Sarah New Covenant - Tabernacle Dispensation
Mk 1:14 After John was put in prison, Jesus went into Galilee, proclaiming the good news of God.
Mk 1:15 "The time has come," he said. "The kingdom of God is near. Repent and believe the good news!"
Mt 1:1 ... Jesus Christ the son of David, the son of Abraham
"Matthew ... wanted to draw attention to the links Jesus had with David and with Abraham. Jesus is the fulfilment ... of God's promise to Abraham that in his seed all the families of the earth would be blessed, and of his promise to David that his throne and kingdom would be established for ever before the Lord" (Michael Green, The Message of Matthew, BST, p.57).
"The essential key to all Matthew's theology is that in Jesus all God's purposes have come to fulfilment..." (R. T. France, Matthew, TNTC, p.38).
Mt 2:13 And when they were departed, behold, the angel of the Lord appeareth to Joseph in a dream, saying, Arise, and take the young child and his mother, and flee into Egypt, and be thou there until I bring thee word: for Herod will seek the young child to destroy him.
Christ is 'walking' in the footsteps of Abraham and Israel - 'saved' in Egypt (cf. Gen 12:10 and Gen 45:9-11).
"Matthew's view of Jesus as the one who fulfils the whole fabric of revelation is most strikingly brought to light in the large number of what may be called 'typological' allusions to the Old Testament...
"Typology ... may be defined as 'the recognition of a correspondence between New and Old Testament events [persons and institutions], based on a conviction of the unchanging character of the principles of God's working, and a consequent understanding and description of the New Testament event in terms of the Old Testament model..." (R. T. France, Matthew, TNTC p.40).
Mt 2:1 Now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judaea in the days of Herod the king, behold, there came wise men from the east to Jerusalem,
Mt 2:2 Saying, Where is he that is born King of the Jews?
"The kingship of Jesus is thus an important theme for Matthew. Jesus 'fulfils' the institutions of kingship in the Old Testament: he is the 'son of David', the 'greater than Solomon... But that kingship, even in the Old Testament, was only a delegated one. The true king is God himself... The mission of Jesus was to establish God's kingship..." (R. T. France, Matthew, TNTC, p.45).
Mt 2:15 And was there until the death of Herod: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken of the Lord by the prophet, saying, Out of Egypt have I called my son.
Hos 11:1 "When Israel was a child, I loved him, and out of Egypt I called my son.
Hos 11:2 But the more I called Israel, the further they went from me. They sacrificed to the Baals and they burned incense to images. (NIV).
While Matthew linked verse 1 to Christ, he could not link verse 2 to Him.
"Hosea is, of course alluding to the historical exodus and not making a prophecy about the future. How can Matthew say that the quotation is "fulfilled"...? What we have here is a matter of typological correspondence - that is, a substantial similarity is seen to exist between two moments of redemptive history, and therefore the two are regarded as interconnected, forming one larger continuity; the earlier is thus seen to foreshadow or anticipate the latter, which thus becomes a kind of realization or fulfillment of the former. The fulfillment motif is of course central to Matthew's whole perspective, given the eschatological significance of the Christ, here seen as God's unique Son. Thus, in the similarity of the son of God, Israel, and the Son of God, Jesus, both in Egypt of necessity and both delivered by divine provision, Matthew see Jesus as living out and summing up the history of Israel. In Egypt, in the exodus, and in the wilderness (see 4:1-11), Jesus is the embodiment of Israel, not only anticipating her victories but also participating in her sufferings (cf. Isa 63:8-9)" (Donald A. Hagner, Matthew 1-13, WBC, p.36).
"Many have noticed that Jesus is often presented in the NT as the antitype of Israel or, better, the typological recapitulation of Israel...
"When David was anointed king, the tribes acknowledged him as their bone and flesh (2 Sam 5:1), i.e., David as anointed king summed up Israel, with the result that his sin brought disaster on the people (2 Sam 12, 24). Just as Israel is God's son, so the promised Davidic Son is also Son of God (2 Sam 7:13-14...)" (D.A. Carson, Matthew, EBC, Vol.8, pp.91-92).
Mt 2:16 Then Herod, when he saw that he was mocked of the wise men, was exceeding wroth, and sent forth, and slew all the children that were in Bethlehem, and in all the coasts thereof, from two years old and under, according to the time which he had diligently inquired of the wise men.
"The parallel between the childhood of Jesus and the experience of Moses ... is in the nature of a sub-plot, emerging in the details of the narrative, but not in the explicit quotations (which focus on Jesus as the true Israel and the Davidic Messiah" (R. T. France, Matthew, TNTC, p.85).
"The parallels to Matthew's narrative in the opening chapters of Exodus are as follows (with Jewish midrashic similarities, as witnessed by Josephus and Philo, given in parentheses): the Pharaoh killed all male Hebrew infants, (Exod 1:22) (he had been forewarned, either by scribes or through a dream, of a newborn Hebrew who was a threat to his kingdom, and this possibility filled him and all Egypt with terror; at a later time, Moses fled Egypt because his life was threaten by the Pharaoh, Exod 2:15 (the infant Moses' deliverance is due to his parents actions); at the death of Pharaoh, Moses was directed to return and he obeyed, (Exod 4:19-20). In addition to there general similarities, there are some striking agreement in language: in Exod 2:15, ... "he was seeking to kill," is close to Matthew's (2:13) ... "he fled," is identical (Matt 2:14); in Exod 2:23, ... "the king of Egypt died," is close to Matthew's ... (2:19); most impressive of all, however, is the nearly verbatim agreement between Exod 4:19, ... "for all those who sought your life have died," and Matt 2:20, which lacks the ..."all," and for ... "you," substitute ... "the child" (but after, instead of before...). Clearly, Matthew has in mind the story of Moses as he narrates the story of Jesus: Herod is the antitype of Pharaoh; Jesus is the antitype of Moses" (Donald A. Hagner, Matthew 1-13, WBC, p.34).
Dt 18:15 The LORD thy God will raise up unto thee a Prophet from the midst of thee, of thy brethren, like unto me [Moses]; unto him ye shall hearken;
Jn 1:45 Philip findeth Nathanael, and saith unto him, We have found him, of whom Moses in the law, and the prophets, did write, Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph.
Mt 5:1 And seeing the multitudes, he went up into a mountain: and when he was set, his disciples came unto him:
Mt 5:2 And he opened his mouth, and taught them, saying
"There is probably a deliberate attempt on the evangelist's part to liken Jesus to Moses, especially insofar as he is about to present the definitive interpretation of Torah, just as Moses, according to the Pharisees, had given the interpretation of Torah on Sinai to be handed on orally. The evangelist, however, does not press the Moses typology. For him, Jesus is far more than a new Moses, and his teaching is not to be construed as a new law" (Donald A. Hagner, Matthew 1-13, WBC, p.86).
"A ... parallelism was suggested by Austin Farrer, namely that Matthew 5-7 was modelled on Exodus 20-24, the eight beatitudes corresponding to the ten commandments, with the rest of the Sermon expounding and applying them as the commandments were also expounded and applied" (John R.W. Stott, The Message of The Sermon on the Mount, BST, p.21).
Mt 10:1 And when he had called unto him his twelve disciples
Mt 10:6 But go rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel.
"The choice of twelve disciples is full of symbolic meaning since the number corresponds to the twelve tribes of Israel (cf. 19:28) and in itself suggest the fulfillment of the hope of Israel (cf. Acts 28:20); it is also establishing the identity of Jesus' disciples and the Church as the true Israel" (Donald A. Hagner, Matthew 1-13, WBC, p.265).
"Like Moses, who appointed Aaron "to instruct the Israelites" (10:11), the Lord chose his apostles to "go to the lost sheep of the house of Israel" and to "preach" (Matt 10:6-7)" (Gordon J. Wenham, The Book of Leviticus, NICOT, p.145).
Lk 10:1 After these things the Lord appointed other seventy ["seventy-two" (NIV)] also, and sent them two and two before his face into every city and place, whither he himself would come.
"The number appears to be symbolic of the nations of the world, a view based on Genesis 10, where there are seventy names in the Hebrew text and seventy-two in LXX. The gospel is for the world. Some, however, associate the number with that of the elders appointed by Moses (Nu. 11:16ff., 24f.; seventy-two with the two who remained in the camp. They see Jesus as the second Moses..." (Leon Morris, Luke, TNTC, p.198).
"... there is probably symbolic meaning in the number of disciples sent out. Already Jesus had commissioned twelve out of his many disciples to be leaders of the new people of God, and if this number were to correspond to the twelve sons of Jacob, the other one would be significant in a similar way: seventy was the total number both of the members of Jacob's family when he went down into Egypt, and of the representative elders of the Israelites when they eventually journeyed out of Egypt. We might distinguish two symbolic numbers by saying that 12 = the patriarchs of Israel = the apostles; while 70 = the people of Israel = the church in general" (Michael Wilcock, The Message of Luke, BST, p.120).
Mt 19:28 And Jesus said unto them, Verily I say unto you, That ye which have followed me, in the regeneration when the Son of man shall sit in the throne of his glory, ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.
"... the remarkable feature of this verse is that the Twelve will "sit on twelve thrones," sharing judgment with the Son of Man. The idea that believers will at the consumption have a part in judging is not uncommon in the NT (Luke 22:30; 1 Cor 6:2). What is less clear is whether (1) the twelve apostles exercise judgment over the twelve tribes of Israel physically and racially conceived, or whether (2) the twelve apostles will exercise some kind of judgment over the entire church, symbolized by "Israel" (cf. Rev 21:12-14)..." (D.A. Carson, Matthew, EBC, Vol.8, p.426).
Jas 1:1 James, a servant of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ, to the twelve tribes which are scattered abroad, greeting.
Jas 2:1 My brothers, as believers in our glorious Lord Jesus Christ, don't show favoritism. (NIV).
1Pe 1:1 Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, to the strangers scattered throughout Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia,
1Pe 1:2 Elect according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, through sanctification of the Spirit, unto obedience and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ...
"Who are these twelve tribes? To answer we must follow ... the straight line from the Old Testament into the New. Our Lord Jesus chose out twelve apostles (Mk. 3:13-14) and looked forward to the day of his own glory when they would sit on the twelve thrones ruling the tribes of Israel (Mt. 19:28). In doing this he was not creating a 'new' Israel (either alongside or replacing an 'old' Israel); he was leading the Israel of the New Covenant, the apostolic people of our Lord Jesus Christ, those whom Paul calls 'the Israel of God' (Gal.6:16). In a word, 'Israel' is the name of the people of Jesus; it is the inalienable title of his church. Because of this Paul teaches that Christians are children of Abraham (Gal. 3:7) and that Abraham is our father (Rom. 4:11, 16)... He asserts a fact: those who have put their faith in Jesus for salvation are Abraham's children and the Israel of God.
"Peter brings us a step even nearer to James. He writes his first letter (1:1) to 'the exiles of the Dispersion' and goes on (1:2) to define them as people who know God ... and who have experienced the sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ. Old Testament terms again describe New Testament people; they are God's exiles of the Dispersion. No adjustment of meaning is made, no comprise with truth, for they are God's Israel.
"James brings these lines of Bible truth together and so sets the scene for his letter. Better than any other description could, the twelve tribes places the church firmly within the pressures and persecutions of this life. We can think of our ancestral tribes in the storm and stress of Egyptian slavery (Ex. 2:3), redeemed by the blood of the lamb (Ex. 12:3), on pilgrimage with God through 'the great and terrible wilderness' (Dt. 8:15; cf. Ex. 15:22), battling to enter into what the Lord had promised (Jos. 1:2) and struggling even after to live in holiness amid the enticements of pagan culture. These are the experiences through which James would have his readers understand their pilgrim path. They are the Lord's twelve tribes and they are dispersed throughout a menacing and testing world..." (Alec Motyer, The Message of James, BST, pp.24-25).
Rev 7:4 And I heard the number of them which were sealed: and there were sealed an hundred and forty and four thousand of all the tribes of the children of Israel.
Rev 7:5 Of the tribe of Judah were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Reuben were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Gad were sealed twelve thousand...
"... John next gives the number of those sealed - 144,000 - and their identification: "From all the tribes of Israel." There are two principles views regarding the identification of this group: (1) The number and tribal identification are taken literally and refer to 144,000 Jewish Christians... (2) According to another viewpoint, John is understood to use the language of the new Israel and thus refer to the complete church composed of Jew and Gentile...
"In support of the second view, which identifies Israel with the church, is the fact that the NT identifies the followers of Christ as "Abraham's seed" (Gal 3:29), as "the true circumcision" (Phil 3:3) and the "Israel of God" (Gal 3:29...). Furthermore, John himself earlier in Revelation makes a distinction between the true Jew and false (cf. 2:9; 3:9) and that could imply that here in chapter 7 he intends also to designate the true Israel or the church...
"By the middle of the first century, Paul made a distinction between the true, spiritual Jew and the physical descendants of Abraham (Rom 2:28-29; 9:8). Only those Jews who recognized Jesus as Messiah could rightly be called "Israel" in the strictest sense (Rom 9:6), though the term might be used with qualifications to refer to the historical descendants of Jacob ("Israel after the flesh" [1 Cor 10:18 Gr.]). Peter likewise described the church (Jew and Gentile) in terms drawn from the OT ... ("holy priesthood ... chosen people ... royal priesthood ... holy nation ... [1 Peter 2:4, 9])...
"Also, the OT image of the people of Israel as a kingdom and priests of God is used by John of the followers of Jesus (1:6). Similarly, many of the promises to the victors in the churches in Asia (ch. 2-3) are fulfillments of OT promises to the true people of Israel. In Christ's rebuke to the churches, we have the OT imagery of "Balaam" and "Jezebel" describing error that had influenced not the OT Israel but the NT church..." (Alan F. Johnson, Revelation, EBC, Vol.12, pp.479-480).
Glory of the Lord in the NT
Jn 1:14 The Word became flesh and made his dwelling among us. We have seen his glory, the glory of the One and Only, who came from the Father, full of grace and truth.
"The Word "lived for a while among us." Properly the verb signifies "to pitch one's tent;"... In Jewish ears the word might arouse other associations. The place of worship during the wanderings of Israel in the wilderness, the place where God had vouchsafed his presence, was "the Tabernacle," and that noun corresponds to the verb used here. That John wants us to recall God's presence in the tabernacle in the wilderness seems clear from the immediate reference to "glory," for glory was associated with the tabernacle. When, for example, it was first set up, "the glory of the LORD filled the tabernacle" (Exod. 40:34). It is possible that we should see other symbolism here also. There seems to be no doubt that John saw Jesus as a new and greater Moses...
"Many authors see a reference to the Sinai theophany rather than to the setting of the tabernacle. The point of contact with Exodus 33 are especially numerous:
Now Moses used to take the tabernacle
the pillar of cloud (the Shekinah) descended
the Word became flesh and tabernacled among us
all the people saw the pillar of cloud
we beheld his glory
Yahweh spoke to Moses face to face
the law was given through Moses
you cannot see my face
no one has ever seen God
you will see my back; but my face shall not be seen
the only begotten Son ...
has made him known
"All this strengthens the view that John wants us to view Jesus as the new and greater Moses" (Leon Morris, The Gospel According to John, Revised, NICNT, pp.91-92).
"It is Christ or the Spirit that reveals the glory of God in the NT era. On various occasions in the life of Christ, we read of the glory of God appearing: at Christ's birth (Luke 2:9) and transfiguration (Luke 9:31), in his miracles (John 2:11), and thus at his second coming (Matt. 16:27; 25:31). Christ himself is described as the glory of God (1 Cor. 2:8; John 1:14)..." (Gordon J. Wenham, The Book of Leviticus, NICOT, p.151).
Jn 14:23 Jesus answered and said unto him, If a man love me, he will keep my words: and my Father will love him, and we will come unto him, and make our abode with him.
"The consumption of the work of redemption is the Lord's dwelling among his people - a truth brought to its intended fulfilment in Christ. In 1 Corinthians 3:10-17 Paul teaches the Christians, gathered and built on the sole foundation of Jesus Christ, are in their collectivity 'God's temple' and that 'God's Spirit lives' in them (v.17). And in Ephesians 2:11-22 he says that the universal company who in Christ have peace with each other and with God are being built on the foundations of apostles and prophets to become a 'dwelling in which God lives by his Spirit' (v.22)" (Alec Motyer, The Message of Exodus, BST, p.252).
"The reality of Jesus' and the Father's presence would be conditioned on obedience. The bond of love that would provide the atmosphere for the fellowship would be resultant rather than conditional, for obedience is the consequence of love. Obedience is not, however, the condition of God's love for men but the proof of their realization of his love and of their love for him" (Merrill C. Tenney, John, EBC, Vol. 9, pp. 147-48).
Keeping Christ's words is a covenant requirement. "If" implies decision to accept; and keeping implies acceptance.
Covenant-Marriage Ceremony/Covenant Meal
Mt 26:26 And as they were eating, Jesus took bread, and blessed it, and brake it, and gave it to the disciples, and said, Take, eat; this is my body.
Mt 26:27 And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and gave it to them, saying, Drink ye all of it;
Mt 26:28 For this is my blood of the new testament, which is shed for many for the remission of sins.
"This verse  is rich in allusions... "Blood" and "covenant" are found together in only two OT passages (Exod 24:8; Zech 9:11)... Jesus understands the violent and sacrificial death he is about to undergo (i.e., his "blood"...) as the ratification of the covenant he is inaugurating with his people, even as Moses in Exodus 24:8 ratified the covenant at Sinai by the shedding of blood... The event through which Messiah saves his people from their sins (1:21) is his sacrificial death; and the resulting relation between God and the messianic community is definable in terms of covenant, an agreement with stipulations - promises of blessing and substance and with threats of cursing all brought here into legal force by the shedding of blood.
"Luke and Paul use the adjective "new" before covenant and thus allude to Jeremiah 31:31-34... the passage from Jeremiah was almost certainly in Jesus mind, as Matthew reports him, because "forgiveness of sins" reflects Jeremiah 31:34. Matthew has already shown his grasp of the significance of Jesus' allusion to covenant terminology in general and to the "new" covenant in particular; in 2:18 ... he cites Jeremiah 31 so as to show that he interprets the coming of Jesus as the real end of the Exile and the inauguration of the new covenant...
"It appears, then, that Jesus understands the covenant he is introducing to be the fulfilment of Jeremiah's prophecies and the antitype of the Sinai covenant. His sacrifice is thus foretold both in redemption history and in the prophetic word. The Exodus becomes a "type" of a new and greater deliverance; and as the people of God in the OT prospectively celebrated in the first Passover their escape from Egypt, anticipating their arrival in the Promised Land, so the people of God here prospectively celebrate their deliverance from sin and bondage, anticipating the coming kingdom..." (D.A. Carson, Matthew, EBC, Vol.8, pp.537-38).
Jn 20:19 On the evening of that first day of the week, when the disciples were together, with the doors locked for fear of the Jews, Jesus came and stood among them...
Jn 20:21 Again Jesus said, "Peace be with you! As the Father has sent me, I am sending you."
Jn 20:22 And with that he breathed on them and said, "Receive the Holy Spirit. (NIV).
Ac 2:1 When the day of Pentecost came, they were all together in one place.
Ac 2:2 Suddenly a sound like the blowing of a violent wind came from heaven and filled the whole house where they were sitting.
Ac 2:3 They saw what seemed to be tongues of fire that separated and came to rest on each of them.
Ac 2:4 All of them were filled with the Holy Spirit... (NIV).
1Pe 4:14 ... the spirit of glory and of God resteth upon you.
2Co 6:16 ... for ye are the temple of the living God; as God hath said, I will dwell in them, and walk in them; and I will be their God, and they shall be my people.
"Jewish tradition associated wind, fire and voices with Mount Sinai, the three phenomena which he is about to describe" (John R. W. Stott, The Message of Acts, BST, p.62).
"What is certain is that the wind was held to symbolize the Spirit of God... As in the burning bush, fire denotes the divine presence (Ex. 3:2-5)" (F.F. Bruce, The Book of Acts, NICNT, p.50).
"... it is to more purpose, perhaps, to call to mind how, under the ancient economy, the descent of fire from heaven upon the sacrifices was the appointed and recognized symbol of the divine presence and favour (Gen. 15:17; Lev. 9:24; 1 Ki. 18:38; and cf. Exod.19:18" (David Brown, Acts-Romans, JFB,Vol.3, Pt.2, p.8).
The tabernacle and the temple were filled with the "glory of the Lord" and so the house was filled with the Holy Spirit, as well as the disciples.
Saints as Sacrifices
1Pe 2:5 you also, like living stones, are being built into a spiritual house to be a holy priesthood, offering spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God through Jesus Christ.
Heb 13:15 By him therefore let us offer the sacrifice of praise to God continually, that is, the fruit of our lips giving thanks to his name.
Heb 13:16 But to do good and to communicate forget not: for with such sacrifices God is well pleased.
Ro 12:1 I beseech you therefore, brethren, by the mercies of God, that ye present your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable unto God, which is your reasonable service.
"Although the NT believer no longer brings animal sacrifice at the Temple [because there is no Temple], the worship of God requires a complete devotion as did the worship of Yahweh. The OT believer expressed his devotion and trust by making sacrifices from his herd. The NT believer, himself a priest, must also spontaneously express his love and trust in God. In place of animals he present spiritual sacrifices (1 Pet 2:5). According to Heb 13:15-16, the believer offers the sacrifices of praise and of doing good and sharing his possessions with others. When one performs these sacrifices wholeheartedly, his offerings are acceptable to God. The concern that God accept an offering is common to both testaments.
"Paul extends the metaphor for the believer further. He speaks of the believer's presentation of his body as a living sacrifice (Rom 12:1, 2). The offering he has in mind is the whole [or burnt] offering, for the believer is to present himself entirely just as the whole offering was entirely consumed on the altar. So too the believer is to be holy as the animal had to be free from defect. For this personal offering to be efficacious, it, like the whole offering, has to be acceptable to God. As a living whole [or burnt] offering, a believer's life is continually pleasing to God" (John E. Hartley, Leviticus, WBC, p.25).
Lev 9:23 ... and the glory of the LORD appeared to all the people.
Lev 9:24 Fire came out from the presence of the LORD and consumed the burnt offering and the fat portions on the altar.
Ex 29:42 This shall be a continual burnt offering throughout your generations at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation before the LORD: where I will meet you, to speak there unto thee.
The "fire" resting on the disciples, living "whole" offerings, pictures the "consuming" of the burnt offering at the inauguration of the Tabernacle Kingdom. The Church is now acceptable before God and can now begin their commission.
Ac 2:4 All of them were filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak in other tongues as the Spirit enabled them.
Ac 2:6 When they heard this sound, a crowd came together in bewilderment, because each one heard them speaking in his own language.
"In the Old Testament when men or women were possessed by the Spirit of God, they prophesied. So it was with Eldad and Medad when the spirit rested on them in the camp of Israel (Num. 11:26), and so it was with many another. So now the descent of the Spirit on the disciples was attended by prophetic speech, but prophetic speech of a particular kind - utterance in "other tongues."" (F. F. Bruce, The Book of the Acts, Revised, NICNT, pp.51-52).
Eldad and Medah were part of the seventy/seventy-two who prophesied, when the Spirit rested on them, at their commissioning to assist Moses in carrying the burden of the people just after setting out, from Sinai, for the Promised Land.
Peter and Joel
Ac 2:14 But Peter, standing up with the eleven, lifted up his voice, and said unto them...
Ac 2:16 ... this is that which was spoken by the prophet Joel;
Ac 2:17 And it shall come to pass in the last days, saith God, I will pour out of my Spirit upon all flesh: and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, and your young men shall see visions, and your old men shall dream dreams:
Ac 2:19 And I will show wonders in heaven above, and signs in the earth beneath; blood, and fire, and vapour of smoke:
Ac 2:21 And it shall come to pass, that whosoever shall call on the name of the Lord shall be saved.
When Peter links the pouring out of the Holy Spirt with the fulfillment of Joel prophecy it is a 'typological' link, similar to Matthew typologically linking Christ's/Israel's departure from Egypt with Hosea's account of Israel leaving Egypt.
The author of Hebrews speaks of the time of Christ's first coming as the "last days" - in these last days he [God] has spoken to us by his Son (Heb 1:2, NIV). Christ's first advent inaugurates the "last days" for the Church when the Holy Spirit is poured out on those 'elect' whom God is calling into His Kingdom (cf. 1 Pe 1:2).
The "last days" for the Kingdom refers to the time just prior to, at and after Christ's second coming.
Joel's prophecy will be literally fulfilled in the "last days" for the Kingdom when God's Spirit will be poured out on "all flesh".
New Beginning Warning
Ac 5:1 Now a man named Ananias, together with his wife Sapphira, also sold a piece of property.
Ac 5:3 Then Peter said, "Ananias, how is it that Satan has so filled your heart that you have lied to the Holy Spirit and have kept for yourself some of the money you received for the land?
Ac 5:5 When Ananias heard this, he fell down and died...
Ac 5:9 Peter said to her [Sapphira], "How could you agree to test the Spirit of the Lord? ...
Ac 5:10 At that moment she fell down at his feet and died...
Ac 5:11 Great fear seized the whole church and all who heard about these events. (NIV).
"[Ananias and Sapphira] wanted to enjoy the acclaim of the church, as Barnabas did, without making a genuine sacrifice..." (Richard N. Longenecker, Acts, EBC, p.313).
"Love of praise for (pretended) generosity and love for money led to the first recorded sin in the life of the church. It is a warning to the readers that "God cannot be mocked" (Gal 6:7). Compare this divine judgment at the beginning of the church era with God's judgments on Nadab and Abihu (Lev 10:2), on Achan (Jos 7:25) and on Uzzah (2Sa 6:7)" (Kenneth Barker, Gen. Editor, The NIV Study Bible, Note on Acts 5:1, p.1651).
Lev 10:5 So they came and carried them, still in their tunics, outside the camp, as Moses ordered.
Ac 5:10 ... Then the young men came in and, finding her dead, carried her out and buried her beside her husband.
Light to the Gentiles
Isa 49:1 ... The LORD hath called me from the womb...
Isa 49:2 And he hath made my mouth like a sharp sword...
Isa 49:3 And said unto me, Thou art my servant, O Israel, in whom I will be glorified.
Isa 49:6 And he said, It is a light thing that thou shouldest be my servant to raise up the tribes of Jacob, and to restore the preserved of Israel: I will also give thee for a light to the Gentiles, that thou mayest be my salvation unto the end of the earth.
Ac 1:8 But you will receive power when the Holy Spirit comes on you; and you will be my witnesses in Jerusalem, and in all Judea and Samaria, and to the ends of the earth."
Ac 13:47 For this is what the Lord has commanded us: "'I have made you a light for the Gentiles, that you may bring salvation to the ends of the earth.'" (NIV).
Mt 24:14 And this gospel of the kingdom shall be preached in all the world for a witness unto all nations; and then shall the end come.
Jesus Christ is the 'true' David and the 'true Israel'. God calls Christ "Israel" in Isaiah 49:3. Christ as the representative "servant" is to raise up the corporate 'servant' - Israel the Kingdom.
While Christ is the "light" to the Gentiles he delegates that role to His servant - Israel the Church (Acts 13:47). Under the Keturah New Covenant the servant - Israel the Kingdom - will be the "light" to the nations.
Ge 22:18 And in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed...
The nations are blessed by the representative Seed and His agent the corporate seed - Kingdom and Church.
Warning of End for Tabernacles NT Covenant
Rev 2:5 Remember the height from which you have fallen! Repent and do the things you did at first. If you do not repent, I will come to you and remove your lampstand from its place.
The OT 'tabernacle' Covenant ended when the "ark of the covenant," symbolic of God's presence, was captured by the Philistines and taken to Philistia, out of its rightful place in Israel.
The item of furniture, symbolic of God's presence, for the NT 'tabernacle' Covenant is the lampstand.
"The majority of the references to lamps are to their religious or symbolic use. Lamps are most frequently mentioned in relation to the tabernacle and temple... Lamps and light are positive images in Scripture. When used to convey a negative image, it is generally through negation ("the lamp of the wicked is snuffed out" [Prov 13:9 NIV])...
"Associated with worship. The lamp in the shrine at Shiloh is called "the lamp of God" in 1 Samuel 3:3; this suggests that its light symbolized God's presence...
"Blessing/Presence of God. A different lamp metaphor occurs in connection with God's oath that the Davidic dynasty would endure (2 Sam7:16). Solomon's son and grandson failed to keep the covenant. "Nevertheless for David's sake the LORD his God gave him a lamp in Jerusalem, setting up his son after him (1 Kings 15:4 NIV). Similarly, "I have prepared a lamp for my anointed one [David]" (Ps 132:17 NRSV). Since David's men had referred to him as the lamp of Israel, the psalmist must expect another king with David's charisma. The Lord was the source of that charisma, "Indeed, you are my lamp, O LORD, the LORD lightens my darkness" (2 Sam 22:29 NRSV), and he was to come in the person of Jesus (Jn 8:12). At the end of the Bible, when the new Jerusalem is seen coming down from heaven, lamps are no longer needed because "its lamp is the Lamb" (Rev 21:23 NRSV) and "the Lord God will be their light" (Rev 22:5 NRSV). The lamps in the opening chapter of Revelation symbolize the divine presence with the seven churches. Christ's warning that the lamp could be withdrawn connotes God removing his active presence from them (Rev 1-3)" (Ryken, Leland, et. al., General Editors, "Lamp, Lampstand", Dictionary of Biblical Imagery, p.486).
Derek Kidner provides the link for the end of three covenant dispensations:
"'The glory had departed'. This glory (61) was the ark of God, captured by the Philistines, its departure a symbol of His own withdrawal (60f.). It would happen again. Jeremiah would use Shiloh (60) as his text against the temple (Je. 7:11ff.), and Ezekiel would see the glory of the Lord departing from Jerusalem (Ezk. 11:23). Jesus would speak in similar terms, and not only to the Jewish church (cf. Rev. 2:5; 3:16)" (Derek Kidner, Psalms 73-150, TNTC, comment on 78:59-64, p.285).
The removal of the lampstand is the warning to the church at Ephesus, the first of seven churches addressed by Jesus Christ. The removal of God's presence, that is, Jesus Christ, would be the outcome of covenant infidelity. Another outcome for covenant infidelity "curse" is behind the warning to the church at Laodicea, the seventh church.
Lev 20:22 Ye shall therefore keep all my statutes, and all my judgments, and do them: that the land, whither I bring you to dwell therein, spew you not out.
Rev 3:16 So then because thou art lukewarm, and neither cold nor hot, I will spew thee out of my mouth.
Rev 3:18 I counsel thee to buy of me gold tried in the fire, that thou mayest be rich...
"In Lev 18:25, 28; 20:22, the expression "to vomit" out of the land is used of the fate of the Canaanites upon Israel's entry into Palestine, and the potential fate of the Israelites themselves" (David E. Aune, Revelation 1-5, WBC, p.258).
2Ki 25:8 ... Nebuzaradan commander of the imperial guard, an official of the king of Babylon, came to Jerusalem.
2Ki 25:9 He set fire to the temple of the LORD, the royal palace and all the houses of Jerusalem...
2Ki 25:10 The whole Babylonian army ... broke down the walls around Jerusalem.
2Ki 25:11 Nebuzaradan ... carried into exile the people who remained in the city...
2Ki 25:12 But the commander left behind some of the poorest people of the land to work the vineyards and fields. (NIV).
The end of the OT Temple Covenant dispensation resulted in the God's presence and God's people being removed from Jerusalem and Judea. The temple, that housed God's presence was set on fire.
1Co 5:1 It is actually reported that there is sexual immorality among you, and of a kind that does not occur even among pagans: A man has his father's wife.
1Co 5:5 hand this man over to Satan, so that the sinful nature may be destroyed and his spirit saved on the day of the Lord. (NIV).
Rev 12:17 And the dragon was wroth with the woman, and went to make war with the remnant of her seed, which keep the commandments of God, and have the testimony of Jesus Christ.
Being put out of the church, the temple of the Holy Spirit, implies divorce from the presence of God. The man in Corinth, and the church in the end times, face the wroth of Satan so as to lead to repentance and covenant renewal.
1Th 4:16 For the Lord himself will come down from heaven, with a loud command, with the voice of the archangel and with the trumpet call of God, and the dead in Christ will rise first.
1Th 4:17 After that, we who are still alive and are left will be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air. And so we will be with the Lord forever.