amount of land over which any subruler would be given authority would be granted as a reward, and thus it would vary with the degree of obeisance rendered and the subruler's potential as an aid to the Antichrist" (Leon J. Wood, A Commentary on Daniel, p.307).
THE TIME OF THE END
Da 11:40a And at the time ['eth] of the end [qets]
"The scenario described in 11:40-45 simply never transpired. None of the ancient sources tells of a new counterattack upon Antiochus by Ptolemy (v.40), nor of a new appearance in "the glorious land" of the former (v.41), nor of his loot of Egypt and suzerainty over Libya and Ethiopa (v.43), nor his final demise on the Philistine plain (v.45)" (W. Sibley Towner, Daniel, James L. Mays, Series Editor, Interpretation, A Bible Commentary for Teaching and Preaching, (Louisville: John Know Press, 1984), p.164).
"As for the final paragraph of the chapter, the effort to tie its details into the known career of Antiochus Epiphanes becomes utterly hopeless. Verse 36-39 contain, as we have seen, important features irreconcilable with Antiochus. And from v.40 on there is the greatest contrast between his career and that of the little horn, whose end is here described. Further more, the shift of scene to the last days seems to be doubly emphasized by the introductory words "At the time of the end" (ubet qes, lit., "And in the end time"). The transition between v.35 and v.36 is not so clearly indicated for the later verse is simply introduced by a waw connective (we'asah kiresono hammelek, lit., "Then the king will do as he pleases")" (Gleason L. Archer, Jr., Daniel, EBC, Vol.7, pp.146-147).
"The end is the second century [for the type, that is, the end of Antiochus' Great Tribulation ], but the end is also in the still-distant future [for the antitype, that is, the end of the Antichrist's Great Tribulation]. Just as the ideal king of the Psalms was grounded in the Davidic reality but anticipated the Messianic glory, so the wicked king of the end of Daniel is grounded in the Antiochene reality [of the Greek kingdom] but anticipated in the horror of the Antichrist [of the end-time Roman kingdom]" (Tremper Longman III, Daniel, , p.284). (The qualifications in square brackets goes a little beyond Tremper Longman III's intent, but his observation is is a good introduction to the next paragraph).
While verses 36-45 describe the antitype, that is the Antichrist, what took place under the type, that is, Antiochus, helps understand what will take place under the Antichrist. So in the following the type, where applicable, will be drawn upon to better grasp what is taking place under the antitype.
"Thus far, the information given regarding this final Roman ruler has concerned his general policies and practices. Now, significant activities (those pertaining to the Jews [better Jacob]) are set forth. These are introduced by the same notice ("the time of the end") as employed in introducing his policies (v.35)" (Leon J. Wood, A Commentary on Daniel, p.308).
Da 11:40 And at the time of the end shall the king of the south push [root, nagah] at him: and the king of the north shall come against him like a whirlwind, with chariots, and with horsemen, and with many ships; and he shall enter into the countries, and shall overflow and pass over.
Da 8:4a I saw the ram pushing [root, nagah] westward,
"The time of the end introduced in verse 35 is again mentioned in the opening portion of verse 40 to make clear that the military struggle here is that which will characterize the end of the age. The general nature and location of the warfare is also specified" (John F. Walvoord, Daniel - The Key to Prophetic Revelation, p.277).
"Presumably the warfare will be carried on by armored vehicles and missiles such as in modern warfare - though in order to communicate with Daniel's generation, ancient equivalents of these are used here" (Gleason L. Archer, Jr., Daniel, EBC, Vol.7, p.147).
"Earlier in the chapter, the king of the south is clearly the leader of a political and military force that comes from the south of the Holy Land, and the probability is that it involves much more than only Egypt and can be identified as an African army" (John F. Walvoord, Daniel - The Key to Prophetic Revelation, p.277).
A north-African federation, see, below, with its probable centre in Egypt, led by the king of the South will attack the empire of the 'little horn' - the king of the North.
The end-time king of the North is not from the 'Greek' kingdom, as it was earlier in the chapter, but from the 'Roman' kingdom, that is, "the latter-day revival of the Roman kingdom".
"This ruler [the king of the South] will "push" (root, nagah, "to push like a goat"; cf. 8:4) at the Antichrist, meaning that he will attack him, apparently as an effort to hinder him in his expansion plans" (Leon J. Wood, A Commentary on Daniel, p.308).
"Once their productive capacity was enhanced, countries would normally find it easier to sustain the burdens of paying for larger-scale armaments in peacetime and of maintaining and supplying armies and fleets in wartime. It sounds crudely mercantilistic to express it this way, but wealth is usually needed to underpin military power, and military power is usually needed to acquire and protect wealth" (Paul Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers - Economic Change and Military Conflict from 1500 to 2000, (London: FontanaPress, 1988), p.xvi).
To put this in perspective, based on nominal GDP, Germany, as argue earlier, will be at the center of the northern empire, has a GDP of $3.4 trillion, while Egypt, at the center of the southern empire, has a GDP of $0.25 trillion. Germany has 13 times the wealth of Egypt.
With Egypt at such a disadvantage compared with Germany, perhaps the Egyptians best change is to assassinate the King of the North before he makes his moves, hopefully putting off any chance of war.
Da 11:25a And he shall stir up his power and his courage against the king of the south with a great army;
Da 11:25b and the king of the south shall be stirred up to battle with a very great and mighty army; but he shall not stand:...
"Antiochus' first major test was a war with Egypt, begun by Egypt to recover southern Syria and Palestine, which had been lost to Antiochus III in 200 [BC]. This so-called 'Sixth Syrian War' had long been in the making... when she [Cleopatra] died in 176 the new government, led by the king's guardians Eulaeus and Lenaeus, prepared for war... Their intentions were so poorly concealed that Antiochus was very early informed... When the enemy finally attacked in the fall of 170 or early part of 169 he was ready. He counter-attacked and won a decisive victory near Pelusium..." (C. Habicht, C. Habicht, The Seleucids and their rivals, Cambridge Ancient History, 2nd Edition, Vol.8 - Rome and the Mediterranean to 133 B.C., (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989), Vol.8, pp.343-44).
Da 11:40d and he shall enter into the countries, and shall overflow [shatap] and pass over ['abar].
Isa 8:8a And he shall pass through Judah; he shall overflow [shatap] and go over ['abar],
"The word for "overflow" (shatap) is used commonly of a river overflowing land (cf. 10). The Antichrist will "pass through" ('abar) Palestine, after overflowing it, on his way farther south to Egypt" (Leon J. Wood, A Commentary on Daniel, pp.310-11).
"... [this] suggests the kind of specular success the Nazis had early in World War II. It also indicated a larger number of smaller, weaker nations will be drawn into the conflict between the two great powers of the North and the South and that Antichrist in particular will extend his authority with irresistible power" (Gleason L. Archer Jr., Daniel, EBC, Vol.7, pp.148-49).
In verse 40 "enter into the countries" is taken as a general statement of the overthrow of countries. Verses 41 and 42 provide some specifics and are taken chronologically; that is, the "glorious land" (v.41) will fall before "Egypt" (v.42).
EXCURSUS - Days, Assassination and a god
Same 'starting point'?
Da 12:11 And from the time that the daily sacrifice shall be taken away, and the abomination that maketh desolate set up, there shall be a thousand two hundred and ninety days.
Da 12:12 Blessed is he that waiteth, and cometh to the thousand three hundred and five and thirty days.
There are two ways that verse 12 could relate chronologically to verse 11. The first way is that the 1290 days and the 1335 days have the same 'starting point'; so that the days of verse 12 extend 45 days past the finishing point of the days of verse 11. If this is the case, the text does not reveal the goal of the 'finishing point' of the 1335 days.
Same 'ending point'?
Da 12:7a And I heard the man clothed in linen ... sware by him that liveth for ever that it shall be for a time, times, and an half [i.e., 1260 days];
Da 12:11 And from the time that the daily sacrifice shall be taken away, and the abomination that maketh desolate set up, there shall be a thousand two hundred and ninety days.
Da 12:12 Blessed is he that waiteth, and cometh to the thousand three hundred and five and thirty days.
The second way is that, just as verses 7 and 11 have the same 'finishing point' it may follow that the verse 12 also has the same 'finishing point'.
Da 11:40a And at the time of the end shall the king of the south push at him
Da 12:7b and when he shall have accomplished to scatter the power of the holy people, all these things shall be finished.
In 12:7 it states that "all these things shall be finished". If "these things" refer to those things that are finished in the "time of the end" of 11:40, and that the 1260, 1290 and 1335 days have the same 'finishing point,' perhaps the 1335 days starts when the king of the south 'pushes' at the king of the north. If so, the 1335 days, if the second way is accepted, defines the starting and finishing of the "time of the end" (11:40) as it relates to Daniel's fourth "vision"
With this premise another event, though not portrayed in the description of the "time of the end" of Daniel 11:40-12:3, but must occur, as revealed elsewhere, is introduced to this scenario.
Mt 16:21 From that time forth began Jesus to show unto his disciples, how that he must go unto Jerusalem, and suffer many things of the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be killed, and be raised again the third day.
"ANTICHRIST ... an opponent of Christ; that which sets itself in the place of Christ, which appears as Christ in opposition to Christ..." (E. W. Bullinger, A Critical Lexicon and Concordance to the English and Greek New Testament, (Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1990), p.56).
"The June 1914 assassination [of the Austrian Archduke Francis-Ferdinand] is one of the best-known examples in history of a particular event triggering a general crisis, and then a world war... There was indeed much truth in the old cliche that the archduke's death was merely the spark which lit the tinderbox" (Paul Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of Great Powers, p.327).
The type-antitype telescopic prophecy of Daniel 9 implies that the Antichrist, like the Christ, is killed mid-way through his prophetic week. The assassination of the Beast is confirmed by the book of Revelation.
The 'type' for a "spark," to set in motion, or contribute to setting in motion, WW3 is the assassination of the heir to the Austrian throne, which 'sparked' WW1.
The coming assassination of the Antichrist may occur either in Europe or Jerusalem. If it occurs in Europe it would, most likely, be associated with the "push" of the king of the South, and so relates to the beginning of the 1335 days. If the assassination occurs in Jerusalem it would, most likely be associated with the beginning of the 1290 days.
So, if the assassination is to occur in Europe, that assassination maybe part of the "push" by the king of the South, or alternatively, the "push" of the King of the South may come immediately after the assassination of the Antichrist, either before or after his 'resurrection'.
Da 11:41a He shall enter also into the glorious land
But if the assassination is to occurs in the "glorious land," that assassination would come during the counterattack of the king of the North. On the drive to Egypt the "king of the North" comes to Jerusalem and is killed in this city, another parody of the Christ; then being resurrected 3 days later? A 'resurrected' Antichrist, that astounds the world (cp. Rev 13:4), would now be in the most fortuitous time to proclaim himself God.
Da 12:11 And from the time that the daily sacrifice shall be taken away, and the abomination that maketh desolate set up, there shall be a thousand two hundred and ninety days.
Mk 13:14 But when ye shall see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet, standing where it ought not...
Mt 24:15 When ye therefore shall see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet, stand in the holy place...
"The masculine participle ("standing") modifying a neuter noun ("the abomination that causes desolation") suggests a reference to a person rather than some idolatrous object (see 2 Thess. 2:3-4, "the man of lawlessness sets himself up in God's temple")" (David E. Garland, Mark, Terry Muck, General Editor, The NIV Application Commentary Series (NIVAC), (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1996), pp.495-96).
"Matthew replaces Mark's 'standing, where it does not belong' with 'standing in the holy place', alluding to the temple" (John R. W. Stott, The Message of Thessalonians, J. A. Motyer & John R. W. Stott, Series Editors, The Bible Speaks Today (BST), (Leicester: Inter-Varsity Press, 1991), p.163).
"Pompey himself entered the Temple's Holy of Holies which only the High Priest was allowed to enter, thereby desecrating it. He did not remove anything, neither its treasures nor any funds, and the next day ordered the Temple cleansed and its rituals resumed. Pompey then headed back to Rome..." (Wikipedia, Siege of Jerusalem (63 BC)).
Da 9:27b and in the midst of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease,
"It was customary for Assyrian kings to erect statues of themselves" (Edward J. Young, Daniel, D. Guthrie & J. A. Motyer, Editors, New Bible Commentary (NBC), Third Edition, (Leicester: Inter-Varsity Press, 1985), p.692).
The Antichrist, based on his death and resurrection, may affirm his claim of divinity by entering the Most Holy Place of the Jerusalem temple, "showing himself that he is God" (2 Thessalonians 2:4). As god he will break the covenant (Da 9:27a) and put a stop to the 'daily sacrifice' - beginning the 1290 days of Daniel 12:11. After leaving the Most Holy Place, and, or Jerusalem, to continue his military campaign, he may set up an image or statute of himself. Around this point in time Lucifer/Satan, his spiritual antitype, attempts to enter the heavenly Most Holy Place - Isaiah 14:13. This first visit of the 'little horn' corresponds to Antiochus' personal attack on Jerusalem. But on this visit the abomination of desolation is set up as opposed to the second visit-attack on Jerusalem led by Apollonius in the time of Antiochus.
THE GLORY, EDOM, MOAB AND AMMON
Da 11:41 He shall enter also into the glorious land, and many countries shall be overthrown: but these shall escape out of his hand, even Edom, and Moab, and the chief of the children of Ammon.
Da 8:9 And out of one of them came forth a little horn, which waxed exceeding great, toward the south, and toward the east, and toward the pleasant [hatstsebi, literally "the glory"] land.
Ps 137:7 Remember, O LORD, the children of Edom in the day of Jerusalem; who said, Rase it, rase it, even to the foundation thereof.
Ob 1:13 Thou shouldest not have ... laid hands on their substance in the day of their calamity;
Ob 1:14 Neither shouldest thou have stood in the crossway, to cut off those of his that did escape; neither shouldest thou have delivered up those of his that did remain in the day of distress.
"The term 'eres hassebi ("the Beautiful Land") refers to the Holy Land from the standpoint pf its special favor in the eyes of God, rather than because of its conspicuous natural beauty" (Gleason L. Archer, Jr., Daniel, EBC, Vol.7, p.148).
"In v.41, he brings his war machine into Judea... A note on the wide extent of the battle includes those who will be spared: the Edomites, the Moabites and some from the Ammonites. Presumably, they are spared because these three archaic nations once again conspire with the aggressor against the Jewish people" (Daniel L. Smith-Christopher, The Book of Daniel, Leander E. Keck, Convener, The New Interpreter's Bible (NIB), (Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1996), Vol.7, p.147).
"In doing so, he [the Antichrist] is recapitulating Nebuchadnezzar's invasion sparing the old enemies who had taken advantage of Israel (v.41; cf. Ezek 25)" (John E. Goldingay, Daniel, David A. Hubbard & Glenn W. Barker, General Editors, Word Biblical Commentary (WBC), (Nelson Reference & Electronic, 1989), p.305).
According to History Research Projects (originofnations.org) modern-day Moabites and Ammonites, though extensive mixed with the Arabs, may still be found in their ancestral homeland, that is, in the modern state of Jordan. HRP suggests that around sixty percent of the population of the modern state of Turkey are modern-day Edomites. If this is so Jordan and Turkey will 'escape' the Antichrist's hand. Turkey provides a type from WW1 where it was allied with the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary and was engaged in armed conflict with the Russian empire.
Da 11:42 He shall stretch forth his hand also upon the countries: and the land of Egypt shall not [lo'] escape [haya pallet].
Joel 2:3 A fire devoureth before them; and behind them a flame burneth: ... yea, and nothing [lo'] shall escape [haya pallet] them.
"Verse 42 continues Antichrist's triumphant progress" (Gleason L. Archer, Jr., Daniel, EBC, Vol.7, p.148).
"The word for "shall not escape" means literally "shall not be for an escape," that is, "shall not be among those who have escaped." Reference is to those lands that will have escaped, as indicated in verse forty-one; but Egypt will not be so fortunate" (Leon J. Wood, A Commentary on Daniel, p.312).
"lo' haya pallet (and there shall not be for an escape), expressive of complete overthrow, cf. Joel 2:3; Jer 50:29" (C. F. Keil, Daniel, KD, Vol.9, p.809).
Da 11:43 But he shall have power over the treasures of gold and of silver, and over all the precious things [hemudot] of Egypt: and the Libyans [Lubim] and the Ethiopians [kush] shall be at his steps.
"He shall gain control: This statement reads literally, "He shall rule." The Antichrist will be able to achieve complete domination of the land and its valuables. The word for "desirable things" is the same as in verse thirty-eight. Libyans and the Ethiopians: The two countries here represented will also be occupied... In his train: The word used (bemits'adym) is literally "in his steps." The thought is that the Antichrist will so make conquest of these countries that they will follow "in his steps," that is, they will be a part of his vast domain and obey his demands" (Leon J. Wood, A Commentary on Daniel, p.312).
"kush refers to the region immediately south and east of Egypt, including modern Nubia, the Sudan, and the Ethiopia of classical writers..." (John. N. Oswalt, "kush," R. Laird Harris, et al., General Editors, Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament (TWOT), (Chicago: Moody Press, 1980), Vol.1, p.453).
"LUBIM ... [Heb. lubim]. A people in north Africa, named with Egypt, Cush, Put, and the SUKKIM (2 Ch. 12:3; 16:8; Dnl. 11:43; Nah. 3:9). The Lubim are to be identified with LIBYA (Gk. Libyes), probably also with LEHABIM, and perhaps with PUT" (William Sanford LaSor, "Lubim," Geoffrey W. Bromiley, General Editor, The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (ISBE), (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdman's Publishing Company, 1986), Vol.3, p.177), Vol.3, p.177).
From the above, the Kingdom of the South is a combination of peoples/nations from North Africa that included Egypt and peoples/nations to the 'west,' 'south' and 'east' of Egypt.
Peoples and nations may be taken in a number of ways: ethnically, geographically, typically and representatively.
Da 11:26b his [the King of Egypt's] army will be swept away, and many will fall in battle.
The end-time king of the North will most likely enter personally into Egypt with his army. This campaign will follow the setting up of the 'abomination of desolation'.
Mt 24:15 When ye therefore shall see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet, stand in the holy place, (whoso readeth, let him understand:)
Mt 24:16 Then let them which be in Judaea flee into the mountains:
This will be the time to follow Jesus Christ's instruction.
Da 11:44 But tidings out of the east and out of the north shall trouble him: therefore he shall go forth with great fury to destroy, and utterly to make away many.
There are two ways to understand the timing of this event. The first, is that these events occur after the invasion/occupation of Egypt by the end-time King of the North; and the second way, is that these events occur some two and a half years later, corresponding to the events of Revelation 9. While either way has its pros and cons, the first way is the preferred timing.
The type for the second scenario is presented first:
1 Macc 3:31b [165 BC] he [Antiochus] determined to go to Persia and collect the revenues from those regions and raise a large fund
1 Macc 3:37 The king took the remaining half of his forces and left Antioch his capital in the one hundred and forty-seventh year. He crossed the Euphrates river and went through the upper provinces.
As noted before: "In the summer of 166 or 165 Antiochus marched out from Antioch at the head of an army for the reconquest of the North and East" (Edwyn Robert Bevan, The House of Seleucus, (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd, 1966), Vol. 2, p.158).
Antiochus was not to return home. In 164 BC the Old Testament 'tribulation' was over and the OT Antichrist was no more.
The type for the first scenario:
2 Macc 5:1 [169 BC] About this time Antiochus made his second [sic] invasion of Egypt.
2 Macc 5:5 When a false rumor arose that Antiochus was dead, Jason ... made an assault on the city [of Jerusalem].
2 Macc 5:11 When news of what happened reached the king, he took it to mean that Judea was in revolt. So, raging inwardly, he left Egypt and took the city by storm (NRSV).
(Date above is when Antiochus personally entered Judea, based on 1 Maccabees).
Da 11:44b Then he will go out with great fury to destroy and devote many to destruction [haram] (IHGEB).
Da 9:26b and the people of the prince that shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary; and the end thereof shall be with a flood, and unto the end of the war desolations are determined.
"This [Da 11:44b] is similar to verse 30: "Then he will turn back and vent his fury against the holy covenant" " (William B. Nelson, Daniel, UBCS, p.291).
"While in this section of Africa, the Antichrist will hear of trouble from the east and north, which will give him cause for alarm. The nature of the rumors or whom they concern is not indicated... [Some] see here only tidings from Palestine that will indicate that the troops left behind there by the Antichriist have suffered some serious reverses presumably at the hands of the Jews... In great fury to destroy and annihilate many: The rumors heard bring very strong reaction on the part of the Antichrist. The phrase "in great fury" shows this in the use of the adjective "great" (gedolah). Two forceful words are employed to depict his treatment of the enemy: "destroy" (root, shamad) and "annihilate" (root, haram)" (Leon J. Wood, A Commentary on Daniel, p.313).
Jos 6:21 And they utterly destroyed [haram] all that was in the city, both man and woman, young and old, and ox, and sheep, and ass, with the edge of the sword.
Jer 30:7 Alas! for that day is great [gadol], so that none is like it: it is even the time of Jacob's trouble;...
"Usually haram means a ban for utter destruction, the compulsory dedication of something which impeded or resists God's work, which is considered accursed before God" ( Leon. J. Wood, "haram," R. Laird Harris, et al., General Editors, Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament (TWOT), (Chicago: Moody Press, 1980), Vol.1, p.324).
The Antichrist as god will put God's people under "a ban for utter destruction".
While the 'little horn' is in Egypt there may be an uprising of the Jews at a result of the profaning of the temple by this "king of the North". This would parallel Jason's failed attempt to ouster Menelaus when there was the report that Antiochus had died in Egypt - this in the near-future sense of prophecy would be a typical 'cutting off' of Antiochus. Then the 'little horn' will send one of his generals to punish Jerusalem and the Jews (Daniel 9:26b). This would then appear to be the beginning of the "time, times, and half a time" (1260 days) of Daniel 12:7.
THE GREAT TRIBULATION
Da 11:44b ... he shall go forth with great fury to destroy, and utterly to make away many.
Da 9:26b and the people of the prince that shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary; and the end thereof shall be with a flood...
Da 12:1a And at that time Michael shall stand up, the great ruler who stands for the sons of your people. And there shall be a time of distress, such as has not been from the existence of a nation until that time. And at that time... (IHGEB).
"The opening of chapter 12, and at that time, makes clear that this passage is talking about the same period of time as the previous context, that is, "the time of the end" (11:40). The action here in verse 1 is not subsequent to the preceding events but coincides with them chronologically" (John F. Walvoord, Daniel - The Key to Prophetic Revelation, p.282).
"... "that time" (12:1) occurs three times in the verse for emphasis... Furthermore, "at that time" is akin to "in/on that day," both of which are used eschatologically by the prophets to indicate a future time when God will intervene in human history (e.g., Isa. 26:1; 27:1-2; Jer 3:17; 4:11; Joel 3:1-2; Zeph. 1:12; 3:19-20; Zech. 12:3-4; 13:1-2)" (William B. Nelson, Daniel, UBCS, pp.292-93).
While the "people of the prince" are dealing with Jerusalem the 'little horn' may be occupied with the invasion and conquest of the British Isles and the North American continent (cp. a type in Daniel 11:24). His allies may be dealing with Australia and New Zealand at this time.
Da 11:35 And some of them of understanding shall fall, to try [sarap] them, and to purge [barar], and to make them white [laben], even to the time of the end:
Da 12:10a Many shall be purified [barar], and made white [laben], and tried [sarap];
"These same three verbs are used in Daniel 11:35, although with different verbal forms and in a different order" (William B. Nelson, Daniel, UBCS, p.312).
"Here however, the first two are used in the hithpael (normally reflexive, though they may be passive) and the third is the niphal (passive or reflexive)... Taking the passive meaning for the verbs, the thought is that God will be the One sovereignly effecting this change of cleansing: and, taking the reflexive meaning, it is that man himself will desire and work to the end of his own cleansing. Either thought is in keeping with scriptural truth set forth elsewhere (cf. Ps 51:7; 1 John 3:3)" (Leon J. Wood, A Commentary on Daniel, p.326).
At the height of their vindictive cruelty Antiochus and the Antichrist will be serving God's purpose to refine and cleanse His people (cf. Joyce C. Baldwin, Daniel, D. J. Wiseman, General Editor, Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries (TOTC), (Downers Grove: Inter-Varsity Press, 1987), p.200).
Da 11:35d because it is yet for a time appointed.
Da 12:7b it shall be for a time, times, and an half; and when he shall have accomplished to scatter the power of the holy people, all these things shall be finished.
Da 12:1b and at that time thy people shall be delivered,
"The twofold reference continues. The same word is used here for "appointed times" as in verses twenty-seven and thirty... The same meaning is intended - namely that God controls time for his purpose - with the idea of control being taken in respect to both the oppressions of Antiochus and those much later of the Antichrist" (Leon J. Wood, A Commentary on Daniel, p.306).
"As in Daniel 7:25, this is the apocalyptist's cryptic way of saying three and a half years, that is, a year, two years, and half a year. Using the weeks-of-years scheme from chapter 9, a week of years is seven years, so half of a week of years is three and a half years (Dan.9:27)" (William B. Nelson, Daniel, UBCs, p.311).
"When the three and a half years are fulfilled in them, as the prophecy states, "He shall have accomplished to scatter the power of the holy people," that is, it will be a time of terrible persecution of the people of Israel. The verb translated "scatter" means "to shatter," allowing the translation "when (they) finish shattering the hand (fig. for power) of the holy people." When the persecution has run its course in God's time, and "all these things shall be finished," the time of the end will be concluded" (John F. Walvoord, Daniel - The Key to Prophetic Revelation, p.293).
"This was a word of comfort, because the persecution could not continue any longer than God permitted" (William B. Nelson, Daniel, UBCS, p.285)
JERUSALEM IN THE GREAT TRIBULATION
Da 11:45a And he shall plant the tabernacles of his palace between the seas in ["at," NIV] the glorious holy mountain;
"The clause is, literally translated, "he shall plant the tents of his palace." Ancient conquerors took tents with them for their official dwelling places, when on campaign. At the center of the encampment a large main tent was pitched and around it small ones for personal attendants. The thought here is that the Antichrist would be able to place his official tent where he wanted in Palestine, indicating complete subjugation of the land... The mountain in reference must be Mount Zion [Zion used as a synecdoche], where the Temple was located (making it "glorious" and "holy"); this means that the seas must be the Mediterranean Sea and the Dead Sea. According to Zechariah 14:2, the Antichrist will bring complete destruction on Jerusalem, and this destruction would make possible the erection of his residence there in this manner" (Leon J. Wood, A Commentary on Daniel, pp.313-14).
After the city and sanctuary are destroyed by his "people" (Daniel 9:26), (this would appear to be the antitypical fulfilment of Matthew 24:2 - as the lower stones of the 'Wailing Wall' of the Second Temple, are still on top of another), the 'little horn' will eventually come to Jerusalem, most likely after subjugating the British Isles and North America.
Jerusalem will then become a new city. This parallels the rebuilding of the city under the Roman emperor Hadrian in AD 135 - a type of the "little horn":
"Hadrian relentlessly carried through to completion his plan to transform ruined Jerusalem into a Greek polis. He buried the hollows of the old in rubble to level the site. Outside the limits he removed the debris to get at and excavate the rock below to provide the huge ashlars for the public buildings he set up on the levelled site" (Paul Johnson, A History of the Jews, London: Orion Books Ltd, 1995), pp.142-43).
The city Hadrian built was a pagan city called Aelia Capitolina. It had "a pagan altar, dedicated to Jupiter whose high priest Hadrian was" (Solomon Grayzel, A History of the Jews, New Revised Edition, (New York: Penguin Books USA Inc, 1984), pp.174-75).
Da 11:36 And the king ... shall exalt himself, and magnify himself above every god...
After consolidating his empire, which will now include all of Europe, the British Isles and most of North America, and taking up residence in Jerusalem, the capital of his empire, "the king of the North" may command all his subjects to worship him as god through a religious system centred on him. This political-religious system will be a means to unifying the 'little horn's' empire. This will be in effect be the cult of the emperor coming full circle and taken to its extreme.
Antiochus provides the type as seen earlier. After 'Apollonius' had taken Jerusalem, Antiochus wrote to his subjects, for all to conform to the Greek religion. Both 1 & 2 Maccabees "mark as a new phase the arrival of instructions from Antiochus for the abolition of the Temple cult and of the observance of the Law, and the substitution of pagan cults" (Emil Schurer, The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ - 175 BC - AD 135, Revised and Edited by Geza Vermes & Fergus Millar, (Edinburgh: T & T Clark Ltd, 1973), First Division, Vol. 2, p.155). (cp. Daniel 3).
Jerusalem was a pagan city under Antiochus and Hadrian setting the pattern for the future. The little horn's paganization will be taken one step further.
Da 11:32 And such as do wickedly against the covenant shall he corrupt by flatteries: but the people that do know their God shall be strong, and do exploits.
Zec 14:2 For I will gather all nations against Jerusalem to battle; and the city shall be taken, and the houses rifled, and the women ravished; and half of the city shall go forth into captivity, and the residue of the people shall not be cut off from the city.
"The people of God were split into two parties (v.32) those who supported Antiochus and the program of Hellenization of Judea and those who did not" (Tremper Longman III, Daniel, NIVAC, p.280).
If the type holds good, some of the end-time people of God will support the Antichrist and his program for the whole world. The type is described in 1 Maccabees:
1 Macc 1:33 Then they fortified the city of David with a great strong wall and strong towers, and it became their citadel.
1 Macc 1:34a They stationed there a sinful people, men who were renegades (NRSV).
"In the citadel was stationed "a sinful race, perverse men." The two phrases are in apposition. "Perverse men" refers to 1:11, with the biblical resonance of renegades and apostates from Judaism. "A sinful nation" is found at Isa 1:4 in a bitter reproach against a rebellious Israel...
"Those living in the citadel, therefore, would seem to be Jews who did not rebel against Antiochus..." (Robert Doran, The First Book of Maccabees, Leander E. Keck, Convener, The New Interpreter's Bible (NIB), (Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1996), Vol.4, p.36).
1 Macc 1:11In those days certain renegades came out from Israel and misled many, saying, "Let us go and make a covenant with the Gentiles around us, for since we separated from them many disasters have come upon us."
1 Macc 1:13 and some of the people eagerly went to the king, who authorized them to observe the ordinances of the Gentiles.
1 Macc 1:14 So they built a gymnasium in Jerusalem, according to Gentile custom
1 Macc 1:15b They joined with the Gentiles and sold themselves to do evil.(NRSV).
Da 9:27a And he shall confirm the covenant with many for one week:
The type from 1 Maccabees provides potentially two 'types' for the end-time. Firstly, the Jews in the end-time will enter into a covenant with the king of the North to implement the ordinances of God's sacrificial system and to build a temple, as covered in Daniel 9; and secondly, it is likely that some Jews will embrace the Antichrist and his religion.
Da 11:45b yet he shall come to his end, and none shall help him.
Isa 14:25 That I will break the Assyrian in my land ... then shall his yoke depart from off them...
"Verse 45 ends with his abrupt obituary" (Gleason L. Archer, Jr., Daniel, EBC, Vol.7, p.148).
"Having reached his zenith in power and with Israel prostrate at his feet, the Antichrist will come to his end, both to power and life. Before this, he will have brought Israel to a state of complete humiliation, with both army and government fully crushed, which will make the Jews [better Jacob] of a mind to receive their great Deliverer when he comes to save them. At that time, the Antichrist will experience his doom. Only the fact is stated, but the matter is portrayed elsewhere..." (Leon J. Wood, A Commentary on Daniel, p.314).
"Such will be the end of the Antichrist of Daniel 11:36-45, and it will take place in the Holy Land. This prediction of the location of this death eliminates the figure of Antiochus Epiphanes, who met his end in Persia..." (Gleason L. Archer, Jr., Daniel, EBC, Vol.7, p.148).
(Just as Antiochus, the OT Antichrist is a type for the end-time Antichrist, the OT Assyrian king (Isa 14:25), most likely Sennacherib, is a type of the end-time Assyrian. While both types did not come to their ends in the "glorious land" their antitype, the NT Antichrist, the Assyrian/Germanic "king of the North," will).
Antichrist opposes Christ as Christ
Babylon opposes Jerusalem as Jerusalem
In summary, the headquarters of the empire of the Antichrist will be in Jerusalem until the return of Jesus Christ. The city will probably have a new pagan temple for the new god. The city will also have a new figurative name, as Revelation 17 reveals.
With this background the "Who and What of the Beast of Revelation" will be explored.