Paintbrush Picture


1Jn 2:18a Little children ...  ye have heard that antichrist [antichristos] shall come

Acts 17:7 ... and these ... saying that there is another king, one Jesus.
Heb 8:4 For if he were on earth, he should not be a priest,

"Antichrist ... opponent of Christ; that which sets itself in the place of Christ, which appears as Christ in opposition to Christ..." (E. W. Bullinger, A Critical Lexicon and Concordance to the English and Greek New Testament, p.56).

Rev 19:20 And the beast was taken, and with him the false prophet... These both were cast alive into a lake of fire burning with brimstone.

"There is no doubt that the beast of the book of Revelation is the Antichrist that the apostles Paul and John describe in their epistles" (Mal Couch, "Beast", The Encylopedia of Bible Prophecy, p.44).

Rev 17:12 And the ten horns which thou sawest are ten kings...
Rev 17:13 and [they] shall give their power and strength unto the beast.
Rev 17:14 These shall make war with the Lamb, and the Lamb shall overcome them: for he is Lord of lords, and King of kings:...

The Antichrist is a 'king,' and like Jesus he will also be a king of kings. The Antichrist "as" Christ:

Rev 5:6 ... a Lamb ... having seven horns and seven eyes,
Rev 13:1 ... a beast ...  having seven heads and ten horns,

"In John's description of the beast, there are numerous parallels with Jesus that should alert the reader to the fact that John is seeking to establish...a theological characterization...: Both wielded swords; both had followers on whose foreheads were inscribed their names (13:16-14:1); both had horns (5:6; 13:1); both were slain... both had arisen to new life and authority; and both were given (by different authorities) power over every nation, tribe, people, and tongue as well as over kings of the earth (1:5; 7:9; with 13:7; 17:12). The beast described here is the great theological counterpart to all that Christ represents..." (Alan F. Johnson, Revelation, EBC, Vol.12, p.527).

 Rev 5:6 a Lamb standing,
as [hos] having been slain [esphagmenen]
 Rev 13:3 one of its heads,
as [hos] having been slain [esphagmenen]
to death

"As Gregory Harris observes, "In support of the view that this wound was fatal is the fact that identical language is used of Christ's death and resurrection." Revelation 5:6 describes the Lamb as if slain [hos esphagmenen], the same word used of the beast (hos esphagmenen) in Revelation 13:3. Because of this close similarity Ryrie concludes, "If Christ died actually, then it appears that this ruler will also actually die. But his wound would be healed, which can only mean resurrection to life... He apparently dies, descends to the abyss and returns to life" (Mark Hitchcock, Who is the Antichrist? Answering the Question Everyone is Asking, (Eugene: Harvest House Publishers, 2011), p.142).

 Rev 2:8b ... the First and the Last,
who became dead,
and lived [ezesen]
 Rev 13:14b ... the beast
who has the wound of the sword,
and lived [ezesen]

"Furthermore, "the word referring to the beast's return to life is similar to the word used of Christ's return to life. Jesus is the One 'who was dead and has come to life [ezesen]' (Revelation 2:8). And the beast will be the one 'who had the wound of the sword and has come to life [ezesen]' (13:14). Comparing the statements about Christ's death in Revelation 5:6 and the death of the beast in Revelation 13, J. B. Smith says, "Since the words in the former instance signifies the death of Christ by violence, so truly will the final Roman emperor meet a violent death..." (Mark Hitchcock, Who is the Antichrist? Answering the Question Everyone is Asking, p.142).

"The beast described here is the great theological counterpart to all that Christ represents and not the Roman Empire or any its emperors. So it is easy to understand why many in the history of the church have identified the beast with a future, personal Antichrist" (Alan F. Johnson, Revelation, EBC, Vol.12, p.527).

The end-time "beast" is the "little horn" of Dan 7:8, 20-22a; and the "king of the North" of Dan 11:36-45.

Dan 8:25 he shall also stand up against the Prince of princes
Rev 19:19 And I saw the beast, and the kings of the earth, and their armies, gathered together to make war against him that sat on the horse, and against his army.

 The 'beast' also appears to be 'telescoped' with Antiochus Epiphanes in Daniel 8 - the little horn is both the Greek Antichrist of the Old Testament and the Roman Antichrist of the New Testament - metaphorical, (cp. 8:11) and literal fulfillments, respectively.

Rev 17:10 And there are seven kings: five are fallen, and one is, and the other is not yet come; and when he cometh, he must continue a short space.
Rev 17:11 And the beast that was, and is not, even he is the eighth, and is of the seven, and goeth into perdition [apoleia].

The Antichrist/Beast is the seventh king before his death, and he is the eighth king after his resurrection.

"Antichrist is designated 'the son of perdition' in 2 Th 2:3" (F.F. Bruce, Revelation,  A Bible Commentary for Today, p.1704).

Antichrist/Beast as God

2Th 2:3 Let no man deceive you by any means: for that day shall not come, except there come a falling away first, and that man of sin be revealed, the son of perdition [apoleia];
2Th 2:4 Who opposeth and exalteth himself above all that is called God, or that is worshipped; so that he as God sitteth in the temple of God, showing himself that he is God.

"The leader of the great rebellion is described in two phrases... he is "the man of lawlessness" ... and "the son of perdition," i.e. he who is destined for perdition (cf. the application of the same phrase to Judas Iscariot in John 17:12). This person is characterized by his opposition to the divine law and therefore doomed to destruction" (F.F. Bruce, 1 & 2 Thessalonians, WBC, p.166).

2 Th 2:3 that man of sin be revealed [apokalyphthe],
2 Th 2:8 And then shall that Wicked be revealed [apokalupto]...
2Th 1:7b the Lord Jesus shall be revealed [apokalupsis]...

"The verb apokalyphthe ("be revealed") implies that the "man of lawlessness," like the Lord Jesus (cf. 1:7), is to have his apokalupsis (called his parousia in v 9). This suggests that he is in some sense a rival Messiah, the antichristos of 1 John 2:18 ("you have heard that Antichrist is coming")" (F.F. Bruce, 1 & 2 Thessalonians, WBC, p.166).

2Th 2:9 Even him, whose coming [parousia] is after the working of Satan...
2Th 2:8 whom the Lord shall ... destroy with the brightness [epiphaneia] of his coming [parousia]:

"... the false Christ has his solemn Parousia or, as we might call it (remembering the title of that proto-Antichrist, Antiochus Epiphanes), his "epiphany." (From the time of Gaius Caligula onwards, epiphaneia is used of an emperor's parousia, with the implication that his visit is a "manifestation" of divinity.) The use of parousia here probably suggests a parody of Christ's Parousia (v 8)" (F.F. Bruce, 1 & 2 Thessalonians, WBC, p.173).

Antiochus Epiphanes was the Old Testament Antichrist. Hadrian was the New Testament 'type' of the Beast, the Antichrist will be the NT antitype of the Beast.


Ex 7:1 And the LORD said unto Moses, See, I have made thee a god to Pharaoh: and Aaron thy brother shall be thy prophet.
Ex 4:16 And he shall be thy spokesman unto the people ... he shall be to thee instead of a mouth, and thou shalt be to him instead of God.

"...Biblical usage confirms the concept of the prophet as an announcer: for example, when God sent Moses to Egypt He explained, "See, I have made thee as God to Pharaoh, and Aaron thy brother shall be thy prophet: thou shall speak all that I command thee, and Aaron thy brother shall speak unto Pharaoh" (Ex 7:1-2). To this, then, corresponds the basic meaning of the Greek word profetes, one who speaks forth in behalf of another; in classic culture, one who interprets the will of some deity" (J. Barton Payne, Encyclopaedia of Biblical Prophecy, pp.3-4).

False Prophet

Rev 13:12 And he [the second beast/false prophet] exerciseth all the power of the first beast before him, and causeth the earth and them which dwell therein to worship the first beast, whose deadly wound was healed.
Rev 19:20 ... the false prophet ... wrought miracles before him, with which he deceived them that had received the mark of the beast, and them that worshipped his image...

"Revelation depicts the False Prophet as one who uses miraculous signs and wonders to lure the world into worshiping the Antichrist... this is yet a future event....

"A century ago, Samuel Andrews taught that the work of the False Prophet will be to extend his ecclesiastical administration over the whole earth by establishing the church of the Antichrist as the counterfeit of the true church..." (Ed Hindson, "The False Prophet", The Popular Encyclopedia of Bible Prophecy, p.103).

While "the church of the Antichrist" is pointing in the right direction, it would be better described as "the cult of the Antichrist" - cp. the cult of Roman Emperor worship. The false prophet sets up the cult to worship the Antichrist after his 'death and resurrection'.

Babylon the Theocratic Monarchy and Babylon the Church

Rev 17:3 ... and I saw a woman sit upon a scarlet coloured beast, full of names of blasphemy, having seven heads and ten horns.
Rev 17:4 And the woman was arrayed in purple and scarlet colour, and decked with gold and precious stones and pearls, having a golden cup in her hand full of abominations and filthiness of her fornication:
Rev 17:6 And I saw the woman drunken with the blood of the saints, and with the blood of the martyrs of Jesus:...

Babylon the Church

Rev 17:16 And the ten horns which thou sawest upon the beast, these shall hate the whore, and shall make her desolate and naked, and shall eat her flesh, and burn her with fire.

"Destruction of the False Church. As history has shown when a tyrant reaches his goal of total political control, he destroys those who helped him reach that point. The Antichrist now destroys the harlot, "ecclesiastical Babylon," as noted in Revelation 17:16..." (Thomas Ice and Randall Price, "Tribulation," The Popular Encyclopedia of Bible Prophecy, p.388).

1 Macc 1:41-43  Then the king [Antiochus Epiphanes] wrote to his whole kingdom that all should be one people, each abandoning his particular customs. All the Gentiles conformed to the command of the king, and many Israelites were in favor of his religion;... (NAB).

At the beginning of the Tribulation, after the resurrection of the Antichrist, the Roman Catholic Church, along with all other religions, will be destroyed or outlawed.

Babylon the Theocratic Monachy

Da 11:36 And the king shall do according to his will; and he shall exalt himself, and magnify himself above every god,
Rev 13:4 and they worshipped the beast...
Rev 13:8 And all that dwell upon the earth shall worship him, whose names are not written in the book of life of the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world.

Just as the Christ's kingdom will be a theocratic monarchy, so also the Antichrist's kingdom will be a theocratic monachy.

The Great Tribulation

Mt 24:21 For then shall be great tribulation, such as was not since the beginning of the world to this time, no, nor ever shall be.
Mt 24:22 And except those days should be shortened, there should no flesh be saved: but for the elect's sake those days shall be shortened.

Jer 30:7 Alas! for that day is great, so that none is like it: it is even the time of Jacob's trouble; but he shall be saved out of it.

Rev 6:1 And I saw when the Lamb opened one of the seals, and I heard, as it were the noise of thunder, one of the four beasts saying, Come and see.
Rev 6:2 And I saw, and behold a white horse: and he that sat on him had a bow; and a crown was given unto him: and he went forth conquering, and to conquer.
Rev 6:3 And when he had opened the second seal, I heard the second beast say, Come and see.
Rev 6:4 And there went out another horse that was red: and power was given to him that sat thereon to take peace from the earth, and that they should kill one another: and there was given unto him a great sword.
Rev 6:5 And when he had opened the third seal, I heard the third beast say, Come and see. And I beheld, and lo a black horse; and he that sat on him had a pair of balances in his hand.
Rev 6:6 And I heard a voice in the midst of the four beasts say, A measure of wheat for a penny, and three measures of barley for a penny; and see thou hurt not the oil and the wine.
Rev 6:7 And when he had opened the fourth seal, I heard the voice of the fourth beast say, Come and see.
Rev 6:8 And I looked, and behold a pale horse: and his name that sat on him was Death, and Hell followed with him. And power was given unto them over the fourth part of the earth, to kill with sword, and with hunger, and with death, and with the beasts of the earth.
Rev 6:9 And when he had opened the fifth seal, I saw under the altar the souls of them that were slain for the word of God, and for the testimony which they held:
Rev 6:10 And they cried with a loud voice, saying, How long, O Lord, holy and true, dost thou not judge and avenge our blood on them that dwell on the earth?
Rev 6:11 And white robes were given unto every one of them; and it was said unto them, that they should rest yet for a little season, until their fellowservants also and their brethren, that should be killed as they were, should be fulfilled.

The Great Tribulation consists of two parts, a two and a half year period, pictured by the five seals of Rev 6:1-11; and one year period pictured by the seventh seal. The sixth seal heralds the one year long day of the Lord. This is followed by "the battle on the great day of God Almighty" (Rev 16:14, NIV), a one day event.



"The words "typical" or "typological" derive from the Greek word typos, which means "model" or "pattern." As it is used in the scholarly discussion, it refers to events, institutions, or people that foreshadow future events. The earlier thing is called the "type," and the corresponding later thing, the "antitype."

"Typology is grounded in three assumptions that guide the authors of the biblical text: (1) God is sovereign over history and is directing it in ways that reveal his unchanging character; (2) historical patterns that pertain to significant events, institutions, and people theologically foreshadow later recurrences of similar things; and (3) the final historical fulfillments will eclipse their prior counterparts, since God's explicit expressions of his ultimate purpose outstrip what has already occurred. The "eclipsing" can be a fulfillment that is more glorious than any previous fulfillment, or it can replace a previously negative occurrence with a positive one.

Jer 23:7 Therefore, behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that they shall no more say, The LORD liveth, which brought up the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt;
Jer 23:8 But, The LORD liveth, which brought up and which led the seed of the house of Israel out of the north country, and from all countries whither I had driven them; and they shall dwell in their own land.

"Accordingly, events that demonstrate God's intention to bless his covenant people are held up as signposts pointing toward his future, climatic intervention on their behalf. A prime example of this is the exodus from Egypt. The same is true of divine judgments of the past; the flood, the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, and the plagues on Egypt are each understood to foreshadow future devastations. When these correspondences show up in history, the earlier "types" find their "fulfillments" in their "antitypes." In this way, history itself is understood to be prophetic of God's ultimate purposes, which will one day be consummated historically" (Jonathan Lunde, "Introduction," Three Views on the New Testament Use of the Old Testament, pp.18-20).

"Typological-PROPHETIC... This means that pattern and promise are present, so that a short-term event pictures (or "patterns") a long-term fulfillment... it is best to distinquish two types of typological-prophetic fulfillment..." (Darrell L. Bock, Three Views on the New Testament Use of the Old Testament, p.118).

Typological-PROPHETIC fulfillment

"In these texts, there is a short-term historical referent, and yet the promise's initial fulfillment is such that an expectation remains that more of the pattern needs "filling up" to be completely fulfilled. The passage begs for and demands additional fulfillment... A nonchristological example is Isaiah 65-66, where the description of victory over the enemies are so idyllically portrayed as a new creation that the expectation arose of a greater, ultimate fulfillment than merely the return from Babylonian exile. This fulfillment looked for total restoration, a type of "golden age"...

Joel 2:1 Blow ye the trumpet in Zion, and sound an alarm in my holy mountain: let all the inhabitants of the land tremble: for the day of the LORD cometh, for it is nigh at hand;

"Another way in which OT passages might be fulfilled in this way is for a promise to be only partially realized in the short term, so that the expectation of its completion is anticipated in the future. The image of the "day of the Lord" fits here. Although "day of the Lord imagery" is fulfilled in certain events within the OT (e.g. parts of Joel 2), the incomplete nature of the fulfillment anticipates the decisive period of such fulfillment (the "day par excellence")..." (Darrell L. Bock, Three Views on the New Testament Use of the Old Testament, pp.118-19).

"This tension between history and eschatology explains an important characteristic of a number of prophecies: the immediate historical and the more remote eschatological are blended together as though they constitute a single event... In Joel (1:4-7), the judgment of locusts and drought so blends into the eschatological judgment that it is impossible to be sure when one leaves off and the other begins. The critic fails to grasp the character of the OT hope when he analyzes such prophecies into disparate types of expectation, or concludes that the historical is authentic and the eschatological a later accretion..." (G.E. Ladd, "Eschatology", ISBE, Vol.2, p.132).

TYPOLOGICAL-prophetic fulfillment

"Here the pattern is not anticipated by the language, but is seen once the decisive pattern (or fulfillment pattern) occurs. Only then does the connection become clear. It is still a prophetic category because God designed the correspondence. But it works differently from the previous category in that the pattern is not anticipated or looked for until the fulfillment makes the pattern apparent.

"Perhaps the outstanding illustration here is the use of Hosea 11:1 in Matthew 2:15 ("Out of Egypt I called my son." In Hosea, when the book is read historically-exegetically, this remark applies to Israel as she was called out in the exodus. Everything about Hosea 11:1-4 looks to the past, although it is important to observe that Hosea 11:8-11 does not give up hope for Israel.

Simple typology

1 Cor 10:6 Now these things became types of us, that we should not lust after evil things as they lusted. (Jubilee Bible 2000)
1Co 10:6 Now these things were our examples, to the intent we should not lust after evil things, as they also lusted.

"A ... category that  appeals to pattern or analogy can be called authoritative illustration, or what might be called simple typology. The term itself is reflected in the example of the exodus used by Paul in 1 Corinthians 10:1-13, where Paul explicitly speaks of exopdus events as "types" (v.6; the Greek term is typos; in many translations the term is translated "examples"). Here the goal is not prophetic but exhortation. The Corinthians are to learn from a past example about behavior to avoid. The use simply points to past lessons. This makes it distinct from the variety of typological-prophetic categories ... mentioned earlier, where a forward looking element is embedded in the pattern..." (Darrell L. Bock, Three Views on the New Testament Use of the Old Testament, pp.119-21).

'Horizontal' Type - Antitype

Ro 5:14b [Adam] is the figure [typos] of him that was to come.
1Co 15:22 For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive.

"This is one of only two places where Paul uses "type" in this technical sense (the other being 1 Cor 10:6; see also 1 Cor 10:11). The thought is of a die or stamp that leaves an impressions in wax: Paul's meaning seems to be that Adam prefigured the Messiah in certain respects..." (N.T. Wright, The Letter to the Romans, NEB, Vol 10,  p.527).

"Adam is described as "a pattern [typos, GK 5596; NASB, "type"] of the one to come" (v.14). "The one to come" is to be taken from the perspective of Adam and his time and refers to the first coming of Christ... A "type" involves a historical pattern wherein by divine ordination an earlier parallel (= type) resembles a later, parallel similarity (= antitype).

"It may seem strange that Adam should be designated as a type of Christ when the two are so dissimilar in themselves and in their effect on mankind. But there is justification for the parallel. [Andrew] Nygren [Commentary on Romans], 218, put it eloquently: "... Adam is the head of mankind, from which the contagion of sin and death spreads to all its members. Christ is the head of mankind, from which righteousness and life come to all members" " (Everett F. Harrison & Donald A. Hagner, Romans, EBC, Rev., Vol.11, pp.97-98).

'Vertical' Type - Antitype

Heb 8:5b See, saith he, that thou make all things according to the pattern [typos] shown to thee in the mount.
Heb 9:24 For Christ did not enter a man-made sanctuary that was only a copy [antitypos] of the true one; he entered heaven itself, now to appear for us in God's presence. (NIV).

"... "copy" in v.24 represents antitypon (GK 531), the correlative to typos, "pattern," which in 8:5 denotes the original to which the earthly sanctuary corresponds. This use of the terms by Hebrews is not that of modern typological language (or of Ro 5:14; 1 Cor 10:6, 11; 1 Pet 3:21) in which the "type" is the preliminary model and the "antitype" its later and greater fulfillment; but the thought here operates on a different principle, not the "horizontal" trajectory of historical progression but the "vertical" comparison of heaven and earth... the true ... heavenly sanctuary surpasses its early "copy"..." (R. T. France, Hebrews, EBC, Revised, Vol.13, p.123).


"The leaping of a prophecy from a near to a far horizon without notice of intervening matter" (J. Barton Payne, Encyclopaedia of Biblical Prophecy, page xviii).

Mt 24:1 And Jesus went out, and departed from the temple: and his disciples came to him for to show him the buildings of the temple.
Mt 24:2 And Jesus said unto them, See ye not all these things? verily I say unto you, There shall not be left here one stone upon another, that shall not be thrown down.
Mt 24:3 And as he sat upon the mount of Olives, the disciples came unto him privately, saying, Tell us, when shall these things be? and what shall be the sign of thy coming, and of the end of the world?

"Bible prophecy regularly exhibits this characteristic of telescoping the future, so that the more distant event appears to merge with the nearer so as to become indistinguishable from it. The best known passage in which this telescoping features is the discourse of Jesus in Matthew 24 and Mark 13, where He speaks both of the fall of Jerusalem and of the end of the age" (Joyce Baldwin, Daniel, TOTC, p.202).

"The fact that the destruction of the temple and the 'close of the 'age' can be dealt with together ... indicates that there is a close theological connection between them" (R. T. France, Matthew, TNTC, p.334).

"Only after the former event had taken place did it become possible to distinguish which passages applied to the events of AD 70, and which were predictions of the more distant future. The common factors in judgment, whenever it takes place, and the similarity between the methods of one tyrant and another, account for the apparent homogeneity of the chapter. 'It seems...that neither an exclusively historical nor an exclusively eschatological interpretation is satisfactory, and that we may allow for a double reference, for a mingling of historical and eschatological.' The historical is still future at the time of writing, but relates to a recognizable situation identified when the event takes pace. Other parts of the discourse look to the second coming and the end of the age" (Joyce Baldwin, Daniel, TOTC, p.202).


Jer 51:58 Thus saith the LORD of hosts; The broad walls of Babylon shall be utterly broken, and her high gates shall be burned with fire; and the people shall labour in vain, and the folk in the fire, and they shall be weary.

"It has troubled some scholars that chapters 50-51 [of Jeremiah] predict the violent destruction of Babylon, whereas its defeat by Cyrus in 539 B.C. took place without a battle and with no damage to the city. But with other predictive prophecies, if a fulfillment does not occur in one period, it is to be sought for in another and future one" (Charles L. Feinberg, Jeremiah, EBC, Vol.6, p.672).

OC Type - NT Antitype & NT Type - NT Antitype

Nebuchadnezzar and Antiochus, OC, along with Titus and Hadrian, NC, provides the  types  for understanding the Beast/Antichrist NC antitype. The antitype is portrayed in both the Old and New Testaments, especially Daniel and Revelation, respectively.

Prophetic metonymy

Ge 28:1 And Isaac called Jacob, and blessed him...
Ge 28:3 ... God Almighty bless thee, and make thee fruitful, and multiply thee, that thou mayest be a multitude of people;

Isa 14:1 For the LORD will have mercy on Jacob, and will yet choose Israel, and set them in their own land:

"Metonymy identifies the interchange of one noun for another because of an inherent relationship between the two... A pervasive sort of prophetic metonymy occurs early in Scripture in the patriarchal blessings, in which the heroes of Genesis speak repeatedly of the later tribes and nations that will be descendant from them in terms of their individual children at the time" (J. Barton Payne, Encyclopaedia of Biblical Prophecy, p.19).

Top of Page          Home Page