INTRODUCTION - Typology
Da 2:32 This image's head was of fine gold, his breast and his arms of silver, his belly and his thighs of brass,
Da 2:33 His legs of iron, his feet part of iron and part of clay.
The dream-image of Daniel 2 appears, at first glance, to represent five separate kingdoms, corresponding to the five parts of the "great image" - distinct from one another. Daniel 7 then revealed that what appeared to be a fifth distinct kingdom was actually a kingdom to come out of the fourth. The fourth kingdom, Rome, that was prophesied to come had its first fulfilment, as an empire, in the past, from 31 BC to AD 476, and will have its second fulfilment, as an empire, is in the future - the end-time.
These 'fourth' kingdoms were telescoped together because of a close Biblical connection. The "legs of iron" is the original, or former empire and the 'feet of iron and clay' is the latter kingdom that comes out of it. The iron connects the two together.
"Telescoping: The leaping of a prophecy from a near to a far horizon without notice of intervening matter" (J. Barton Payne, Encyclopedia of Biblical Prophecy, (Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1996), p.xviii).
"... Biblical prophecy may leap from one prominent peak ... to another, without notice of the valley between, which may involve no considerable lapse in chronology" (J. Barton Payne, Encyclopedia of Biblical Prophecy, p.137).
Bible prophecy may therefore have a near-future fulfilment and a far-future fulfilment. The near-future application which begins the prophecy is telescoped or blended with the far-future application which completes the prophecy. The prophecy seems to concern only one person, event or subject. Yet the prophecy begins addressing one subject and then jumps to the other without the reader not necessarily being fully aware of the change:
"Bible prophecy regularly exhibits this characteristic of telescoping the future, so that the more distant event appears to merge with the nearer so as to become indistinguishable from it. The best known passage in which this telescoping features is the discourse of Jesus in Matthew 24 and Mark 13, where He speaks both of the fall of Jerusalem and of the end of the age" (Joyce G. Baldwin, Daniel, D. J. Wiseman, General Editor, Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries (TOTC), (Downers Grove: Inter-Varsity Press, 1987), p.202).
"The fact that the destruction of the temple and the 'close of the 'age' can be dealt with together...indicates that there is a close theological connection between them" (R. T. France, Matthew, Leon Morris, General Editor, Tyndale New Testament Commentaries (TNTC), (Leicester: Inter-Varsity Press, 1985), p.334).
"Only after the former event had taken place did it become possible to distinguish which passages applied to the events of AD 70, and which were predictions of the more distant future. The common factors in judgment, whenever it takes place, and the similarity between the methods of one tyrant and another, account for the apparent homogeneity of the chapter. 'It seems ... that neither an exclusively historical nor an exclusively eschatological [doctrine of the last or final things] interpretation is satisfactory, and that we may allow for a double reference, for a mingling of historical and eschatological.' The historical is still future at the time of writing, but relates to a recognizable situation identified when the event takes pace. Other parts of the discourse look to the second coming and the end of the age" (Joyce G. Baldwin, Daniel, TOTC, p.202).
The similarity between the historical person, event or subject and the later person, event or subject it looks forward to is often referred to as 'type' and 'antitype':
"The relationship between type and antitype is real and historical, based upon an analogous correspondence that exists between them.
"The "type" is usually the original person or event and the "antitype" (Gk. antitypos; cf. 1 Pet.3:21) the later "copy" that fulfils the former" (G. R. Osborne, "Typology", Geoffrey W. Bromiley, General Editor, The International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia (ISBE), (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdman's Publishing Company, 1988), Vol.4, pp. 930-31).
There may be intermediate types in between the original type and the later antitype. The patterns of history tend to repeat.
The 'type/antitype' concept is in keeping with the principle of projecting what the future may hold from what has happened in the past. This is seen when God, through Isaiah, challenges the idolaters/idols to tell Him what the future will be:
Isa 41:22 Let them bring them forth, and show us what shall happen: let them show the former things, what they be, that we may consider them, and know the latter end of them; or declare us things for to come.
This principle of using history, Biblical and secular, as a help in understanding what the future may hold, is a guiding principle of this booklet.
An argument will be made that Daniel 8 is also a 'telescopic' prophecy, where two kings are telescoped together, as if they were one and the same, in a near-future and far-future fulfilment, because of a close similarity in their careers.
Da 8:17 Understand, O son of man: for at the time of the end shall be the vision.
At a minimum, the king of history - of the near-future fulfilment, provides a 'type' for the king of the future - of the far-future fulfilment, the 'antitype'.
THE VISION AND INTERPRETATION
Da 8:8 Therefore the he goat waxed very great: and when he was strong, the great horn was broken; and for it came up four notable ones toward the four winds of heaven.
Da 8:21 And the rough goat is the king of Grecia: and the great horn that is between his eyes is the first king.
Da 8:22 Now that being broken, whereas four stood up for it, four kingdoms shall stand up out of the nation, but not in his power.
The male goat, as noted before, corresponds to the kingdom of brass of the dream-image of Daniel 2 and the leopard, with the four heads, of Daniel 7.
After the death of Alexander the Great, the first king - symbolized by "the great horn" - his empire was eventually divided into four kingdoms under four of his generals. That division marked the end of the attempts to preserve the unity of the Empire.
Da 8:9 And out of one of them came forth a little horn, which waxed exceeding great, toward the south, and toward the east, and toward the pleasant land.
Da 8:23 And in the latter time of their kingdom, when the transgressors are come to the full, a king of fierce countenance, and understanding dark sentences, shall stand up.
The king that was to arise out of these Greek horn/kingdoms was Antiochus IV Epiphanes - the eighth king of the Seleucid kingdom.
"Antiochus ... is the forerunner of the final Antichrist... The sins in Israel which gave rise to the Greek Antichrist were that some Jews adopted Hellenic customs (compare ch. 11. 30, 32), erecting theaters, and regarding all religions alike, sacrificing to Jehovah, but at the same time sending money for sacrifices to Hercules. Such shall be the state of the world when ripe for Antichrist. At vv.9 and 23 the description passes from the literal Antiochus to features which, though partially attributed to him, hold good in their fullest sense only of his antitype, the New Testament Antichrist" (A. R. Fausset, Daniel, A Commentary, Critical, Experimental, & Practical on the Old and New Testaments, by Robert Jamieson, A. R. Fausset, & David Brown (JFB), (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdman's Publishing Company, 1993), Vol.2, pt.2, p.427).
Daniel 8, based on the above construct, is a type-antitype telescopic prophecy. The prophecy is not exclusively for the time of the type or for the time of the antitype, even though the prophetic description, arguably, holds good in its "fullest sense". The prophecy of the Antichrists is for both the near-future and far-future readers/hearers. The near-future recipients are to understand the prophecy in the typical sense and the far-future in the antitypical sense of the prophecy.
It is suggested that with the purple highlights in verses 9 and 23 above, that is where the prophecy 'leaps' and begins to describe the far-future fulfilment.
The Daniel 8 type-antitype telescopic prophecy of the OT Antichrist and the NT Antichrist prepares the way for the understanding of the Daniel 9 type-antitype telescopic prophecy of the NT Antichrist and the True Christ.
Da 8:17 So he came near where I stood: and when he came, I was afraid, and fell upon my face: but he said unto me, Understand, O son of man: for at the time ['eth] of the end [qets] shall be the vision.
Da 8:19 And he said, Behold, I will make thee know what shall be in the last end of the indignation: for at the time appointed [mo'ed] the end [qets] shall be.
Da 11:35 And some of them of understanding shall fall, to try them, and to purge, and to make them white, even to the time ['eth] of the end [qets]: because it is yet for a time appointed [mo'ed].
The above Scriptural parallels from the "third year visions" reveal that while the typical fulfilment of prophecy in the days of Antiochus is important to the people of the type, the focus is on the antitypical fulfilment, for after the "last end of the indignation" is fulfilled comes the Messianic age and hence the appointed times of desolations for God's people are finally over.
The career of the OT Greek Antichrist, Antiochus Epiphanes is the key to understanding the career of the NT 'Roman' Antichrist, the Beast of Revelation:
"It is a striking fact that the Old Testament Antichrist did not spring from a rude and barbarous or half-civilized age and kingdom, but from the most refined of classical nations, Greece, and in an age of art and advanced civilization" (A. R. Fausset, Daniel, JFB, Vol.2, pt.2, p.431).
"The undertaking of this king to root out the worship of the living God and destroy the Jewish religion, shows in type the great war which the world-power in the last phases of its development shall undertake against the kingdom of God, by exalting itself above every god, to hasten on its own destruction and the consummation of the kingdom of God" (C. F. Keil, Daniel, Rev M. G. Easton, Translator, Commentary on the Old Testament, C. F. Keil and F. Delitzsch (KD), (Peabody: Hendrickson Publishers, Inc, 2006), Vol.9, p.778).
A brief history of Antiochus follows, with the help of the prophecy of Daniel 11. This is in keeping with the principle: "Let them show the former things, what they were; That we may consider them, And know the latter end of them" (Isaiah 41:22). (What follows is the most accepted hypothesis of Antiochus and the Jews as "there is no reliable account of the actual series of events leading up to the persecution proper" (Emil Schurer, The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ - 175 BC - AD 135, Revised and Edited by Geza Vermes & Fergus Millar, (Edinburgh: T & T Clark Ltd, 1973), Vol.1, p.153).
The rest of the interpretation of Daniel 8 is in the next chapter entitled "Antiochus and the Antichrist".