One God

Dt 6:4 Hear, O Israel: The LORD our God is one LORD:
1Co 8:6 But to us there is but one God, the Father... and one Lord Jesus Christ...

Rev 11:15b The kingdoms of this world are become the kingdoms of our Lord [kurios], and of his Christ [christou]; and he shall reign for ever and ever.

"[Paul] has kept the "one" intact, but has divided the Shema into two parts, with theos (God) now referring to the Father, and kurios (Lord) referring to Jesus Christ... [Paul] is reasserting for the Corinthians that ... there is indeed only one God... but at the same time, he insists that the identity of the one God also includes the one Lord..." (Gordon D. Fee, Pauline Christology, pp.90-91).

Ps 2:2 The kings of the earth stood up, and the rulers gathered themselves together, against the Lord [kurios], and against his Christ [christou]; (LXX, Brenton).

" "Our Lord and ... his Christ" reflects Ps 2:2, which was interpreted messianically by the early church (Acts 4:26-28). Although the Son will ultimately be subjected to the Father (1 Cor 15:28), he will nevertheless share the eternal rule of God. The singular ("he will reign") emphasizes the unity of this joint sovereignty" (Robert H. Mounce, The Book of Revelation, NICNT, p.226).

No Trinity

1Jn 1:3b and truly our fellowship is with the Father, and with his Son Jesus Christ.
Ro 1:7b Grace to you and peace from God our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ.

Absolute and dynamic sense

1 Cor 8:6  But to us there is but one God, the Father, of [ex] whom [hou] are all things, and we in [for; [eis] him; and one Lord Jesus Christ, by [di'] whom [hou] are all things, and we by him.

[God the Father and Jesus Christ] "have differing functions, which are expressed in the Greek prepositions. The Father is one from (Greek ek) whom come all things: i.e. he is the source and origin; he is also the goal (Greek eis) and the purpose of how existence. Jesus Christ is the agent and mediator: i.e. the one through (Greek dia) whom everything and everyone comes into existence...." (David Prior, The Message of 1 Corinthians, BST, p.145).

"Concerning the world, the Father is the source (ex hou) of all creation, and Jesus Christ is the dynamic One through whom (di' hou) creation came into existence" (W. Harold Mare, 1 Corinthians, EBC, Vol.10, p.239).

Rev 1:4  John to the seven churches which are in Asia: Grace be unto you, and peace, from him which is, and which was, and which is to come; and from the seven Spirits which are before his throne;
Rev 1:5  And from Jesus Christ...

"The description of God the Father, which resembles the divine name made know to Moses in Exodus 3:14, shows the oddity of some of John's language. Its grammar has been smoothed out in the RSV; but what he actually wrote was the Greek equivalent of 'Grace and peace from he who is ...'. Surely it should be 'from him'? Perhaps John was seeing God as one who is always 'he', the subject of every sentence, who governs every other part of speech and is himself governed by none" (Michael Wilcock, The Message of Revelation, BST, p.34).

Jn 17:3 ... that they might know thee the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom thou hast sent
Rev 1:8  "I am the Alpha and the Omega," says the Lord God, "who is, and who was, and who is to come, the Almighty." (NIV).

"God himself speaks and, with his own signature, vouches for the faithfulness of the coming of Christ... Only the Book of Revelation refers to God as the "Alpha and the Omega". God is the absolute source of all creation and history..." (Alan F. Johnson, Revelation, EBC, Vol.12, p.423, note on Rev 1:8).

God, the Father, is the 'absolute' God-being and Jesus Christ is the 'dynamic' God-being. This implies that there is an 'absolute' interpretation and a dynamic interpretation.

Heb 1:1 God, who at sundry times and in divers manners spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets,
Heb 1:2 Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds;

Jn 20:28 And Thomas answered and said unto him, My Lord and my God.
Jn 20:17b I ascend unto my Father, and your Father; and to my God, and your God.

"... the most remarkable thing that happened in the faith of the earliest followers of Jesus is that they came to identify him - Jesus - with Yahweh, in calling him Lord, and in many other ways. So, yes it is certainly true, from a whole-Bible perspective, that the God Yahweh of the Old Testament 'embodies' (if that is not too human a word) the Son... But on the whole it is probably more appropriate in most cases that, when we read about Yahweh, we should have God the Father in mind" (Christopher J. H. Wright, Knowing God the Father through the Old Testament, p.17).

Holy Spirit

Ge 1:2b And the spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.

Job 33:4 The spirit of God hath made me, and
                 the breath of the Almighty hath given me life.

"In the Old Testament the Spirit is a term for God's outgoing energy, creative and sustaining (cf. Job 33:4; Ps 104:30)" (Derek Kidner, Genesis, TOTC, p.45).

Luke 1:35 The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and
                   the power of the Most High will overshadow you. (NIV).

The Holy Spirit is both the power and presence of God.

Rom 8:9(b) ... if any man have not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of his.
Rom 8:10  And if Christ be in you...

Rom 8:9 (a) if so be that the Spirit of God dwell in you
Rom 8:10 And if Christ be in you

"In Romans 8:9-10 the Spirit, the Spirit of God, the Spirit of Christ, and Christ all seem to be used interchangeably" (NIVSB, Kenneth Barker, Gen Editor, p.1766, note on 2 Corinthians 3:17).

"... the agent of creation was no mere activity of God, but the Son, His eternal Word, Wisdom and Power..." (Derek Kidner, Proverbs, TOTC, p.79).

The Spirit of God, in the dynamic sense, is the Spirit of Jesus Christ - not a third member of a triune God.

Angel of the Lord/God - the 'dynamic' God

Ge 16:9 And the angel of the LORD said unto her, Return to thy mistress...
Ge 16:13 And she called the name of the LORD that spake unto her, Thou God seest me: for she said, Have I also here looked after him that seeth me?

Ge 48:15 And he blessed Joseph, and said, God, before whom my fathers Abraham and Isaac did walk, the God which fed me all my life long unto this day,
Ge 48:16 The Angel which redeemed [ga'al] me from all evil, bless the lads;

"The angel had appeared at three crisis-points in his life, at Bethel (28:13), in Paddan-aram (31:11,13) and at Peniel (32:24-30). Jacob had recognised this angel as God himself, so that he called the place where he wrestled with the angel 'the face of God' (Peniel). Through the intervention of the angel God had rescued him from both Laban and Esau, and had brought him home in safety, according to his promise. The angel who had so protected him he calls his 'redeemer' (Heb. go'el), the one who stepped in to rescue a relative in time of trouble (cf. Lv 25:25-28; Nu 35:19)... This then was the God whom Jacob-Israel prayed as he adopted his two grandchildren so that they could play a leading part as inheritors of the promises" (Joyce G. Baldwin, The Message of Genesis 12-50, BST, p.202).

Isa 63:8 For he said, Surely they are my people, children that will not lie: so he was their Saviour.
Isa 63:9 In all their affliction he was afflicted, and the angel of his presence saved them: in his love and in his pity he redeemed [ga'al] them; and he bare them, and carried them all the days of old.

"... he became their Saviour ... saved them. Angel of his presence: literally 'of his face'. We recognize people by face; 'face' is the Lord's very own presence (Ps 139:7), among them in the person of his angel - that unique 'angel of the Lord' (e.g. Gn 16:7ff; 21:17; 22:11,15; Ex 3:2; 14:19; 23:20-23; Mal 3:1) who speaks as the Lord and is yet distinct from him, in whom the holy God 'accommodates' himself to live among sinners, an Old Testament anticipation of Jesus" (Alec Motyer, Isaiah, TOTC, pp.386-87).

Rev 22:16  I Jesus have sent mine angel to testify unto you these things in the churches. I am the root and the offspring of David, and the bright and morning star.

Just as Christ is God's 'special' angel, Christ also has a 'special' angel.

The Word of God and the Son of God

Jn 1:1 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.
Jn 1:3 All things were made by him; and without him was not any thing made that was made.
Jn 1:14 And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, (and we beheld his glory [doxa], the glory as of the only begotten of the Father,) full of grace and truth.
Jn 1:18 No man hath seen God at any time; the only begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared him.

"The "glory" (doxa) of the Word is seen by the children of God, appropriately enough, as the glory of  "a father's One and Only." With this, the Gospel's terminology takes a decisive turn from the expressions "God" and "the Word" (vv.1-2) toward the dominant relationship from now on, between "the Father" and "the Son"..." (J. Ramsey Michaels, The Gospel of John, NICNT, p.80).

While the predominately relationship between God and the Word/Son of God: is that of "Lord and Servant",  the relationship between God and His Servant prior to the Father-Son was one of "Husband and Wife", with an emphasis of motherhood.

Gen 1:2 ... And the Spirit of God moved [rahap] upon the face of the waters.
Deu 32:11  As an eagle stirreth up her nest, fluttereth [rahap] over her young, spreadeth abroad her wings, taketh them, beareth them on her wings:

"This verb [rahap] occurs only in the Piel (Gen 1:2; Deut 32:11)" (William White, TWOT, No. 2149, Vol.2, p.843).

"An 'awesome wind' (1:2) was sweeping over the water. The Hebrew word means both 'wind' and 'spirit', and is here is rightly understood as the creative Spirit of God. The picture is that of a mother eagle stirring up her nest, fluttering over her young, bringing what is immature into active life... God is as intimately involved in his creation as a mother bird is in intimate touch with her young. The motherhood of God is seen in this creativity - bringing creation to birth.

Pr 8:1 Doth not wisdom cry? and understanding put forth her voice?
Pr 8:2 She standeth in the top of high places, by the way in the places of the paths.

"A similar feminine metaphor for God's creativity can be seen in the way 'Wisdom', the principle of creation, is depicted in feminine terms in the Book of Proverbs (8:1,22)" (David Atkinson, The Message of Genesis 1-11, BST, p.26).

John noted concerning the Word that without him was not any thing made that was made. This implies that the Spirit of God that moved [rahap] upon the face of the waters was the Word's Spirit (dynamic sense). Therefore creation pictures the 'motherhood' of the Word.

Servant, Son and Wife

Hos 11:1 When Israel was a child, then I loved him, and called my son out of Egypt.
Mt 2:15 And was there until the death of Herod: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken of the Lord by the prophet, saying, Out of Egypt have I called my son.

Isa 49:3 And said unto me, Thou art my servant, O Israel, in whom I will be glorified.
Isa 49:5 And now, saith the LORD that formed me from the womb to be his servant, to bring Jacob again to him, Though Israel be not gathered, yet shall I be glorious in the eyes of the LORD, and my God shall be my strength.

"my servant, Israel... "Servant" here cannot mean literally national Israel, since in v. 5 this servant has a mission to Israel. Rather, the Messianic servant is the ideal Israel through whom the Lord will be glorified" (NIVSB).

Hos 2:16  And it shall be at that day, saith the LORD, that thou shalt call me Ishi ["husband", NIV]; and shalt call me no more Baali.
Jer 3:14  Turn, O backsliding children, saith the LORD; for I am married unto you ["I am your husband",  NIV]: and I will take you one of a city, and two of a family, and I will bring you to Zion.

"... the Lord summons Israel to return. The context is one of tenderness and regard for the intimate relationship between the Lord and his people. The ground of the pleas is still the indissoluble marriage bond entered into at Sinai with the nation. Actually, a double figure is employed: Israel is both son and wife... In the OT ba lti means "to possess," hence "to marry"..." (Charles L. Feinberg, Jeremiah, EBC, Vol.6, p.400).

"At times prophets like Hosea and Jeremiah made use of the metaphor of the husband-wife relationship to describe the covenant. The father-son relationship was also used (Hos 11). But the most significant metaphor was finally that of the suzerain and vassal or of the Lord and servant" (J. Arthur Thompson, "Covenant (OT)," ISBE, Vol.1, p.793).

"...The Messiah and His history are not represented in the Old Testament as something separate from, or superadded to, Israel. The history, the institutions, and the predictions of Israel run up to Him. He is the typical Israelite, nay typical Israel itself - alike the crown, the completion, and the representative of Israel... His organic connection with Israel is marked by the designations, 'Seed of Abraham' and 'Son of David,' while at the same time He was essentially, what Israel was, subordinately and typically: 'Thou art my Son - this day have I begotten Thee.' Hence also, in strictest truthfulness, the Evangelist could apply to the Messiah, what referred to Israel, and see it fulfilled in His history: 'Out of Egypt I called my Son' (Matt 2:15). And this other correlate idea, of Israel as 'the Servant of the Lord,' is also fully concentrated in the Messiah as the Representative Israelite..." (Alfred Edersheim, The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah, page 114).

The relationships of Jesus Christ, the representative Israelite, with God are Servant, Son, and Wife, with the emphasis on the last of "motherhood".

God and Adam

Ge 2:20b but for Adam there was not found an help meet for him.
Ge 2:22 And the rib, which the LORD God had taken from man, made he a woman, and brought her unto the man.
Ge 2:23 And Adam said, This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh: she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man.
Ge 2:24 Therefore shall a man ... shall cleave unto his wife: and they shall be one flesh.

Pr 8:22 The LORD qanah me in the beginning of his way, before his works of old.
Ge 4:1 And Adam knew Eve his wife; and she conceived, and bare Cain, and said, I have qanani a man from the LORD.

"... the meaning of qanah: "create," "begot," and "acquired" are all possible. The LXX reads "create" (ektise).... In view of the following verb (howlaleti) "I was brought forth," vv.24-25), "begets seems preferable (cf. Gen 4:1)..." (Roland E. Murphy, Proverbs, WBC, p.48).

Typology suggests that God 'took' of himself and created Jesus Christ.

Heb 7:9  And as I may so say, Levi also, who receiveth tithes, payed tithes in Abraham.
Heb 7:10 For he was yet in the loins of his father, when Melchisedec met him.

Perhaps it may also be said that though the Word/Jesus Christ had a beginning, he has existed forever in God.

Jesus Christ and Eve

John 1:3 All things were made by him; and without him was not any thing made that was made.
Ge 3:20 And Adam called his wife's name Eve; because she was the mother of all living.

Adam and Eve are antitypes of God and Jesus Christ. Husband, wife and children are also antitypes of God, Jesus Christ and creation.

God reproducing God-beings

Ge 1:26 And God said, Let us make man ['adam] in our image, after our likeness...
Ge 1:27 ... in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them.

"The singular man ('adam) is created as a plurality, "male and female"... in a similar way the one God ... created man through an expression of his plurality (..."let us make man in our image"). Following this clue the divine plurality expressed in v.26 is seen as an anticipation of the human plurality of the man and woman..." (John H. Sailhamer, Genesis, EBC., Vol.2, p.38).

Ge 5:2 Male and female created he them; and blessed them, and called their name Adam
Ge 5:3 And Adam ...  begat a son in his own likeness, after his image; and called his name Seth:

"There is a similarity between the picture of the first parents and their sons and that of God and Adam. This is most readily seen in the fact that God's naming Adam appears here for the first time in Genesis... In other words, the effect of this prologue [Genesis 5:1-3] is to cast God in the role of a father who has named Adam as his son.

"... the role of God as a father is heightened even further by the parallel between his creating Adam "in the image of God" and Adam giving birth to a son "in his own likeness, in his own image" (v.3)" (John H. Sailhamer, Genesis, EBC., Vol.2, p.70).

Jn 1:12 But as many as received him, to them gave he power to become the sons of God, even to them that believe on his name:

The Earth as a giant 'womb'

Jn 3:4 Nicodemus saith unto him, How can a man be born when he is old? can he enter the second time into his mother's womb, and be born?
Jn 3:5 Jesus answered, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God.
1Co 15:50 Now this I say, brethren, that flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God; neither doth corruption inherit incorruption.
1Co 15:51 Behold, I show you a mystery; We shall not all sleep, but we shall all be changed,
1Co 15:52b and the dead shall be raised incorruptible, and we shall be changed.
Jn 3:6 That which is born of the flesh is flesh; and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit.

1Ch 28:5 ... the LORD ... hath chosen Solomon my son to sit upon the throne of the kingdom of the LORD over Israel.  

"While a baby is in the womb, it is situated within the amniotic sac, a bag formed of two membranes, the amnion, and the chorion. The fetus grows and develops inside this sac, surrounded by amniotic fluid... and their lungs are filled with this fluid...

"The fluid cushions the baby from outside pressures, acting as a shock absorber....The fluid insulates the baby, keeping it warm and maintaining a regular temperature... For infection control : The amniotic fluid contains antibodies" (

"During that last month, the baby's lungs do the majority of developing that they need to function outside of the womb..." (

"The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity. The atmosphere of Earth protects life on Earth by creating pressure allowing for liquid water to exist on the Earth's surface, absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation, warming the surface through heat retention (greenhouse effect), and reducing temperature extremes between day and night (the diurnal temperature variation)" (

The fetus develops in the womb so that at birth the baby is ready to live in a new environment. After the first birth the 'baby' does not enter a second time into his mother's womb. While the analogy is not perfect, and suits better those who are alive at Christ's return, this is similar to the change from flesh to spirit. A 'man' develops 'spiritually' in the earth's atmosphere so that at the second birth the new man is ready to live in a new environment. After the second birth the now 'glorified man' does not enter a second time into the earth's atmosphere. Just as the earth's atmosphere is now the 'home' of a postnatal baby so the spirit world is now the 'home' of the incorruptible. So as a baby goes from an amniotic sac to the earth's atmosphere; a 'man' goes from the world of flesh to a world of spirit.

Ge 32:30 And Jacob called the name of the place Peniel: for I have seen God face to face, and my life is preserved.
Ex 33:20 And he said, Thou canst not see my face: for there shall no man see me, and live.

Due to the complexity of the human project, there is a necessity, beyond the norm, for spirit intervention in human affairs; but this is in a state conducive for human survival; not in the now normal glorified state.


Ac 28:31 Preaching the kingdom [basileia] of God, and teaching those things which concern the Lord Jesus Christ.

"BASILEIA ... is primarily an abstract noun, denoting sovereignty, royal power, dominion... then, by metonymy, a concrete noun, denoting the territory or people over whom a king rules...

Da 4:17 the most High ruleth in the kingdom of men

"The Kingdom of God is (a) the sphere of God's rule... [and] ... (b) the sphere in which, at any given time, His rule is acknowledged" (W.E. Vine, Vine's Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words, p.294).

Ac 1:3 To whom also he showed himself alive after his passion by many infallible proofs, being seen of them forty days, and speaking of the things pertaining to the kingdom of God:
Ac 1:8 ... ye shall receive power, after that the Holy Spirit is come upon you: and ye shall be witnesses unto me both in Jerusalem, and in all Judaea, and in Samaria, and unto the uttermost part of the earth.

"Between his resurrection and ascension, Jesus evidently explained to his disciples ... the significance of his death and resurrection for his message of "the kingdom of God" ... he had preached. This phrase is linked with the Old Testament and Jewish conviction concerning the sovereignty of Yahweh the Creator, who rules over his people Israel and who will one day rule in an uncontested and visible manner over the whole world.

"In his gospel, Luke described Jesus proclaiming both the future coming and the present reality of God's kingdom, the latter being the focus of Luke's description. Jesus' ministry is the fulfillment of God's promises, awaiting consumption in the future. In the proclamation and the mighty works of Jesus, the kingdom of God becomes a present reality among the Jewish people. The new presence of God's sovereignty is manifested in the forgiveness of sins extended to sinners by Jesus Christ (Luke 9:23-27; 10:9, 11; 13:23-30; 18:18-30) and in the healings extended to people afflicted by illnesses and demons (11:20). Jesus' words and actions convey the claim that God's final intervention in human affairs has been presently been initiated.

"The connection between the kingdom of God and Jesus' kingship is implied in 1:3-8. The connection between the reality of the kingdom and the task of the disciples is the subject of vv. 6-8... The reference to the kingdom of God here and in the last sentence of Acts - Paul is in Rome proclaiming "the kingdom of God and [teaching] about the Lord Jesus" (Acts 28-31) - established an inclusio that connects the contents of Acts, the life of the church and the missionary activity of the apostles, with Jesus and his proclamation of the arrival of God's sovereign and gracious rule.

"Luke regularly summarizes the content of the apostolic preaching in the terms of the "kingdom of God" (Acts 8:12; 19:8; 20:25; 28:23). The teaching "about the Lord Jesus Christ" (28:31b) and the "kingdom of God" (28:31a) are so closely associated (cf. 8:12) they seem to be interchangeable. In the time between Jesus' ministry (v.1) and his return (v.11), God's sovereign reign and the reign of his Messiah have functionally become one, until the final and climatic revelation of God's kingdom (cf. 14:22)" (Eckhard Schnabel, Acts, Zondervan Exegetical Commentary Series of the NT).

Mt 26:33 ... And the high priest answered and said unto him, I adjure thee by the living God, that thou tell us whether thou be the Christ, the Son of God.
Mt 26:64 Jesus saith unto him, Thou hast said: nevertheless I say unto you, Hereafter shall ye see the Son of man sitting on the right hand of power, and coming in the clouds of heaven.

"Although he has dramatically ushered in the kingdom, the age when God will definitely bless his people, the NT writers qualify this by affirming that the Jewish hopes have only been inaugurated. That is to say, though fulfillment brought by Jesus is decisive, it is not yet the consummated fulfillment - it is only the inauguration of what will yet come to pass. Accordingly, those fulfillments that have arrived themselves often point forward to their climatic culminations in the future" (Jonathan Lunde, "Introduction," Three Views on the New Testament Use of the Old Testament, p.39).

Mt 24:14 And this gospel of the kingdom [basileia] shall be preached in all the world for a witness unto all nations; and then shall the end come.

Ac 2:47b And the Lord added to the church daily such as should be saved.
2Ti 4:18 And the Lord ... will preserve me unto his heavenly kingdom [basileia]

Ac 1:6 ... they asked of him, saying, Lord, wilt thou at this time restore again the kingdom [basileia] to Israel?
Ro 11:26a And so all Israel shall be saved:

It is suggested that the end-time proclamation of the kingdom of God, may entail three essential elements: (1) the present kingship/rule and teaching about the Lord Jesus Christ; (2) the soon coming heavenly kingdom; and the soon coming earthy "kingdom of the Lord over Israel".

The emphasis at the beginning of the church age was on the revelation of the ministry of Jesus Christ as knowledge of, at least, the earthly kingdom was well known and Jesus Christ was not. At the end of the church age perhaps the emphasis will be the kingdom of God seeing Jesus Christ is well-know and the kingdom is not.


Jn 14:1b ye believe [pisteuo; verb] in God, believe [pisteuo; verb] also in me.
Gal 3:26 For ye are all the children of God by faith [pistis; noun] in Christ Jesus.

"Faith does not function as a verb in contemporary English; the verb "to believe" has replaced the verb "to faith"... (D. Mark Parks, "Faith, Faithfulness," Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, p.547).

Ac 18:4 And he reasoned in the synagogue every sabbath [cp. "out of the scriptures", 17:2], and persuaded [peitho] the Jews and the Greeks.
Ac 18:8 And Crispus, the chief ruler of the synagogue, believed [pisteuo] on the Lord with all his house; and many of the Corinthians hearing believed [pisteuo], and were baptized.

"PISTIS ... primarily, firm persuasion, a conviction based upon hearing (akin to peitho, to persuade), is used in the N.T. always of faith in God or Christ, or things spiritual...

"The main elements in faith in it relation to the invisible God, as distinct from faith in man, are especially brought out in the use of this noun and the corresponding verb, pisteuo; they are (1) a firm conviction, producing a full acknowledgement of God's revelation or truth... (2) a personal surrender to Him... (3) a conduct inspired by such a surrender... Prominence is given to one or other of these elements according to context" (W.E Vine, "Faith," Expository Dictionary of Old and new testament Words, Vol.2, p.71).

Sacrifice of Jesus Christ

Ro 6:23a For the wages of sin is death;

Ro 5:8 But God commendeth his love toward us, in that, while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us.

1Ti 2:5 For there is one God, and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus;

Heb 5:1 For every high priest taken from among men is ordained for men in things pertaining to God, that he may offer both gifts and sacrifices for sins:

Jn 1:29b the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world.

Heb 8:3b wherefore it is of necessity that this man have somewhat also to offer.

Heb 9:12 Neither by the blood of goats and calves, but by his own blood he entered in once into the holy place, having obtained eternal redemption [lutrosis] for us.

1 Cor 5:7b Christ our passover is sacrificed for us:

Heb 2:9 ... that he by the grace of God should taste death for every man.

2Co 5:14b ... one died for all, and therefore all died.

1Co 15:21 For since by man came death, by man came also the resurrection of the dead.

1Co 15:22 For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive.

Jn 6:47 .... He that believeth on me hath everlasting life.

Ro 6:23b [it is] the gift of God

Eph 2:9 Not of works, lest any man should boast.


Num 35:31 And ye shall not accept ransom [lutron] for life from a murderer who is worthy of death, for he shall be surely put to death. (LXX, Brenton).

Ex 21:30 And if a ransom [lutron] should be imposed on him, he shall pay for the ransom [lutron] of his soul as much as they shall lay upon him. (LXX, Brenton).

Ro 6:23a For the wages of sin is death;

Mt 20:28 ... the Son of man came ... to give his life a ransom [lutron] for many.

1Pe 1:18 Forasmuch as ye know that ye were not redeemed [lutroo] with corruptible things, as silver and gold, from your vain conversation received by tradition from your fathers;
1Pe 1:19 But with the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb without blemish and without spot:
Tit 2:14 Who gave himself for us, that he might redeem [lutroo] us from all iniquity, and purify [katharise] unto himself a peculiar people, zealous of good works.  

Purifying the conscience

Lev 4:35b the priest shall make an atonement [kipper] for his sin that he hath committed, and it shall be forgiven [LXX: aphiemi] him.  
Lev 16:30 For on that day shall the priest make an atonement [kapper] for you, to cleanse [LXX: katharizo] you, that ye may be clean [LXX: katharizo] from all your sins before the LORD.

Heb 2:17 ... [a] faithful high priest in service to God, and that he might make atonement for the sins of the people. (NIV).
1 Jn 1:9 If we confess our sins, he is faithful and righteous to forgive [LXX: aphiemi] us our sins and to cleanse [katharise] us from all unrighteousness (NASB).


Heb 9:28 so Christ was sacrificed once to take away the sins of many people; and he will appear a second time, not to bear sin, but to bring salvation to those who are waiting for him.

Past: "For in this hope we were saved" (Rom 8:24).
         "By grace you have been saved" (Eph 2:5, 8).
         "By his mercy he saved us" (Titus 3:5)

Present: "Through which [gospel] you are [on the way to] being saved" (1 Cor 15:2).
             "Those on the road to salvation" (2 Cor 2:15, Ralph P. Martin).

Future: "How much more shall we be saved?" (Rom 5:9).
             "Thus all Israel will be saved" (Rom 11:26).

"Believers ... are saved in principle during their life on earth. Throughout their earthly sojourn they cherish this assurance, for the are on the way to be saved completely (compare Heb 1:14). Complete salvation comes to them when they leave this earthly scene and enter the presence of God" (Simon J. Kistemaker, 1 Corinthians, NTC, p.54).

2Th 2:13b God hath from the beginning chosen you to salvation through sanctification [hagiasmos] of the Spirit and belief of the truth:
1Th 4:7 For God hath ... called us ... unto [en] holiness [hagiasmos].
1 Th 4:8b [and] hath also given unto us his holy [hagios] Spirit.
1Th 3:13 To the end he may stablish your hearts unblameable in holiness [hagiosune] before God ... at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ with all his saints [hagios]
Lev 19:2 Speak unto all the congregation of the children of Israel, and say unto them, Ye shall be holy [hagios, LXX]: for I the LORD your God am holy [hagios, LXX].

The preposition en "implies that sanctification is part of the Christian calling; by calling his people God sanctifies them in the sense of setting them apart for himself; they are already ... "saints by calling" (Rom 1:7; 1 Cor 1:2), and must manifest their sanctification in the ways of daily life... The climax of sanctification appears in 3:13; 5:23, 24...

"The Spirit whom Christians have received is the Spirit of holiness, and nothing unholy can be tolerated in one whom he indwells..." (F.F. Bruce, 1 & 2 Thessalonians, WBC, pp.86, 88).


Ac 2:38 Then Peter said unto them, Repent, and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of sins, and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Spirit.

"We have in this short verse the summary of Christian doctrine as regards man and God. Repentance and faith on the part of man; forgiveness of sins, or justification, and the gift of the Holy Ghost, or sanctification, on the part of God. And both these are expressed in the sacrament of baptism, which as it were ties the act of man to the promise of God. For the sacrament expresses man's faith and repentance on one side, and God's forgiveness and gift on the other" (Pulpit Commentary).

Ps 51:1 Have mercy upon me, O God, according to thy lovingkindness: according unto the multitude of thy tender mercies blot out my transgressions.
Ps 51:2 Wash me thoroughly from mine iniquity, and cleanse me from my sin.
Ps 51:3 For I acknowledge my transgressions: and my sin is ever before me.
Ps 51:4 Against thee, thee only, have I sinned, and done this evil in thy sight: that thou mightest be justified when thou speakest, and be clear when thou judgest.

Ps 51:10 Create in me a clean heart, O God; and renew a right spirit within me.
Ps 51:11 Cast me not away from thy presence; and take not thy holy spirit from me.
Ps 51:12 Restore unto me the joy of thy salvation; and uphold me with thy free spirit.
Ps 51:13 Then will I teach transgressors thy ways; and sinners shall be converted unto thee.
Ps 51:14 Deliver me from bloodguiltiness, O God, thou God of my salvation: and my tongue shall sing aloud of thy righteousness.
Ps 51:15 O Lord, open thou my lips: and my mouth shall show forth thy praise.
Ps 51:17 The sacrifices of God are a broken spirit: a broken and a contrite heart, O God, thou wilt not despise.

"While Paul documents many separate images of repentance, the single most prominent biblical source of images of repentance is Psalm 51... [It] catalogs four facets of genuine repentance echoed by Paul: comprehension of wrong doing, earnest desire for justice, desire for the presence of God, and changed action...

"Changed action is the most tangible demonstration of repentance... Having requested the presence of God, David immediately describes his plan of action: to "teach transgressors your ways," leading to repentance, and "to declare your praises" (Ps 51:13-15)" (Leland Ryken, General Editor, et. al., Dictionary of Biblical Imagery, pp.704-705).

Three women, three Jerusalems, three covenants

Ge 16:15 And Hagar bare Abram a son: and Abram called his son's name, which Hagar bare, Ishmael.
Ge 21:3 And Abraham called the name of his son that was born unto him, whom Sarah bare to him, Isaac.
Ge 25:1 Then again Abraham took a wife, and her name was Keturah.
Ge 25:2 And she bare him Zimran, and Jokshan, and Medan, and Midian, and Ishbak, and Shuah.

Gal 4:22 For it is written, that Abraham had two sons, the one by a bondmaid, the other by a freewoman.

But it is also written that Abraham had six sons by Keturah

Gal 4:24 Which things are an allegory: for these are the two covenants; the one from the mount Sinai, which gendereth to bondage, which is Agar.
Gal 4:25 For this Agar is mount Sinai in Arabia, and answereth to Jerusalem which now is, and is in bondage with her children.
Gal 4:26 But Jerusalem which is above is free, which is the mother of us all.

Zec 8:3 Thus saith the LORD; I will return unto Zion, and will dwell in the midst of Jerusalem: and Jerusalem shall be called a city of truth...

It is suggested that Keturah answereth to Jerusalem of the New Covenant.

"As Sarah stands for "the mother of us all," i.e. of those who, by grace, are one with the true Son of promise, of whom Isaac was the type John 3:6-8; Galatians 4:26,28,29; Hebrews 2:11-13 and joint heirs of His wealth; Hebrews 1:2; Romans 8:16,17, so Keturah (wedded after the full blessing of Isaac) and her children by Abraham may well stand for the fertility of Israel the natural seed, Jehovah's wife Hosea 2:1-23 after the future national restoration under the Palestinian covenant" (C. I. Scofield, "Scofield Reference Notes", notes on Genesis 25).

It is also suggested that the books from Genesis to Malachi would be better referred to as the Old and New Covenant with Israel the Kingdom, or "Kingdom Covenant" for short; and that the books from Matthew to Revelation would be better referred to as the New Covenant with Israel the Church, or "Church New Covenant" for short. But with the understanding that they are two administrations of the One New Covenant - the two governances may also be referred to as the "Church New Covenant" and "Kingdom New Covenant".

Much confusion about the New Covenant today is generated by the most part on focusing on the New Covenant with the Church to the near exclusion of the New Covenant with the Kingdom.

1Co 7:18 Is any man called being circumcised? let him not become uncircumcised. Is any called in uncircumcision? let him not be circumcised.
Eze 44:9 Thus saith the Lord GOD; No stranger, uncircumcised in heart, nor uncircumcised in flesh, shall enter into my sanctuary, of any stranger that is among the children of Israel

The administration of the New Covenant with Israel the Kingdom provides context for understanding, for making judgments, concerning the New Covenant with Israel the Church. More on the "Kingdom New Covenant" below.

Holy Spirit given so as to keep the law

Jer 31:33 But this shall be the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel; After those days, saith the LORD, I will put my law in their inward parts, and write it in their hearts; and will be their God, and they shall be my people.

Eze 36:27 And I will put my spirit within you, and cause you to walk in my statutes, and ye shall keep my judgments, and do them.

"The NT insists that the law is not a means to salvation, but a response to salvation" (Gordon J. Wenham, The Book of Leviticus, NICOT, p.34).

2 Cor 3:6b ... the new covenant; not of the letter, but of the spirit: for the letter killeth, but the spirit giveth life.

"The "letter/Spirit" contrast encapsulates the distinction between the role of the law within the Sinai covenant, in which it effects and pronounces judgment on Israel, and its new role within the new covenant in Christ, in which it is kept by the power of the Spirit. The contrast here is not between the law and the Spirit, as if the Spirit now replaces the expression of God's will, but between the law as letter and the Spirit. By choosing the designation "letter" (gramma) Paul brings out the nuance of the law under the old covenant (cf. 3:14) as that which remained expressed merely in writing, acknowledged as God's Word but not kept, rather than being obeyed from the heart by the power of the Spirit. The law without the Spirit remains merely a lifeless "letter"...

"Hence the letter/Spirit contrast is a contrast between the law itself without the Spirit, as it was and still is experienced by the majority of Israelites under the Sinai covenant (cf. 3:14-15), and the law with the Spirit, as it is now experienced by those under the new covenant in Christ" (Scott J. Hafemann, 2 Corinthians, The NIV Application Commentary, Terry Muck, General Editor, (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2000), pp.132-33).

Ro 8:4 That the righteousness of the law might be fulfilled in us, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit.

Note: OC - Law without the Spirit; NC - Law with the Spirit

Bible the Word of God

2Ti 3:16 All scripture [graphe] is given by inspiration of God [theopneustos], and is profitable [ophelimos] for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness:
2 Ti 3:16 Every Scripture (is) God-breathed and profitable... (IHGEB).

2Pe 3:16 As also in all his epistles, speaking in them of these things; in which are some things hard to be understood, which they that are unlearned and unstable wrest, as they do also the other scriptures [graphe], unto their own destruction.

"Verses 16-17 [of 2 Timothy 3] are the strongest statement in the Bible about itself. We understand that the word "Scripture" (graphe) includes the New Testament, since 2 Peter 3:16 cites the writing of Paul among the "Scriptures" (also graphe). The word translated "God-breathed" (theopneustos) in the NIV is more commonly translated "inspired," which is less awkward but also less accurate. The term inspired is much too broad in its common usage today to convey the force of the Greek theopneustos, which is formed from theo (the root form of the word "God") and pneutos (from a Greek root having to do with breathing)" (Walter L. Liefeld, 1 &2 Timothy, Titus, NIVAC, p.279).

"... God-breathed (reflecting the creative activity of God)... that is, of divine origin" (Gordon D. Fee, 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, NIBC, p.279).

Ac 27:15 The ship was caught by the storm and could not head into the wind; so we gave way to it and were driven along [pheromene].
2Pe 1:21 For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man: but holy men of God spake as they were moved [pheromene] by the Holy Ghost.
1Co 14:37 If any man think himself to be a prophet, or spiritual, let him acknowledge that the things that I write unto you are the commandments of the Lord.

"Peter's statement "men spoke from God" implies the dual authorship of Scripture. This is also mentioned in the OT. For example, David said, "The Spirit of the Lord spoke through me; his word was on my tongue" (2 Sam 23:2); or as Jeremiah was told, "You must ... say whatever I command you... Now, I have put my words in your mouth" (Jer 1:7, 9). Men spoke, but God so worked in them so that what they said was his word..." (Edwin A. Blum, 1 & 2 Peter, EBC, Vol.12, p.275).

"There is no 'theory' or explanation of inspiration here, for no reference is made to human authors, who (Peter says) 'moved by the Holy Spirit spoke from God' (2 Pete 1:21). Nevertheless, it is clear from many passages that inspiration, however the process operated, did not destroy the individuality of the active co-operation of the human writers. All that is stated here is the fact of inspiration, that all Scripture is God-breathed. It originated in God's mind and was communicated from God's mouth by God's breathe or Spirit. It is therefore rightly termed 'the word of God', for God spoke it. Indeed, as the prophets used to say, 'the mouth of the Lord has spoken it'...." (John R.W. Stott, The Message of 2 Timothy, BST, p.102)

Law of God

Mt 5:17 Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil.
Mt 5:18 For verily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till all be fulfilled.

"The law ... whether spelt out in a code or implanted in the conscious, is God's law, 'holy and just and good' (7:12). If, as Paul insists, it was not given as the means of justification, why was it given? To this question the letter to the Romans provide a variety of answers, which may be arranged under four principle heads.

"(i) It was given to be a revelation of God and his will. The distinction between right and wrong is not simply a matter of social convention: it is rooted in the being and character of God, and is written into the constitution of man, created as he has been in the image of God. Because the law is God's law, it is, like God himself, 'true, and righteous altogether' (Ps 19:9).

"(ii) It was given for the health and preservation of the human race. This particular purpose is served mainly by civil government, which (as is clearly stated in Rom 13:1-7 is a ministry instituted by God to protect and encourage well-doing and to curb and punish wrong-doing...

"(iii) It was given to bring sin to light, and to lead sinners to cast themselves on the pardoning grace of God. While in theory the person who keeps the law will live by it (10:5), in practice no-one is justified by the works of the law, because of universal failure to keep it perfectly (3:20a, 23). The innate human tendency to go contrary to the will of God manifests itself in concrete acts of disobedience when his will is revealed in the form of specific commands commandments (5:13), so that 'through the law comes knowledge of sin' (3:20b; cf. 7:7). But those who experienced the law's power to bring sin to light, together with its inability to procure for them a righteous standing in God's sight, are the more ready to cast themselves in faith on the grace of God brought near as the sole means of their justification. Thus, as Paul puts it in another letter, the 'law [without the Spirit] was our custodian until Christ came, that we might be justified by faith' Gal 3:24). But now Christ has come, he 'is the end of the law, that every one who has faith may be justified' (Rom 10:4). Not only has he fulfilled the law himself, by his perfect obedience to the will of God, but since God's way of righteousness has been opened up in him, he marks the supersession or 'end' of the law as even a theoretical means of justification. Those who are justified by faith in him are 'not under the law but under grace' (Rom 6:14-15)" (F.F. Bruce, Romans, TNTC,  pp.53-54).

Note: "Considerable debate has focused ... on the intended meaning of the word ... translated as "end" (most translations use this word and thus preserve the ambiguity of Paul's statement...).

"... both concepts - termination and goal - seem to fit our passage rather well; it is, therefore, tempting to conclude that both ideas are true, namely, that in Christ the law has in one sense been brought to its termination, but in another sense the law has arrived at its intended purpose" (Donald A. Hagner, Romans, EBC, Rev. Vol.11, pp.159-60).

"(iv) It was given to provide for the believer's life. Thanks to the indwelling of the Spirit in those who are 'in Christ Jesus', the righteous requirements of the law are fulfilled in them by a divine spontaneity as they live 'according to the Spirit' (Rom 8:3-4). But even so Paul finds it proper at a later point in the letter to lay down fairly detailed guide-lines for the lives of Christians, so that by experience they may 'prove what is the will of God, what is good and acceptable and perfect' (Rom 12:1-2). These guide-lines coincides with what Paul elsewhere calls 'the law of Christ' (Gal 6:2). While he himself was 'not under law but under grace,' while he rejoiced in being 'discharged from the law' so as to 'serve not under the old written code but in the new life in the Spirit' (Rom 7:6), yet he could speak of himself as 'not being without law towards God but under the law of Christ' (1 Cor 9:21). But the law of Christ is the law of love which he himself embodied and which he bequeathed as a 'new commandment' to his disciples. Moreover, the law of love sums up and brings to perfection all the commandments of the Mosaic law (Rom 13:8-10; Gal 5:14)" (F.F. Bruce, Romans, TNTC,  pp.53-55).

Passover not Good Friday or Easter

Ex 12:6 And ye shall keep it [the Passover lamb/goat] up until the fourteenth day of the same month: and the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill it between the evenings
Lev 23:10 Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, When ye be come into the land which I give unto you, and shall reap the harvest thereof, then ye shall bring a sheaf of the firstfruits of your harvest unto the priest:
Lev 23:11 And he shall wave the sheaf before the LORD, to be accepted for you: on the morrow after the sabbath the priest shall wave it.

1Co 5:7b For even Christ our passover is sacrificed for us:
1Co 15:20 But now is Christ risen from the dead, and become the firstfruits of them that slept.

1Co 11:23 For I have received of the Lord that which also I passed on to you, That the Lord Jesus the same night in which he was betrayed took bread:
1Co 11:24 And when he had given thanks, he brake it, and said, Take, eat: this is my body, which is broken for you: this do in remembrance of me.
1Co 11:25 After the same manner also he took the cup, when he had supped, saying, This cup is the new covenant in my blood: this do ye, as oft as ye drink it, in remembrance of me.
1Co 11:26 For as often as ye eat this bread, and drink this cup, ye proclaim the Lord's death till he come.  

"The two verbs Paul uses here ("I received," paralambano, GK 4161; "I passed on," paradidomi, GK 4140) are words the apostle sometimes uses as technical words for receiving and passing on church traditions and teachings (for the former, see 1 Co 15:1, 3; Gal 1:9; Php 4:9; 1Th 2:13; 4:1; 2 Th 3:6; for the latter, see 1 Co 11:2; 15:3, plus the related noun paradosis, "teaching," in 2 Th 2:15; 3:6)..." (Verlyn D. Verbrugge, 1 Corinthians, EBC, Rev. Vol.11, p.359).

"The bread that Jesus gave to his disciples represented his body (v.24), which he was about to give for the remission of sins, and the wine represents his blood (v.25), which was to be shed "for the forgiveness of sins" (Mt 26:28). By his approaching sacrifice on the cross, Jesus was instituting "the new covenant in [his] blood." The reference to the "new covenant" refers back to a prophecy recorded in Jeremiah 31:31; its central focus is on the law's being written on one's heart and contains the promise from the Lord, "I will forgive their wickedness and will remember their sins no more" (31:34; cf. Heb 8:7-13)" (Verlyn D. Verbrugge, 1 Corinthians, EBC, Rev. Vol.11, p.360).

"Paul asserts that through continual celebrations of the Lord's Supper, believers "proclaim" (katangello, GK 2859) the Lord's death. This verb occurs only in Acts and Paul's letters and for the most part refer to proclaiming Christ (see 1 Cor 2:1; 9:14; Php 1:17-18; Col 1:28; cf. Ac 4:2; 13:38; 17:3, 23). In other words, the sacrament of the Lord's Supper is a visible means of telling the story of Jesus' passion and death. (To be complete, I should note that the bread and cup also demonstrate our participation with him in that event; cf. 1 Co 10:16)" (Verlyn D. Verbrugge, 1 Corinthians, EBC, Rev. Vol.11, p.360)

While Christ was resurrected on a Sunday, pictured by the elevation of the wave sheaf "on the morrow after the sabbath," after a Friday crucifixion, it is not the resurrection, though important, but it His death that is to be remembered as a memorial and to be proclaimed.

Note: The Passover was sacrificed between the evening on the fourteenth of Nisan and eaten on the evening of the fifteenth. Christ was able to partake of a Passover meal on the fifteenth and be sacrificed on the fourteenth due to calendar differences among the Jews. According to the calendar used by Matthew, Mark and Luke the Passover meal was on the fifteenth and according to the calendar used by John the Passover sacrifice was on the fourteenth.

Note: Passover is not on a fixed day of the seven-day week. Using data from U.S. Naval Observatory Astronomical Applications Department, for the nine years - 26AD - 34AD, Nisan 14 fell on a Friday in only two of those years.

Sabbath not Sunday

Ex 20:8 Remember [zakar] the sabbath day, to keep it holy.
Deut 5:12a Keep the sabbath day to sanctify it...
Ex 20:9 Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work:
Ex 20:10 But the seventh day is the sabbath of the LORD thy God: in it thou shalt not do any work
Ex 20:11 For in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day: wherefore the LORD blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it.

"The seventh day of the week, the Sabbath, had a special importance, and was the holy day par excellence ... and was [the] only law concerning the dimension of time in the decalogue (Exod 20:8-11)" (Philip Peter Jenson, Graded Holiness, pp.193-94).

"The sabbath is the only ... command grounded in creation (v.11)" (Jacob Milgrom, Leviticus 23-27, AB, p.1960).

"In the Priestly tradition, the motive for keeping the Sabbath is traced back to the rest of God at the conclusion of creation (Exod 20:11; 31:17; Gen 2:1-3). It thus stands outside the ordering of time based on the sun and moon (Gen 1.14)" (Philip Peter Jenson, Graded Holiness, p.194).

zakar "a qal infinitive absolute, is the equivalent of an emphatic imperative. It means "remember," as always in the context of covenantal obligation, in the sene of "observe without lapse" or "hold as a present and continuing priority"...

"Quite apart from the set days of religious festivity or solemn assembly, none of which is referred to in the Decalogue, the sabbath day is to be thought of as extraordinary in the week instead of the year. It is to be remembered without exception, set apart from all other days as a day for holy purposes, and kept free of the customary labor of sustenance of the other six days, precisely because it belongs to Yahweh... not only is the Israelite not to work on the sabbath, neither is anyone else, or even any animal..." (John I. Durham, Exodus, WBC, p.289).

Ge 2:3 And God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it: because that in it he had rested from all his work which God created and made.

"Though the seventh day is not called the Sabbath [here], God "blessed" it and "hallowed" it. These are striking terms to apply to a day. Biblical usage generally restricts blessing to animate beings - God, men, animals and so on - and it is not immediately obvious in what sense a day can be blessed (cf. 1:22, 28). Divine blessing on men and animals leads to fruitfulness and success, and it is paradoxical that the day on which God refrains from creative activity is pronounced blessed. Partly the Sabbath is blessed by being "hallowed," but there is also the suggestion that who observe the Sabbath will enjoy divine blessing in their lives.

"Similarly, it is unusual for a day to be "hallowed," that is, made or declared holy... Places, people, and religious objects may be hallowed, but apart from the Sabbath, only in Neh 8:9, 11 is a festive day called holy. God is holy: holiness is the essence of his character. Anything else that is described as holy in the OT derives its holiness from being chosen by God and given to him in the correct prescribed manner... The seventh day is the first thing to be hallowed in Scripture, to acquire that special status that properly belongs to God alone. In this way Genesis emphasizes the sacredness of the Sabbath. Coupled with the threefold reference to God resting from all his work on that day, these verses give the clearest of hints of how man created in the divine image should conduct himself on the seventh day" (Gordon J. Wenham, Genesis 1-15, WBC, p.36).

Isa 1:13 ... the new moons and sabbaths, the calling of assemblies, I cannot away with; it is iniquity, even the solemn meeting.

Ge 1:1 In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.
Isa 66:22 For as the new heavens and the new earth, which I will make, shall remain before me, saith the LORD, so shall your seed [zera'] and your name remain.
Isa 66:23 And it shall come to pass, that from one new moon to another, and from one sabbath to another, shall all flesh come to worship before me, saith the LORD.

"Isaiah ends with the two feasts whose corruption distressed him at the beginning of his book (1:13)" (J. Alec Motyer, Isaiah, TOTC, p.460).

"To whom are the promises given? Just to the people of Israel? Hardly. They are given to all flesh who worship from month to month and Sabbath to Sabbath. This is the ultimate end of Israel's religion, that everyone should have the opportunity of joining Israel in worshiping the one God (cf. Zech 14;16-17)" (John N. Oswalt, The Book of Isaiah chapter 40-66, NICOT, p.691).

Ex 20:11 For in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day: wherefore the LORD blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it.

The Sabbath was instituted at the creation of "the heavens and the earth" and continues and continues to be observed in "the new heavens and the new earth".

Mosaic and Ezekielian Torahs

Eze 43:12b Behold, this is the law [torah] of the house.

"Ezekiel is the ... new Moses who brings new legislation for the creation of a new world order" (Kalinda Rose Stevenson, The Vision of Transformation, p.xxiii).

"Biblical tradition regards Moses as the mediator of Israel's divine constitution, the Torah; it recognizes no other legislator - except Ezekiel... The lesson of the failed experiment must be put into effect by revision of these sacred institutions. As Moses spelled out the meaning of "a holy nation" to an unformed people liberated from Egypt, so Ezekiel specified the needful changes in the vessels and symbols of God's presence in the future commonwealth...

"When we ... compare the program of the former to the legislation described to the latter great differences emerge. The nonpriestly Mosaic legislation in Exodus and Deuteronomy regulates private, civil, criminal, and public administrative realms that lie outside Ezekiel's scope. His concerns, concepts, and terminology resemble those of the priestly legislation that comprises the central parts of the Pentateuch (end of Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers). The arrangement of his program also is like that of the priestly corpus: first a description of the sanctuary, then regulations of its personnel and ritual, and finally disposition of the tribes around the sanctuary and the land allotment. The major omissions in Ezekiel, when compared with the priestly legislation, are the whole system of purity and impurity, ethics and morality (e.g., sexual conduct), idolatry and private life (e.g., vows) - in sum, all the prescriptions of lay conduct making Israel a holy nation! Since such omissions cannot imply annulment, we must suppose Ezekiel to be highly selective, treating only of those topics in which he sought revisions...

"Ezekiel's program is a revision - and up-dating and a rectification - of selected topics of existent priestly legislation and practice very similar to, if not identical with, that of the Pentateuch..." (Moshe Greenberg, "The Design and Themes of Ezekiel's Program of Restoration," Interpreting the Prophets, pp.216-17, 233-35).

Holy days - OC & NC

Lev 23:4 These are the feasts [moed] of the LORD, even holy convocations, which ye shall proclaim in their seasons [moed].

Eze 45:17 ... in the feasts [hag], and in the new moons, and in the sabbaths, in all solemnities [moed] of the house of Israel:

OC - Kingdom
NC - Church
NC - Kingdom
Lev 23:5 In the fourteenth day of the first month at even is the LORD'S passover.
1Co 11:26 For as often as ye eat this bread, and drink this cup, ye do show the Lord's death till he come.
Eze 45:21a In the first month, in the fourteenth day of the month, ye shall have the passover,
Lev 23:6 the feast of unleavened bread seven days ye must eat unleavened bread.
1Co 5:8 Therefore let us keep the feast ... with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth.
Eze 45:21b a feast of seven days; unleavened bread shall be eaten.
Lev 23:20 And the priest shall wave ... the bread of the firstfruits
Lev 23:21 on the selfsame day holy convocation unto you:
Ac 2:1 And when the day of Pentecost was fully come, they were all with one accord in one place.
Not mentioned
Lev 23:34 The fifteenth day of this seventh month shall be the feast of tabernacles for seven days unto the LORD.
Not mentioned
Eze 45:25 In the seventh month, in the fifteenth day of the month ... in the feast of the seven days,

Ac 27:9 Now when much time was spent, and when sailing was now dangerous, because the fast was now already past...

The chart above his highly selective and open for criticism.

Lev 23:27 Also on the tenth day of this seventh month there shall be a day of atonement...
Lev 23:28 to make an atonement for you before the LORD your God.

Eze 45:18 Thus saith the Lord GOD; In the first month, in the first day of the month, thou shalt take a young bullock without blemish, and cleanse the sanctuary:
Eze 45:20 And so thou shalt do the seventh day of the month for every one that erreth, and for him that is simple: so shall ye make atonement for the house.  

The "fast" is not included as the annual atonement under the OC and NC is in different seasons.

It is suggested that the continuity in keeping God's feasts in both the Old and New Covenants with Israel the Kingdom is to be applied to the keeping of God's feasts in the Church New Covenant.

Holy Days picture the Plan of God - the LGD is the goal of the plan

Sabbath, festivals, and "types"

"A "historical/horizontal type" prefigures a latter and greater reality that constitutes its "antitype"...

"The festivals were major milestones in the yearly spiritual journey of covenant Israel as the people connected worship of God with his historical and/or agricultural goodness on their behalf. In the New Testament, the spring festivals are interpreted as historical harbingers/types of events ushering in the "new covenant" era. First Corinthians 5:7 states: "For Christ, our Passover lamb, has been sacrificed." Thus, Paul metaphorically identifies Christ, who was slain at the Passover season (John 19:14), as the Victim whose role for the deliverance of his people was analogous to the ritual function of an animal that was sacrificed for divine judgment when the Lord rescued his people from Egypt (Ex. 12).

"Notice three aspects of Paul's statement. (1) The New Testament terminology explicitly refers to the ritual of Passover to explain the function of Christ's sacrifice. To arrive at this connection, there is no need for the Christian to speculate. (2) Christ is "our Passover lamb," that is, the ultimate Lamb for all Christians. His sacrifice of himself is far greater than a ritual using an animal victim, which served only a household (Ex. 12:3). (3) Tightening the connection between Passover and Christ, the passover timing of his death correlated with his Passover function" (Roy Gane, Leviticus/Numbers, NIVAC, pp.393-94).

Lev 23:10 Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, When ye be come into the land which I give unto you, and shall reap the harvest thereof, then ye shall bring a sheaf of the firstfruits of your harvest unto the priest:
Lev 23:11 And he shall wave the sheaf before the LORD, to be accepted for you: on the morrow after the sabbath the priest shall wave it.

1Co 15:20 But now is Christ risen from the dead, and become the firstfruits of them that slept.
1Co 15:23 But every man in his own order: Christ the firstfruits; afterward they that are Christ's at his coming.

"Moving from Christ's death to his resurrection, 1 Corinthians 15:20 affirms: "But Christ has been raised from the dead, the firstfruits of those who have fallen asleep. Here Paul explains Christ's resurrection by explicitly referring to another familiar scenario. A ritual offering of new grain at the beginning of the harvest (Lev. 23:11). His point is that Christ's one resurrection preceded the resurrection of many people, just as the firstfruits offering of a sheaf of grain at the beginning of the barley harvest came before the harvest of countless other sheaves.

Jn 20:1 The first day of the week cometh Mary Magdalene early, when it was yet dark, unto the sepulchre, and seeth the stone taken away from the sepulchre.

"Again, timing correlates with function. Christ's greater rising from the dead occurred on the day after the Sabbath (John 20:1), when a priest was to ritually raise up and thereby dedicate the first sheaf of barley (cf. Lev. 23:11). It so happened that the Sabbath immediately before Christ's resurrection was a megale ("great, high") day (John 19:31), which meant that the weekly and ceremonial Sabbaths coincided that year...

"Fifty days after the elevation of the first barley sheaf, a firstfruit offering of wheat was presented to the Lord at the sanctuary/temple on the Festival of Weeks (Lev. 23:16-20). So it is not surprising to find that fifty days after Christ's resurrection, the next great event for the early church - the outpouring of the Holy Spirit as a gift from the newly inaugurated heavenly High Priest (cf. Eph. 4:8) and consequent commencement of the great "harvest" of conversions - came precisely on the Festivals of Weeks, that is the day of Pentecost (Acts 2)" (Roy Gane, Leviticus/Numbers, NIVAC, p.394).

OC holy days picture NC 'events'

Following from Roy Gane's observations, it is suggested that the Feast of Alarm-blasts pictures the return of Jesus Christ.

Jos 6:13 The seven priests carrying the seven trumpets went forward ... blowing the trumpets ... while the trumpets kept sounding.
Jos 6:16 The seventh time around, when the priests sounded the trumpet blast, Joshua commanded the people, "Shout! For the LORD has given you the city!

Rev 8:2 And I saw the seven angels which stood before God; and to them were given seven trumpets.
Rev 8:6 And the seven angels which had the seven trumpets prepared themselves to sound.

1Th 4:16 For the Lord himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God: and the dead in Christ shall rise first:
1Co 15:52 ... at the last trump: for the trumpet shall sound, and the dead shall be raised incorruptible, and we shall be changed.

"Through this arrangement, that the walls of Jericho were not to fall till after they had been marched round for seven days, and not till after this had been repeated seven times on the seventh day, and then amidst the blast of the jubilee trumpets and the war-cry of the soldiers of the people of God, the destruction of this town, the key to Canaan, was intended by God to become a type of the final destruction at the last day of the power of this world..." (C.F. Keil, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, 1 & 2 Samuel, KD, Vol.2, p.52).

Jos 10:16a But these five kings fled
Jos 10;23 the king of Jerusalem, the king of Hebron, the king of Jarmuth, the king of Lachish, and the king of Eglon.
Jos 10:16b and hid themselves in a cave at Makkedah.
Jos 10:18 And Joshua said, Roll great stones upon the mouth of the cave, and set men by it for to keep them:

Rev 20:1 And I saw an angel come down from heaven, having the key of the bottomless pit and a great chain in his hand.
Rev 20:2 And he laid hold on the dragon, that old serpent, which is the Devil, and Satan, and bound him a thousand years,
Rev 20:3 And cast him into the bottomless pit, and shut him up, and set a seal upon him, that he should deceive the nations no more, till the thousand years should be fulfilled:

"It was a powerful confederacy which the Phoenician tribes in their desperation formed against Joshua. At its head stood the king of Jerusalem, which, from its central situation and its almost impregnable position ... might naturally stand at the head of such a league" (J.J. Lias, Joshua, The Pulpit Commentary).

Jos 24:13 And I have given you a land for which ye did not labour, and cities which ye built not, and ye dwell in them; of the vineyards and oliveyards which ye planted not do ye eat.

"... Caanaan is resurrection-ground, the heavenly places of Ephesians..." (Ada R. Habershon, Study of the Types, p.205).

Atonement appears to look forward to the removal of Satan and the demons. The king of Jerusalem pictures Satan and the other kings picture the demon kings (cp. Dan 10:20); the "Phoenician" tribal areas picture 'the heavenlies'.

The First Day of the Feast of Tabernacles, a holy day, looks forward to the Millennial dwelling of Jesus Christ in the Millennial Temple.

The six non-holy days of the FOT may picture the Great White Throne Judgment.

Lev 26:11 And I will set my tabernacle among you: and my soul shall not abhor you.
Lev 26:12 And I will walk among you, and will be your God, and ye shall be my people.

Rev 21:3 And I heard a great voice out of heaven saying, Behold, the tabernacle of God is with men, and he will dwell [skenoo] with them, and they shall be his people, and God himself shall be with them, and be their God.
Rev 21:6 And he said unto me, It is done. I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end. I will give unto him that is athirst of the fountain of the water of life freely.

2Sa 7:14 I will be his father, and he shall be my son.
Rev 21:7 He that overcometh shall inherit all things; and I will be his God, and he shall be my son.

"The promise that God "will live" (skenoo) with his people (21:3) was a frequent Jewish hope that ultimately points back to a promise of God's covenant for Israel (Ex 25:8; 29:45-46; Lev 26:12; 1 Kings 6:13; Ezek 37:27; Zech 2:10-11), including in the future temple (Eze 43:7, 9). This promise is spelled out more clearly when the text reveals that new Jerusalem is a temple city (21:22) and is shaped like the Most Holy Place (21:15). The restoration of the temple was a specific hope for restored Jerusalem (Ezek 37:26-28, 41-48), but in Revelation this hope is transferred to the entire city. This will be the most explicit "tabernacling" of God with humanity since the Incarnation (see John 1:14), which declares that Jesus, the Word, "made his dwelling" [lit., "tabernacled"] among us, the only New Testament use of skenoo outside of Revelation... This promise was expected for end-time Israel, but here all who "overcome" receive it (21:7)" (Craig S. Keener, Revelation, NIVAC, p.487).

Rev 7:15 Therefore are they before the throne of God, and serve him day and night in his temple: and he that sitteth on the throne shall dwell [skenoo] among them.

The people of the first resurrection will be the firstfruits of those who will literally dwell with God and Jesus Christ, though in heaven until the full harvest comes in.

"The announcement "It is done!" (21:6) suggests completion, like an analogous saying of Jesus (using a different word) at the conclusion of his work in John 19:30. God's purposes in history have come to their conclusion... by creating a people with whom he will live..." (Craig S. Keener, Revelation, NIVAC,  p.488).

The Great Day of the FOT looks forward to the goal of God's plan, in which God and Jesus Christ can dwell with their 'sons'; which was precluded up until this time. That is, when there is no more death - no more sin and uncleanness - there is no need for a temporary dwelling with 'men.'

Kingdom of God - twofold

1Ch 28:5 And of all my sons ... he hath chosen Solomon my son to sit upon the throne of the kingdom of the LORD [kurios, LXX] over Israel.
Ac 1:6 When they therefore were come together, they asked of him, saying, Lord [kurios], wilt thou at this time restore again the kingdom to Israel?

1Co 15:50a Now this I say, brethren, that flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God;
1Co 15:49 And as we have borne the image of the earthy, we shall also bear the image of the heavenly.

The Kingdom of God/Lord is a twofold kingdom - an "earthy" kingdom and a "heavenly" in heaven.

Millennial Temple - earthy dwelling place of Jesus Christ while in heaven

OC precedents

Ex 25:8 And let them make me a sanctuary; that I may dwell [shaken] among [tavek] them.
Ex 29:45 And I will dwell [shaken] among [tavek] the children [ben] of Israel, and will be their God.
Ex 40:34b ... and the glory [kabod; doxa, LXX] of the LORD filled [male'] the tabernacle [skene, LXX].

Lev 3:7 If he offer a lamb for his offering, then shall he offer [qarab] it before the LORD.

"Leviticus distinguishes between the permanent presence of God with his people, a presence which is to regulate their whole way of life, and his visible presence in glory which was obvious on special occasions... Because God dwelt in the tent of meeting , the sacrifices carried out before it on the altar are described as being performed "before the Lord" (e.g. 1:5, 11, etc)..." (Gordon J. Wenhem, Leviticus, NICOT, p.17).

1Ki 6:13 And I will dwell [shaken] among [tavek] the children [ben] of Israel...
1Ki 8:13 I have surely built thee an house to dwell in, a settled place for thee to abide in for ever.
1Ki 8:11b the glory [kabod; doxa, LXX] of the LORD ... filled [male'] the house [oikos, LXX] of the LORD

1Ki 8:62 And the king, and all Israel with him, offered sacrifice before the LORD.


Eze 43:7a And he said unto me, Son of man, the place of my throne, and the place of the soles of my feet, where I will dwell [shaken] in the midst [tavek] of the children [ben] of Israel for ever...
Eze 43:5b and ... the glory [kabod] of the LORD filled [male' ; pleres, LXX] the house [oikos, LXX].

Eze 43:24 And thou shalt offer [qarab] them before the LORD, and the priests shall cast salt upon them, and they shall offer them up for a burnt offering unto the LORD.

Earthy and heavenly dwellings

2Ch 6:2 But I have built an house of habitation for thee, and a place for thy dwelling for ever.
2Ch 6:30 Then hear thou from heaven thy dwellingplace...

"... almost the first words of Solomon at the temple's dedication ceremony are to the effect that God is in this building... While this preface to the ceremony calls the temple God's dwelling-place, his prayer states eight times over that God actually dwells in heaven (6:21, 23, 25, 27, 30, 33, 35, 39)" (Michael Wilcock, The Message of Chronicles, BST, p.143).

Ex 25:9 And thou shalt make for me according to ... the pattern of the tabernacle [skene/skhnh]... (Brenton, LXX).

"Eta (uppercase/lowercase H ç) is a letter of the Greek alphabet. In very early Greek writing it stood for the consonant sound "h", but in Classical Greek it stood for a long vowel "e"..." (

Jn 1:14 The Word was made flesh and made his dwelling [eskenosen] among us, (and we beheld his glory [doxa], the glory [doxa] as of the only begotten of the Father)...

"... the Logos "pitched his tent" (ekenosen, from skhnh, "tent" and revealed his glory (cf. shekinah, having the same consonants as the Greek sknhn). The language is evocative of the revelation of God's glory in the Exodus..." (George R. Beasley-Murray, John, Rev., WBC, p.14).

"... Christ is the locus of God's dwelling with Israel as he had dwelt with them in the tabernacle in the desert (Ex 25:8-9; Zec 2:10). Hence the glory of God, once restricted to the tabernacle (Ex 40:34), is now visible in Christ (John 1:14b)" (Gary M. Burge, John, NIVAC, p.59).

Jn 14:23 Jesus answered and said unto him, If a man love me, he will keep my words: and my Father will love him, and we will come unto him, and make our abode with him.

Eze 43:5b and ... the glory [doxa, LXX] of the LORD filled [pleres, LXX] the house [oikos, LXX].
Ac 2:2 And suddenly there came a sound from heaven as of a rushing mighty wind, and it filled [pleroo] all the house [oikos] where they were sitting.

"According to Jewish expectation, God will dwell among his people in the age to come (Ezek 37:26-27; cf. Rev 21:3). Jesus promised that what was expected at the end time would be experienced (in part) in the present time... the Father and the Son would make their home (mone) with them in the hear and now by the coming of the Spirit" (Colin G. Kruse, John, Rev., TNTC, p.357).

"... the wind was held to symbolize the Spirit of God... Whatever else may be said about the disciples experience, this at least is clear: the Spirit of God came on them in power" (F.F. Bruce, The Book of Acts, Rev., NICNT, p.50).

Jn 14:9 he that hath seen me hath seen the Father

When a person sees Jesus he is also seeing the Father; so that when a person has Christ's spirit dwelling in him he has Christ making his abode in him and also the Father making His abode in him - Christ is the locus of God dwelling in a person.

Jesus Christ, after completing the second half of his prophetic week will dwell in the Ezekielian Temple, as He dwelt in the Mosaic Tabernacle and Solomonic Temple, while in heaven His dwellingplace.

The glory of the Lord filling the Ezekielian 'house' at the end of Christ's second half week, beginning the New Covenant with Israel the Kingdom is the counterpart to the Holy Spirit filling the Church 'house' at the end of Christ's first half week, beginning the New Covenant with Israel the Church.

Rev 21:3 And I heard a great voice out of heaven saying, Behold, the tabernacle [skene/skhnh] of God is with men, and he will dwell [skenoo] with them, and they shall be his people, and God himself shall be with them, and be their God.

When there is no more death - no more sin and no more impurity -there will no longer be a need for two dwellingplaces - the earthly and heavenly. God and Christ will be able to dwell with men on earth instead of Christ's glory dwelling in temporary dwellings, as there will no longer be a barrier between God and man. The glory dwelling in the earthly tabernacle/temples looks forward to the goal of God's plan, as defined in Rev 21:3.

Annual atonement for Millennial Temple - Christ's earthy dwellingplace

Eze 5:11 Wherefore, as I live, saith the Lord GOD; Surely, because thou hast defiled [tame'] my sanctuary [miqdas] with all thy detestable things, and with all thine abominations, therefore will I also diminish thee; neither shall mine eye spare, neither will I have any pity.

Eze 8:6 And he said to me, "Son of man, do you see what they are doing" the utterly detestable things the house of Israel is doing here, things that will drive me far from my sanctuary? But you will see things that are even more detestable."

"For Ezekiel the movement of the divine glory would have had ominous significance. It signaled Yahweh's suspension of rule... the departure of the glory signals the end of a relationship that had existed for almost four centuries. The divine king has abandoned his residence" (Daniel I. Block, The Book of Ezekiel Chapter 1-24, R. K. Harrison & Robert L. Hubbard, Jr., General Editors, The New International Commentary on the Old Testament (NICOT), (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmanns Publishing Company, 1997), pp.306, 326-27).

Lev 20:3 I will set my face against that man and I will cut him off from his people; for by by giving his children to Molech, he has defiled [tame'] my sanctuary [miqdas] and profaned my holy name. (NIV).

Num 19:20 But if a person who is unclean does not purify himself, he must be cut off from the community, because he has defiled [tame'] the sanctuary [migdas] of the LORD. The water of cleansing has not been sprinkled on him, and he is unclean. (NIV).

"... YHWH's sanctuary, the sphere of holiness, survives an incursion of human defilement that accumulates throughout the year...

"YHWH's holiness cannot tolerate an excessive accumulation of defilement. Once per year this sanctuary must be made totally clean..." (Roy Gane, Cult and Character, pp.177-79).

Eze 45:18a " "This is what the Sovereign LORD says: In the first month on the first day
Eze 45:20a You are to do the same on the seventh day of the month
Lev 23:27a "The tenth day of this seventh month is the Day of Atonement.
Eze 45:20b for anyone who sins unintentionally or through ignorance;  so you are to make atonement for the temple. (NIV).
Lev 16:33 and make atonement for the Most Holy Place, for the Tent of Meeting and the altar, and for the priests and all the people of the community.

Human-beings, being human-beings, will commit sin and become ritually impure during the New Covenant Kingdom of God. Sin and ritual impurity will be a threat to the covenant. The Millennial sanctuary will have to be "cleansed" annually so that Christ's "glory" will not be driven from Ezekiel's Temple, so ending the Covenant.

Animal blood for Atonement

Eze 45:15 Also one sheep is to be taken from every flock of two hundred from the well-watered pastures of Israel. These will be used for the grain offerings, burnt offerings and fellowship offerings to make atonement for the people, declares the Sovereign LORD. (NIV).

"The majority of dispensationalists have argued that the sacrifices are memorials to the sacrifice of Christ, with no atoning character. However, the idea that these are memorial sacrifices is no where apparent in Ezekiel, and it is specifically claimed by Ezekiel that these offerings will make atonement (45:15, 17, 20)" (Ian M. Duguid, Ezekiel, Terry Muck, General Editor, The NIV Application Commentary (NIVAC), (Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1999), p.521).

Eze 43:20 You are to take some of its blood and put it on the four horns of the altar and on the four corners of the upper ledge and all around the rim, and so purify the altar and make atonement for it.

Eze 45:19 The priest is to take some of the blood of the sin offering and put it on the doorposts of the temple, on the four corners of the upper ledge of the altar and on the gateposts of the inner court.
Eze 45:20 You are to do the same on the seventh day of the month for anyone who sins unintentionally or through ignorance; so you are to make atonement for the temple. (NIV).

"In vv 15 and 17 [of chapter 45] the expiatory significance of the sacrifice is emphatically expressed. In 43:20 and 45:19f it can be seen that the expiatory power is especially attributed to the blood" (Walter Zimmerli, Ezekiel 2 - A Commentary on the Book of the Prophet Ezekiel Chapters 25-48, p.479).

Fellowship with God through animal sacrifices

Lev 7:11 And this is the law for the sacrifice [zebah] of well-bing [selamim] that one may offer to the LORD.
Dt 27:7 "You shall shall sacrifice the selamim and eat them, rejoicing before the Lord your God" (Wessely 1846, quoted by Jacob Milgrom).
Eze 46:24 Then said he unto me, These are the places of them that boil, where the ministers of the house shall boil the sacrifice [zebah] of the people.

"zebah is the general term for animal sacrifice whose meat is eaten by its offerer; selamim refers to the specific motivation that prompts the sacrifice, a feeling of "well-being"... the selamim falls into three categories: nedaba 'freewill'; neder 'vow', and tola 'thanksgiving' (7:11-16)" (Jacob Milgrom, Leviticus 1-16, AB, pp.204 & 218).

"The well-being offerings of the populace are slaughtered at the inner gate houses, down at the tables astride the gatehouse steps (see 40:40). Here, through the butchering of beats at a liminal threshold, an interconnection is established between the transcendent and the public. The nature of this staircase zone as a cosmic threshold is uniquely emphasized by the intricate tiered structure of the temple complex of Ezekiel 40-48. Two ontological spheres join here.

Lev 7:34 For I have taken the breast of the elevation offering and the thigh of the contribution from the Israelites, from their sacrifices of wellbeing, and have assigned them to Aaron the priests and to his sons as a due from the Israelites for all time (Jacob Milgrom)

"Different animal parts move from the threshold in opposite directions. The blood and fatty portions go through the inner gatehouse into the hands of the Zadokite priests, who alone have charge of the central altar. God soon delights in the food offering and its pleasing aroma (see 1 Sam 2:15-16; Lev 3:3-17, 9:18-21; Num18:17). The sacrificial meats, however revert to their owners for cooking in the outer courtyards kitchens (Ezek 46:21-24) and for eating in the worshipers' chambers (40:17...). Ezekiel's choreography is distinctive in describing sacrificial blood and flesh moving through sharply defined, hierarchically related spatial divisions of holiness. The highly tiered nature of this system reinforces the reader's perception that the system revolves around interconnecting the holy/numinous/inner and the public/profane outer Israelite spheres" (Stephen L. Cook, Ezekiel 39-48, AB, pp.259-60).

Heaven the Reward of the Saints

Rev 5:10 And hast made us unto our God kings and priests: and we shall reign on the earth.

"The saints shall constitute a kingdom of God ... kings in relation to man, priests in relation to God..." (A. R. Fausset, 1 Corinthians - Revelation, JFB, Vol.3, Pt.3, p.656).

These two roles are pictured in two retro-prospective insert prophecies in Revelation:

(Ps 2:6 Yet have I set my king upon my holy hill of Zion).

Rev 14:1 And I looked, and, lo, a Lamb stood on the mount Zion, and with him an hundred forty and four thousand, having his Father's name written in their foreheads.
Rev 14:4 ... These are they which follow the Lamb whithersoever he goeth. These were redeemed from among men, being the firstfruits unto God and to the Lamb.
Rev 14:5 And in their mouth was found no guile: for they are without fault before the throne of God.

Heb 12:22  But ye are come unto mount Zion, and unto the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and to an innumerable company of angels.

"The mountain in John's vision ... is not on earth. It is the heavenly Zion (cf. Heb 12:22), the Jerusalem that is above (Gal 4:26). Some writers take it as the earthly site of a millennial reign, but the entire scene is one of praise before the throne of heaven" (Robert H. Mounce, The Book of Revelation, Revised, NICNT, pp.264-265).

Rev 7:9   After this I beheld, and, lo, a great multitude, which no man could number, of all nations, and kindreds, and people, and tongues, stood before the throne, and before the Lamb, clothed with white robes, and palms in their hands;
Rev 7:15  Therefore are they before the throne of God, and serve him day and night in his temple [naos]: and he that sitteth on the throne shall dwell [skenosei] among them. (AV).

"John's vision ... leaps ahead to a scene in heaven after the Great Tribulation has run its course and views the glorified Tribulation saints as being in God's presence, at rest from their trial, and serving him continually" (Alan F. Johnson, Revelation, EBC, Vol.12, p.485).

"That this throng serve God day and night (7:15; cf. 4:8) reminds us that the saints are a kingdom of priests (1:6; 5:10), doing what priests and Levites did in the temple courts (1Chron. 9:33; Ps. 134:1)" (Craig S. Keener, Revelation, NIVAC, p.245).

Christ and the Saints to Replace Satan and Demons "in the heavenlies"

Lk 4:5 And the devil, taking him up into an high mountain, showed unto him all the kingdoms of the world in a moment of time.
Lk 4:6 And the devil said unto him, All this power will I give thee, and the glory of them: for that is delivered unto me; and to whomsoever I will I give it.

"... we have been led to believe that "all the world" was under the charge of the Roman emperor (2:1; 3:1). Now, however, in a way clearly parallel to the scenario painted in Revelation 13, we discover that the world of humanity is actually ruled by the devil..." (Joel B. Green, The Gospel of Luke, NICNT, p.194).

"Whatever rule the devil exercises is that allowed him by God; he can only delegate to Jesus what has already been delegated to him" (Joel B. Green, The Gospel of Luke, NIVAC, p.195).

Eph 6:12 For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places [in the heavenlies].

"The context ("not against flesh and blood") shows that not earthly potentates are indicated, but spirit powers, who ... exercise Satanic and therefore antagonistic authority over the world in its present condition of darkness and alienation from God" (Vine, "Ruler", p.307).

"... All these usages exemplify the notion of a worldwide rule. When applied to the powers of evil they are reminiscent of the devil's claim to be able to give Jesus 'all the kingdoms of the world'..." (Stott, Ephesians, BST, p.264).

Rev 20:2 And he laid hold on the dragon, that old serpent, which is the Devil, and Satan, and bound him a thousand years,
Rev 20:3 And cast him into the bottomless pit, and shut him up, and set a seal upon him, that he should deceive the nations no more, till the thousand years should be fulfilled:

Mt 4:8 Again, the devil taketh him up into an exceeding high mountain, and showeth him all the kingdoms of the world, and the glory of them;
Rev 11:15 And the seventh angel sounded; and there were great voices in heaven, saying, The kingdoms of this world are become the kingdoms of our Lord, and of his Christ; and he shall reign for ever and ever.

"There is a verbal parallel elsewhere in the NT only in Matt 4:8 (in the temptation of Jesus), where the plural phrase ... "the kingdoms of the world," occurs and refers to the many individual kingdoms, each with its particular ruler, which makes up the world" (David E. Aune, Revelation 6-16, WBC, p.638).

"During his earthly ministry Jesus had resisted the tempting offer of Satan to hand over the kingdoms of this world in exchange for worship (Matt 4:8-9). Now this sovereignty passes to him as a rightful possession in view of the successful completion of his messianic ministry..." (Robert H. Mounce, The Book of Revelation, NICNT, p.226).

2Ti 4:18 The Lord will rescue me from every evil attack and will bring me safely to his heavenly kingdom... (NIV).

"The glorified Son of man shall rule mankind by His transfigured Church in heaven, and by His people Israel on earth: Israel shall be the priestly mediator of blessings to the whole world..." (A.R. Fausset, Revelation, JFB, Vol.3, p.692).

Covenant(s) within a Covenant

Jer 31:31 Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel, and with the house of Judah:
Jer 33:21 ... my covenant ... with David my servant, that he should ... have a son to reign upon his throne; and with the Levites the priests, my ministers.

Nu 25:13 And he [Phinehas] shall have it, and his seed after him, even the covenant of an everlasting priesthood;
2Sa 7:16 ... thy throne shall be established for ever.
2Sa 23:5... he hath made with me an everlasting covenant,

Within the covenant with Israel, old and new/first and second, there are the covenants with the Davidic kings and the Levitical priests.

Therefore, the new covenant with Israel the Church may be viewed as a covenant within the New Covenant.

Rev 5:10 And hast made us unto our God kings and priests: and we shall reign on the earth.

"Whereas before 1927, it was correct in law to talk about the British monarch reigning in the dominions, after 1927, there was technically a 'King of Australia', etc., even if that title was never used formally, with the only link being that that monarch was British and resident outside the Commonwealth of Australia" (

While the Monarch resides outside of Australia, the Monarch's representatives - the Governor General and State Governors - reside inside Australia.

While George V was, as defined by law up until 1927, King in Australia, he never once visited Australia during his reign.

The Davidic and Levitical covenants are a 'type' of the covenant with the Church. While the Saints will reign on the earth they will reside outside 'terrestrial' earth.

Saints and Levites

Nu 18:20 And the LORD spake unto Aaron, Thou shalt have no inheritance in their land, neither shalt thou have any part among them: I am thy part and thine inheritance among the children of Israel.
Nu 18:24b therefore I have said unto them [the Levites], Among the children of Israel they shall have no inheritance.

Nu 1:53a But the Levites shall pitch round about the tabernacle of testimony, that there be no wrath upon the congregation of the children of Israel

Eze 44:28b I am their inheritance: and ye shall give them no possession in Israel: I am their possession.
Eze 45:1 Moreover, when ye shall divide by lot the land for inheritance, ye shall offer an oblation unto the LORD, an holy portion of the land:...
Eze 45:3b and in it shall be the sanctuary and the most holy place.
Eze 45:4 The holy portion of the land shall be for the priests the ministers of the sanctuary, which shall come near to minister unto the LORD: and it shall be a place for their houses, and an holy place for the sanctuary.

"The Tabernacle was an outward expression of a great religious ideal - that of the dwelling of Jehovah in the midst of His people... the Jewish writers represented the Tabernacle as surrounded by a cordon of 'clergy,' i.e. the sons of Aaron and the three Levitical families. And outside them the laity of Israel pitched their tents according to their tribes, in the positions specified in ch. 2. This arrangement is a counterpart of Ezekiel's ideal description of the assignment of land to the several tribes round the Temple which should be built when Israel was restored from exile (Ezekiel 48)" (Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges).

Just as the Levites encamped close to the Tabernacle and had no inheritance "among the children of Israel," the order of Melchisedec will also be close to God and have no 'inheritance' among the children of Israel on the earth.

The Church does not replace Israel

1Pe 2:9a But ye are a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, an holy nation, a peculiar people;
Rev 5:10 And hast made us unto our God kings and priests: and we shall reign on the earth.

"Peter applies to the church various terms originally spoken concerning Israel (cf. Exod 19:5-6; Deut 4:20; 7:6; Isa 43:20-1)" (Edwin A. Blum, 1 & 2 Peter, EBC, Vol.12, p.231).

Ac 1:6 ... they asked of him, saying, Lord, wilt thou at this time restore again the kingdom to Israel? Ro 11:1a I say then, Hath God cast away his people? God forbid.
Ro 11:27 For this is my covenant unto them, when I shall take away their sins.
Ro 11:15 For if the casting away of them be the reconciling of the world, what shall the receiving of them be, but life from the dead?
Isa 49:3b I [God] will also give thee [Jesus Christ, who delegates this role to Israel] for a light to the Gentiles, that thou mayest be my salvation unto the end of the earth.

"But this does not mean that the church is Israel or even that the church replaces Israel in the plan of God. Romans 11 should help guard against that misinterpretation. Why then does Peter apply OT terminology to the church? He does so chiefly because of the conviction of the church that the OT writings are for it (2 Tim 3:16) and that these writings speak of Jesus and his times. The functions that Israel was called into existence to perform in its day of grace the church now performs in a similar way. In the future, according to Paul, God will once again use Israel to bless the world (cf. Rom 11:13-16, 23-24)" (Edwin A. Blum, 1 & 2 Peter, EBC, Vol.12, p.231).

Promises to Abraham

Ge 12:1 Now the LORD had said unto Abram... [go] unto a land that I will show thee
Ge 12:2 And I will make of thee a great nation [goy], and I will bless thee, and make thy name great; and thou shalt be a blessing:

"God's promise to Abram has a sevenfold structure: (1) "I will make you into a great nation," (2) "I will bless you," (3) "I will make your name great," (4) "you will be a blessing," (5) "I will bless those who bless you," (6) "whoever curses you I will curse," and (7) "all peoples on earth will be blessed through you." God's original blessing on all mankind (1:28) would be restored and fulfilled through Abram and his offspring. In various ways and degrees, these promises were reaffirmed to Abram (v. 7; 15:5-21; 17:4-8; 18:18-19; 22:17-18), to Isaac (26:2-4), to Jacob (28:13-15; 35:11-12; 46:3) and to Moses (Ex 3:6-8; 6:2-8). The seventh promise is quoted in Ac 3:25 with reference to Peter's Jewish listeners (see Ac 3:12) - Abram's physical descendants - and in Gal 3:8 with reference to Paul's Gentile listeners - Abram's spiritual descendants" (Ronald Youngblood, Genesis, Kenneth Barker, General Editor, The NIV Study Bible, (Grand Rapids: Zondervan Bible Publishers, 1985), p.24).

"The blessings of God are not all to be turned in on Abram. A great nation, blessed, a great name - yes. But Abram must be more than a recipient. He is both a receptacle for the divine blessing and a transmitter of that blessing" (Victor P. Hamilton, The Book of Genesis Chapter 1-17, NICOT, p.373).

Ge 12:3ab And I will bless them that bless thee, and curse [qalal] him that curseth ['arar] thee

"God states that his relationship to other will be determined by the relationship of these other to Abram. Abram can expect to encounter both those who will bless him and those who will curse him..." (Victor P. Hamilton, The Book of Genesis Chapter 1-17, NICOT p.374).

"Any person or people who sought or promoted Abraham's welfare would be blessed. Conversely, whoever cursed Abram God would curse. One cursed Abram or his seed by hindering him, inflicting harm on him, or undermined his reputation.

"There are two different words for curse in v.3b. The first verb, qll, has a wider usage, meaning "disdain, treat with contempt, curse," 'rr, is stronger and more focused, and it denotes God's release of a harmful force such as a plague to punish those who obstruct the way of or mistreat any of Abram's descendants. The strength of the term with God shows God's resolve to protect Abram and his seed from all opposition" (John E. Hartley, Genesis, Robert L. Hubbard Jr., et. al, Old Testament Editors, New International Biblical Commentary (NIBC),(Peabody: Hendrickson Publishers, 2002), p.136).

Ge 12:3c ... and in thee shall all families of the earth be blessed.

"Then God stated the highest goal for Abram's calling. All peoples on earth will be blessed through him. The verb may be ... translated "find or obtain blessing." God's primary way of working among the nations is through Abram's seed. Thus, to experience God's blessing, the various peoples must interact with Abram's offspring. Having selected one family, God in a sense shows favoritism, but his design is not parochial. God was and is working through one family for the benefits of all families. Through Abram's seed he is achieving his goal in creating the earth, namely, people worshipping only him" (John E. Hartley, Genesis, NIBC, p.133).

"The Israelites were basically given an assignment. By their adherence to a unique way of life, with laws of holiness, justice, generosity, mercy ethics and compassion, the whole world would come to know, love and obey the One and Only God" (Dr Laura Schlessinger and Rabbi Stewart Vogel, The Ten Commandments, xxiii).

Abraham's seed

Ge 13:15 For all the land which thou seest, to thee will I give it, and to thy seed for ever.
Ge 13:16 And I will make thy seed as the dust of the earth: so that if a man can number the dust of the earth, then shall thy seed also be numbered.

Gal 3:16 Now to Abraham and his seed were the promises made. He saith not, And to seeds, as of many; but as of one, And to thy seed, which is Christ

Gal 3:29 And if you are of  Christ, then you are Abraham's seed, and heirs according to the promise.

"The theology Paul expresses here is true regardless of his appeal to the flexibility of the collective noun zera'. In other words, Paul's theology does not depend on his taking zera' as a singular in Galatians 3:16 and then as a plural in verse 29. Nevertheless, Paul's handling of the OT promises betrays an exegetical approach that would be deemed inappropriate by contemporary conventions, but hardly so for ancient, Second Temple standards. The fact that zera' clearly means multiple, innumerable offspring in Genesis is not Paul's point of departure; it is not what controls Paul's exegesis. His concernm rather, it to drive home a controlling theological point, namely Christ's death and resurrection breaks sown ethnic, social, and gender hostilities (v.28). And he drives this point home through a particularly creative handling of his Scripture, one that seizes on the grammatical flexibility of a collective noun" (Peter Enns, Three Views on the New Testament Use of the Old Testament, p.183).

"No wedge should be driven between the activity of the NT authors and that of their contemporaries. Thus, Paul "is a product of the Second Temple hermeneutical world in which he lived." This is true both in regard to "interpretative traditions" that make an appearance in the NT. What distinguishes NT interpretation from other Second Temple interpretations is not the method of the NT authors; what distinguishes their interpretation is the NT authors' inspired conviction that the OT all points to Christ" (Kenneth Berding, Three Views on the New Testament Use of the Old Testament, p.238).

"... Paul is simply pointing out that the singular word - 'seed" rather than "children," "descendants," or some plural word - is appropriate, inasmuch as Israel had always believed that the ultimate messianic blessing would come thought a single individual" (James Montgomery Boice, Galatians, EBC, Vol.10, p.463).

Israel - aka the House of Israel and house of Judah - is the Abrahamic great nation

Ge 12:2 And I will make of thee a great nation [goy]... and thou shalt be a blessing:

" ..."be a blessing" occurs in only two other passages, Isa 19:24 and Zech 8:13" (Gordon J. Wenham, Genesis 1-15, WBC, p.276).

Isa 19:24 In that day Israel will be the third, along with Egypt and Assyria, a blessing in the midst of the earth.

"Israel has now reached the great end of its calling - to be a blessing in "the midst of the earth" (b'kereb ha' aretz, in the whole circuit of the earth), all nations being here represented by Egypt and Assyria... Egypt [western] and Assyria [eastern] are raised above themselves into representatives of the two halves of the heathen world" (F. Delitzsh, Isaiah, KD, Vol.7, p.239).

"This essential equalization of the heathen nations and Israel is no degradation to the latter. For although from this time forward there is to be no essential difference between the nations in their relation to God, it is still the God of Israel who obtains this universal recognition, and the nation of Israel that has become, according to the promise, the medium of blessing to the world" (F. Delitzsh, Isaiah, KD, pp.239-40).


8:13a And it shall come to pass, that as ye were a curse among the heathen,
12:2a And I will make of thee a great nation
8:13b O house of Judah, and house of Israel;
19:24a In that day shall be (hayah) Israel
12:2b ... and thou shalt be (hayah) a blessing (berakah):
8:13c ... and ye shall be (hayah) a blessing (berakah)
19:24c a blessing (berakah) in the midst of the land:

"... the way the language of blessing and curse is constructed creates an unmistakable link to another tradition of blessing and curse: the Abrahamic tradition. Although the word pair curse/blessing is typical of the Deuteronomic covenant texts, the verbal phrase in which the word "blessing" occurs in 8:13 ("you will be a blessing") is reminiscent of the promise of Abraham in Genesis 12:2. There God promised to bless Abraham, and he will in turn become a source of blessing to the nations. Zechariah represents a similar trend. The people had been an example of curse among the nations, but they will become a source of blessing to the nations" (Mark J. Boda, Haggai, Zechariah, NIVAC, p.385).

Lost Ten Tribes

"...10 of the original 12 Hebrew tribes, which, under the leadership of Joshua, took possession of Canaan, the Promised Land, after the death of Moses ... were named Asher, Dan, Ephraim, Gad, Issachar, Manasseh, Naphtali, Reuben, Simeon, and Zebulun - all sons or grandsons of Jacob. In 930 BC the 10 tribes formed the independent Kingdom of Israel in the north and the 2 other tribes, Judah and Benjamin, set up the Kingdom of Judah in the south" (Ten Lost Tribes of Israel, Encyclopaedia Britannica).

Ge 48:17 And when Joseph saw that his father laid his right hand upon the head of Ephraim, it displeased him: and he held up his father's hand, to remove it from Ephraim's head unto Manasseh's head.
Ge 48:18 And Joseph said unto his father, Not so, my father: for this is the firstborn; put thy right hand upon his head.
Ge 48:19 And his father refused, and said, I know it, my son, I know it: he also shall become a people, and he also shall be great: but truly his younger brother shall be greater than he, and his seed shall become a multitude [melo'] of nations [goyim].  (AV).

Genesis 48:19
Isaiah 31:4
a multitude (melo') of nations
a multitude (melo') of shepherds

Hos 5:3a I know Ephraim, and
                Israel is not hid from me:
Hos 5:3b for now, O Ephraim, thou committest whoredom, and Israel is defiled.

"Ephraim is in tandem with Israel in the parallel structure of the first line of this verse, but in the second line there is a distinction between the two entities" (Thomas McComiskey, Hosea, "The Minor Prophets", Vol.1, p.76).

The most common argument for the fulfillment of the Ephraimite prophecy of the "seed" of Ephraim becoming a multitude of nations, was that it was fulfilled in the time of the Old Covenant Kingdom of God, that is, when the northern Kingdom of Israel broke away from Judah. That is, Ephraim as the leading tribe of the northern Ten Tribes was a fulfillment of a "multitude of nations" blessing.

But the problem with this is that the other nine tribes were not descended from Ephraim - they were related to Ephraim but not of the "seed" of Ephraim.

"Following the conquest of the northern kingdom by the Assyrians in 721 BC, the 10 tribes were gradually assimilated by other peoples and thus disappeared from history. Nevertheless, a belief persisted that one day the Ten Lost Tribes would be found" (Ten Lost Tribes of Israel, Encyclopaedia Britannica).

Ge 48:19b But his younger brother shall become greater than he, and his seed [zera'] shall become the fullness [melo'] of the nations [goyim]. (The Interlinear Bible).

No where in the history of the Old Testament did the descendants of Ephraim become a multitude of nations. This implies that the fulfillment of Jacob's blessing/prophecy for both Ephraim and Manesseh was yet future to the time of the divided kingdom.

The United States of America fulfills the Manasseh blessing/prophecy of a "great people"/nation, and that the English peoples of England, Australia, Canada, New Zealand and South Africa fulfills the Ephraim blessing/prophecy of a "multitude" of nations.


"... the YDNA is directly paternally inherited. That means that living men today have the same, or very similar, YDNA as their father, grandfather, great grandfather, and so on" (

(1) It is argued, based on the present understanding of DNA, that the majority of 'white' English and Americans, who belong to Y-DNA haplogroup R1b1, cannot be related to the Jews, who are predominately J1, J2 and E1b1b. Therefore the conclusion is that DNA proves that the British and American peoples are not part of the Lost Ten Tribes of Israel, hence they are not descendants of Jacob.

It is also argued that the modern Germans cannot be related to the ancient neo-Assyrians as they are also not of the J1, J2 and E1b1b1 hapologroups  - that is Jacob and Asshur as descendants of Shem should be of the same hapologroup.

In this argument it is assumed that since most Jews today and most people from the Levant are of haplogroups J and E1b1b1 then Jacob had to have been one of those two haplogroups. But it is also possible that Jacob was of the R haplogroups and some of his descendants mixed in with predominant J1, J2 and E1b1b haplogroups of the area.

Other factors may also be involved:

"Cultural changes in political and social organisation - phenomena that are unique to human beings - may extend their reach into patterns of genetic variation in ways yet to be discovered" (Tian Chen Zweng, Alan J. Aw & Marcus W. Feldman, Cultural hitchhiking and competition between patrilineal kin groups explain the post-Neolithic Y-chromosome bottleneck,

Typology provides a support for this premise.

(2) "British Israelism has been criticized for poor research and scholarship. The Encyclopedia Britannica summarises in 1910 that: "The theory [of British-Israelism] rests on premises which are deemed by scholars - both theological and anthropological - to be utterly unsound"..." (Wikipedia).

While it is difficult to argue a case for BI, it is not helped by the misunderstanding, misapplication and misuse of Scripture. For example:

Jer 33:17 For thus saith the LORD; David shall never want a man to sit upon the throne of the house of Israel;

The above Scripture is often uses as a proof-text that David would always have a "man" sitting on his throne.

Jer 33:14 Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will perform that good thing which I have promised unto the house of Israel and to the house of Judah.
Jer 33:15 In those days, and at that time...

But looking at the context, this is a prophecy for the Millennium - "in those days, and at that time". From the end of the reign of Zedekiah, the last reigning king of Judah, no one has reigned on David's throne. David still wants for a man to sit on the "throne of the Lord" (1 Ch 29:33). (Having said that it doesn't necessarily mean that the British royal family is not descended from David; cp. the typology of the Davidics and Stewarts).

Ac 1:6 ... they asked of him, saying, Lord, wilt thou at this time restore again the kingdom to Israel?

Ps 72:7 In his days shall the righteous flourish; and abundance of peace so long as the moon endureth.
Ps 72:8 He shall have dominion also from sea to sea, and from the river unto the ends of the earth.

Jesus Christ will restore the kingdom to Israel and Judah and through this great nation He will rule and be a blessing to the nations.

It is suggested that the English and Americans, especially over the last two hundred or so years, as a major component of Israel, having been exhibiting, both good and bad, what one typologically would expect Israel to be doing in the modern world.

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