The Typological-Prophetic Connection
The Anglo-American Hegemonic Cycle
Cycles of War and Prosperity
Introduction to WW3?
"But why fight wars? Again, the answer must be economic. The self-interested objectives of imperial expansion range from the fundamental need to ensure the security of the metropolis by defeating enemies beyond its borders, to the collection of rents and taxation from subject peoples - to say nothing of the more obvious prizes of new land for settlement, raw materials, and treasure" (Niall Ferguson, Empires with Expiration Dates, foreignpolicy.com, September/October, 2007).
History is littered with wars which everybody knew would never happen
"Since the glorious Revolution of 1688 that established parliamentary and Protestant rule in Britain, the Anglo-Americans have been on the winning side in every major international conflict. The War of the League of Augsburg, the War of Spanish Succession, the War of the Austrian Succession, the Seven Years' War, the American Revolution (Britain lost, but America won), the French revolutionary and Napoleonic wars, World War I, World War II, and the Cold War: these are the wars that made the modern world, and either the British or Americans or both of them together have won every one of them. More than three hundred years of unbroken victory in major wars with great powers: it begins to look almost like a pattern" (Walter Russell Mead, God and Gold - Britain, America and the Making of the Modern World, (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2007), p.5).
But now the odds and history are stacked against them. The pattern is going to be interrupted, for a little while, before it resumes again, but at a terrible cost.
The pattern of prosperity following war will also resume, but instead of victory followed by prosperity it will be defeat followed by prosperity.
The Anglo-American Hegemonic Cycle provides the argument, and the framework for the argument, for WW3 and the defeat of the Anglo-Americans.
WW3, at least for the first two and half years, will between the Rest of the World, led by an European Superpower, against the Anglo-Saxon-Celtic and Related Peoples.
"The German invasion began on 1 September 1939, one week after the signing of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, while the Soviet invasion commenced on 17 September 1939... The campaign ended on 6 October 1939 with Germany and the Soviet Union dividing and annexing the whole of Poland" (Invasion of Poland, Wikipedia).
Like the quick take-over of Poland, which was over in one month and five days, there will be a quick take-over of the British Isles, North America, Australia and New Zealand. And like the dividing of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, Lithuania and Slovakia, the Rest of the World, involved in the WW3 takeover, will divide the lands of the Anglo-Saxon-Celtic and Related Peoples among themselves.
Hegemony in the Modern World
"Amsterdam stood at the center of the world's financial system in the 17th century; its place was taken by London in the early 19th century, then New York in the 20th..." (Richard Florida, How the Crash Will Reshape America, theatlanticonline.com, March 2009).
Originally this booklet was going to be a book starting with the United Provinces of the Netherlands as an introduction to a detailed look at the rise and fall of Britain and America, beginning with 1787, the year of expansion after the recession that followed the end of the America War of Independence.
The byline to the title read: "From the steam engine of the Industrial Age to the search engine of the Information Age and more".
A book would most likely appeal to a small audience, and even then the detail and length may lose some of even that small audience, even if they had not dismissed the premise of a world war involving Europe, Britain and America, and kept reading.
The booklet is a comprise that is hopefully, more readable, the argument easier to understand, and quicker to accept or dismiss.
An overview of the construction and terms of reference of the Anglo-America Hegemonic Cycle is contained in Appendix 2.
As noted by Richard Florida, the centres of the world financial system have changed over the centuries, and as a corollary so have the hegemonic powers that sponsored these systems.
The United Provinces of the Netherlands was displaced by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, who in turn was replaced by the United States of America, who is soon to be displaced by a United States of Europe.
The hegemonic power that replaced the next was also invaded by the preceding power. The Dutch 'invaded' Britain; Britain 'invaded' America; and America 'invaded' Europe. This suggests Europe will be the next hegemonic power, at least for a little while.
History also suggests that as the Dutch, followed by the British and then the Americans, took possession of Manhattan - "The Island at the Centre of the World," (the title of Russell Shorto;s book) - so will Manhattan be in the possession of Europe.
The Anglo-American Hegemonic Cycle suggest a future American stockmarket crash will mark a change in circumstance for America, the present hegemonic power, just as the American stockmarket crash of 1873 marked a change of circumstances for Britain, the then hegemonic power.
The Anglo-American Hegemonic Cycle also suggests that the change of circumstances will driven by a resurgent united Germany, after the Great Depression of the Twenty-first Century.
"...the transition between British and American predominance from 1914 to 1945 shook the world no less than a violent earthquake. The political, monetary, and military foundations upon which markets operated were severely tested. In more than one instance, they gave way, and as they did, prosperity - like a weakened building - tumbled into the chasm. The result was disorder: a world unpoliced, in which property rights and free trade were abridged or abolished in many places, and millions perished in brutal wars" (James Dale Davidson and William Rees-Mogg, The Great Reckoning, Revised Edition, (London: Sidgwick & Jackson, 1993), p.138).
1914 was the start of WW1 and 1945 the end of WW2, the wars that cemented the end of Pax Britannia.
The German Empire after the stockmarket crash in 1873 up to the First World War and Germany after the stockmarket crash in 1929 up to the Second World War provide a precedent to view a future stockmarket crash up to the Third World War - the end of the Pax Americana.
"Since 1945, the Pax Americana has made international economic interdependence and globalization possible...
"Financially, the U.S. has been responsible for managing the global economy by acting as the market and lender of last resort...
"Going forward, the fiscal crisis will mean that Washington cannot discharge its military functions as a hegemon either, because it can no longer maintain the power edge that has allowed it to keep the ambitions of the emerging great powers in check. The entire fabric of world order that the United States established after 1945 - the Pax Americana - rested on the foundation of U.S. military and economic preponderance. Remove the foundation and the structure crumbles. The decline of American power means the end of U.S. dominance in world politics and the beginning of the transition to a new constellation of world powers...
"The coming era of de-globalization will be defined by rising nationalism and mercantilism, geopolitical instability and great power competition. In other words, having enjoyed a long holiday from history under the Pax Americana, international politics will be headed back to the future" (Christopher Layne and Benjamin Schwarz, Twilight of Pax Americana, latimes.com, September 29, 2009).
America in Decline
A great civilization is not conquered from without until it has destroyed itself from within
"Once their productive capacity was enhanced, countries would normally find it easier to sustain the burdens of paying for larger-scale armaments in peacetime and of maintaining and supplying armies and fleets in wartime. It sounds crudely mercantilistic to express it this way, but wealth is usually needed to underpin military power, and military power is usually needed to acquire and protect wealth" (Paul Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers - Economic Change and Military Conflict from 1500 to 2000, (London: FontanaPress, 1988), p.xvi).
"... as the 2010s begin, there's reason to worry that America has further to fall. Our politics are polarized, our finances are still overleveraged, and our society is increasingly segregated - by income, education and family structure - between a thriving elite and a struggling working class" (Ross Douthat, Decline is relative, nytimes.com, January 3, 2010).
"The U.S. is an empire in decline, according to Niall Ferguson, Harvard professor and author of The Ascent of Money.
" "People have predicted the end of America in the past and been wrong," Ferguson concedes. "But let's face it: If you're trying to borrow $9 trillion to save your financial system...and already half your public debt held by foreigners, it's not really the conduct of rising empires, is it?
"Given its massive deficits and overseas military adventures, America today is similar to the Spanish Empire in the 17th century and Britain's in the 20th, he says. "Excessive debt is usually a predictor of subsequent trouble" " (Aaron Task, Niall Ferguson: U.S. Empire in Decline, on Collision Course with China, finance.yahoo.com, October 20, 2009). (The collision course is with an European superpower to emerge out of the Greater Depression).
"An argument can be made that old-fashioned competition between the powers has come back with a vengeance since the fleeting post-Soviet interlude of the 1990s, when America bestrode the planet unopposed. As Robert Kagan, one of America's cleverest ... foreign-policy intellectuals, notes in his book "The Return of History and the End of Dreams", a 19th-century diplomat would instantly recognise this new-old world of clashing interests and alliances between great powers...
"At the end of the 19th century, Britain was the world's superpower. By the end of the 20th it was America. The transition was preceded by two world wars. Some time in this century, the balance of power will change again" (The Economist, Obama's world, economist.com, November 6, 2008).
The Rise of Hegemonic Powers
A rising superpower organized as the largest free-trade in the world area gives it the economic foundation to assert world leadership. The first two paragraphs provides the precedent and the third the candidate to change the balance of power.
"The economic boom, felt everywhere but most intensively in Britain, sent government revenues soaring, and in the years 1823-25, the new Chancellor of the Exchequer earned himself the name "Prosperity" Robinson by across the-board reductions in taxes and duties... Many inland duties went altogether, so that Britain, and to a great extent Ireland, became the largest free-trade area in the world. All kinds of ancient regulations, quotas, bounties and taxes, which interfered with the free flow of goods and services, were dumped, leaving the market to determine price and quantity" (Paul Johnson, Birth of the Modern, (London: Orion Books, 1992), pp.878-88).
"... America's ascent to world leadership in manufacturing was driven by agriculture... natural resources and [other] advantages were reinforced by a unique combination of protection and laissez-faire in federal and state policy. The freedom of interstate commerce ... made America by the 1860s the largest free-trading area in the world. But this was accompanied by high external tariffs ... from 1861 onwards. Thus the United States enjoyed simultaneously the advantages both of free trade and of protection. As a result the homemarket was buying 97 percent of its manufactures from domestic producers by 1900" (Paul Johnson, A History of the American People, (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1997), p.442).
"European Economic Area (EEA), [an] association formed to establish a single market and free-trade area among countries of the European Union (EU) and the European Free Trade Association (EFTA). The EEA is the largest free-trade zone in the world. It has 30 members, comprising the 27 EU countries plus Iceland, Liechtenstein, and Norway. Switzerland, the only member of EFTA that did not join the EEA, maintains observer status" (European Economic Area, encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia).
Nominal GDP (billion in US$, IMF, October 2012)
"A few years ago, Professor Samuel Huntington suggested that "the baton of world leadership" [in the 21st century] may pass from America not to Japan, or China, or Russia, but to a European federation:
" "The European Community, if it were to become politically cohesive, would have the population, resources, economic wealth, technology and actual and potential military strength to be the preeminent power of the twenty-first century... It is also possible to conceive of a European ideological appeal comparable to the American one... A federation of democratic, wealthy, socially diverse, mixed economy societies would be a very powerful force on the world scene. If the [21st] century is not the American century it is most likely to be a European century" " (Paul Kennedy, Preparing for the Twenty-First Century, (London: FontanaPress, 1993), pp.258-59).
The Fall of Hegemonic Powers
"Since its beginning in the 16th century, capitalism has always had a hegemonic power that has acted as the central banker of the world and has supplied it with the liquidity it has needed. First this was the Spaniards, then it was the Dutch, and next it was the British, once they rid themselves of Napoleon. The demise of the British pound began with World War I, and after World War II, the dollar finally took over within the framework of the Bretton Woods system. At that time, the US was by far the biggest oil producer in the world, and accounted for more than 50 percent of global industrial production. Aside from the military might of a superpower, the dollar was backed by US current account surpluses and by gold. Today, only military might is left. Since 1971, the US has essentially been paying for its imports with printed paper, without a need to export goods and earn foreign currency or gold to pay for this. No other nation has this privilege" (Dr. Eckart Woertz, Why the Arab countries continue to embrace the doomed dollar, 321gold.com, June 29, 2006).
"The United States is overextended, not just militarily but economically. We are trying to do too much, borrow too much, spend too much, and sooner or later we will have to suffer the consequences. We are a country in the beginning stages of what can best be described as hegemonic decay. Empires take decades if not centuries to wither, a process more clearly viewed through a rearview mirror; Edward Gibbon's masterful account of the decline and fall of the Roman Empire is perhaps the greatest example of this truth. But here and now, we're much less inclined to Gibbon's viewpoint than we are to Alfred E. Newman's. "What, we worry?" is pretty much the national motto when it comes to our finance-based economy and its future prospects" (William H. Gross, What, We Worry? Yes. washingtonpost.com, January 13, 2004).
"The Ageing Alliance: The vassals are restless
"Whatever Europe does, it measures itself against America. Europe and America are the two centres of western values, of western hopes. Their partnership is one of likes but not of equals. It answers to Bismarck's description of "hegemony" as
an unequal relationship established between a great power and one or more smaller powers which is nevertheless based on the juridical or formal equality of all the states concerned. It is not an empire. It is not based on "ruler" and "ruled" but on "leadership" and "followers".
"But "hegemony" is not a nice word. For most public purposes America and Europe have an "alliance". The principles of that alliance were fairly straightforward so long as the Soviet Union controlled the eastern half of Europe. America saw the global containment of communism as its own most vital national interest. So it lent Europe the resources, and demanded from Europe the co-operation, needed to bar the way to communism on this most critical front. The creation of NATO was the formal means by which the Europeans obtained an unconditional security guarantee from America, and gave obedience in return" (The Economist, Survey: Europe, October 21, 1999, pp.6-7).
"Every modern transition of world power supremacy has involved an ally or former colony of the previous hegemonic power. Holland was a breakaway possession of Spain. England was an ally of the Netherlands, and from 1689 trough 1702 both states shared the same sovereign, the Dutch-born William III. The United States was a former colony and intimate ally of Britain..." (James Dale Davidson & William Rees-Mogg, The Great Reckoning, p.137).
United Provinces of the Netherlands (Protestant) then United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (Protestant) now United States of America (Protestant) next United States of Europe (Catholic).
(The Economist, Against anti-Europeanism - Anti-Europeanism is a bad response to anti-Americanism, economist.com, April 26, 2007).
"History is coming full circle. After breaking away from the British Empire, the United States came together as a unitary federation, emerged as a leading nation, and eventually eclipsed Europe's Great Powers. It is now Europe's turn to ascend and break away from an America that refuses to surrender its privileges of primacy. Europe will inevitably rise up as America's principal competitor. Should Washington and Brussels begin to recognize the dangers of the growing gulf between them, they may be able to contain their budding rivalry. Should they fail, however, to prepare for life after Pax Americana, they will ensure that the coming clash of civilizations will be not between the West and the rest but within a West divided against itself... and America remains largely oblivious" (Charles A. Kupchan, The End of the West, The Atlantic Monthly, November 2002, p.42-44).
"When the euro collapses, the EU political class will no doubt blame those sinister forces, the speculators of Anglo-Saxon finance. In reality, the blame will be entirely theirs..." (Martin Hutchinson, Euro Hindenburg Nearing Lakehurst, NJ, prudentbear.com, April 30, 2012).
"Charles Kupchan of America's Council on Foreign Relations argues ... "If Europe defines its identity in terms of countering U.S. power, the world is likely to return to a balance-of-power system reminiscent of the era prior to World War I - with the same disastrous consequences.
"The idea that Europe and America might actually come into armed conflict still seems absurd. But the notion that Europeans and Americans may increasingly be rivals rather than partners seems less implausible than it once did" (The Economist, "Old Europe" views Iraq, May 15, 2004, p.50).
The argument of this booklet is that history suggests that an "armed conflict" between Europe and America is not absurd, and that it will happen.
To be Number 1
Much of the economic history of the nineteenth and twentieth century may be explained by the drive of other nations to catch up with Britain and America respectively:
"The Industrial Revolution in England changed the world and the relations of nations and states to one another. For reasons of power, if not of wealth, the goals and tasks of political economy was transformed. The world was now divided between one front-runner and a highly diverse array of pursuers. It took the quickest of the European "follower countries" something more than a century to catch up" (David Landes, The Wealth and Poverty of Nations, (London: Abacus, 1999), p.231 - chapter entitled "Pursuit of Albion"). Hence the First World War.
"In the first three decades of the twentieth century, the United States opened up a massive technological and economic lead over the rest of the world. By 1928, America produced 40 per cent of world manufacturing-output, and her per-capita GDP eventually rose to a level about 60 per cent above her nearest rival. This lead in per-capita GDP was not closed until the 1980s... When many countries began to catch up, the United States responded with an awesome transformation of its industrial base - and again left its competitors in its wake...
"Much of the economic history of the twentieth century was driven by the needs of other countries to catch up with the Americans - at great social, political, and physical costs, including successive wars and a world-wide depression.
"The next question which flows from this is obvious. If the systematic changes currently sweeping through the world economy are as severe as those in the early part of this century, is it possible that they could lead to similar consequences? The answer to this question is a very broad 'Yes'. The first fifty years of the twenty-first century could be as disastrous as the first 50 years of the twentieth century were" (Peter Brain, Beyond Meltdown: The Global Battle for Sustained Growth, (Melbourne: Scribe Publications, 1999), pp.2-3).
History doesn't repeat itself - but it rhymes
attributed to Mark Twain
"At the end of the nineteenth century Britain possessed the wealthiest and most powerful economy that the world had ever known. The average income of its citizens was greater than that of any other country, the majority of the world's trade was carried out in its ships and financed by its institutions while its external investments surpassed those of all the other major economies combined. It had been the first nation to undergo industrialization, the first to install modern transport networks, the first to develop the financial infrastructures required to support industry at home and commerce and investment abroad" (Roderick Floud, The Economic History of Britain Since 1700, Volume 2:1860-1939, Second Edition, (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1994), p.1).
"... Britain, a country the size of New Mexico was ... the dominant power. Though Britain was increasingly challenged by Germany, united only recently as 1870, Queen Victoria presided over a fifth of the earth's surface and a quarter of its population, the greatest empire the world had ever seen. Winston Churchill was in his second year at Harrow in 1889 and like every other English schoolboy he sang, "Rule Britannia, Britannia rules the waves / Britons never, never shall be slaves," and with good reason: the Royal Navy was stronger than the two next largest fleets put together (Russia and France). One third of all sea going ships were British. Of every 1,000 tons of shipping passing through the Suez Canal, controlled by Britain, 700 tons were British, 95 German and only 2 American... Britain was the world's banker, insurance broker and commodity dealer, and easily its leading investor. British companies and individuals owned large stakes in American mines, land and railroads: three quarters of the foreign investments in the United States, and in the world, were British..." (Harold Evans, The American Century, (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1999), p.xxiii).
"Today, the United States is undoubtedly the most powerful country in the world by far. Its economy is more than twice the size of the nearest contender (Japan, now read China), it spends more on defence than the next seven or eight countries combined and it leads the world in the information revolution. American culture is pervasive. The US is the only super power and it faces no peer competitor in the foreseeable future. Not since the Roman Empire has any country been so dominant" (Paul Dibb, Has US power passed its peak? afr.com.au, January 25, 2001).
Hegemony and Sea-power
"Both Great Britain and the US have been fiercely maritime cultures. The British empire was made possible by a paramount navy that for two centuries allowed it a unique mobility of power. By the same token, once America ... had extended from sea to shining sea, its rulers quickly became aware of what AT Mahan called, in 1886, the "influence of power upon history". Today, the US navy dwarfs all other navies firepower and oceanic spread, and this for the same reasons that the Royal Navy once ruled the waves. For America in 2002, as for Britain in 1902, naval supremacy provides mobility of power and safeguards a global system of capitalism..." (Linda Colley, What Britannia taught Bush, guardian.co.uk, September 20, 2002).
"From the end of the seventeenth century through to the beginning of the twenty first ... maritime supremacy has been the near monopoly of the English-speaking peoples. It has underwritten their defeat of other empires in all quarters of the globe, their immense commercial prosperity, their pre-eminence in the advancement of the natural sciences and their development of systems of constitutional government which remain the envy of all oppressed peoples...
"The maritime power of the United States rose in the shadow of British naval supremacy from the 1880s to the 1930s. Then, as a direct consequence of saving the British Empire from the challenges of Germany and Japan in two world wars, it took Britain's place as the supreme naval and indeed global power after 1945" (Paul Monk, Sea Power and 'the Augumented Indies', Australian Financial Review, August 2, 2002, Review 8-9).
"... the review of maritime strategy underway in the U.S. is demonstrating that naval power is as important in today's age of globalization as in the first age of globalization a century ago...
"Without state-of-the-art maritime capabilities - like the mobile "global fleet station" envisaged by the U.S. - we shall have no way of responding to ... challenges, save an increasingly anachronistic nuclear deterrent" (Niall Ferguson, Global leaders need to rule the seas, latimes.com, April 16, 2007).
"Since the Pacific War of 1941-45, the United States has enforced a Pax Americana through naval strength and a perimeter of island allies, from Australia to Japan. If American dominance is challenged, it will be at sea. The rise of China and India as military powers has been marked by a large increase in their navies" (The Economist, New silk roads, economist.com, April 8, 2010).
Realized and Unrealized History for the Future
As noted above, Germany, after the stockmarket crashes of 1873 and 1929, provides the 'rhymes' to view the future.
The crashes of 1873 and 1929 ushered in Great Depressions. In the recoveries, starting in 1896 and 1933 respectively, Germany embarked on military build-ups, under different leaders/regimes than the ones that entered the depression - emerging towards the end of the Depressions. Wilhelm I was followed by Wilhelm II, (though the latter's father was Kaiser for three months), and the Weimar Republic was followed by the Third Reich.
"In 1897 [at the end of the Great Depression of the Nineteenth Century] the Kaiser, already in possession of Europe's most powerful army, had ordered the construction of a German High Seas Fleet. He had seen it from the start as a deliberate challenge to Britain's command of the seas, and so to the established order of things. One day, he told his admirals and constructors, it would be God's Instrument of Justice - 'until then, silence and work'. By 1914, the work was done, the silence broken, and as Europe burst like an abscess into war, Queen Victoria's Empire found itself challenged by equal force of arms for the first time since she had succeeded to the throne, almost eighty years before. The grand illusion was collapsing" (Jan Morris, Farewell the Trumpets, (London: Faber & Faber, 1998), pp.155-56).
"In January 1933 its army was, legally, supposed to be no more than 100,000 men, although well before Hitler's accession the military had secret plans to expand from a seven-division force to a twenty-one division force - just as it had previously prepared for the establishment of an air force, tank formations, and other elements banned by the Versailles Treaty. Hitler's general instruction of February 1933 to von Fritsch, 'to create an army of the greatest possible strength', was simply taken by the planners to be the go-ahead to turn the earlier scheme into effect, free at least from financial and manpower restrictions. By 1935, however, conscription was announced and the army's ceiling raised to thirty-six divisions. The acquisition of Austrian units in 1938, the takeover of the Rhineland military police, the creation of armoured divisions, and the reorganization of the Landwehr sent that figure higher. In the crisis period of late 1938, the army totalled forty-two active, eight reserve, and twenty-one Landwehr divisions; by the next summer, when the war began. The German field army's order of battle listed 103 divisions - a jump of thirty-two with one year. The Lufwaffe's expansion was even greater and faster. German aircraft production of a mere thirty-six planes in 1932 roes to 1,938 in 1934 and 5,112 in 1936, and the service's twenty-six squadrons (July 1933 directive) rose to 302 squadrons, with over 4,000 front-line aircraft, at the outset of the was. If the navy was less impressive in size, then that was to a larger degree to the fact that (as Tirpitz earlier discovered) the creation of a powerful battle fleet took as least one to two decades. Nonetheless, by 1939 Admiral Raedar commanded a number of fast, modern warships, the navy had five times the number of personnel that it possessed that it possessed in 1932, and it was spending twelve times as much as before Hitler came to power.
"As Tim Mason had pointed out, 'the only "solution" open to the regime of the structural tensions and crises produced by dictatorship and rearmament was more dictatorship and rearmament.
"... since the Nazi regime lived upon conquest, and Hitler was driven forward from one acquisition to the next, how and where could a halt be called? The full logic of his megalomania implied that no other state should be a challenge to Germany in Europe, and possibly in the world... Despite all the lines of continuity, the German Fuhrer was quite different from his Frederickian and Bismarckian forebears in his fantastic schemes for world power and his ultimate disregard for all obstacles which stood in the way of his design. Impelled as much by these manic, long-term ambitions as by the need to escape from short-term crises, Hitler like the Japanese, was committed to altering the international order as soon as possible" (Paul Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers, pp.394-95, 399-400).
As noted above: "Winston Churchill was in his second year at Harrow in 1889 and like every other English schoolboy he sang, "Rule Britannia, Britannia rules the waves / Britons never, never shall be slaves" ".
Will the demise of America mean that not only Britons, but also Americans will become slaves - that is, the Anglo-Saxon-Celtic and Related peoples?
" "Wilhelm II wanted colonies and military bases around the world," author Henning Sietz wrote in Die Zeit. "The United States was increasingly getting in the Kaiser's way."
"Beginning in 1897, a German navy lieutenant named Eberhard von Mantey was assigned the task of preparing an invasion of the United States after German and American interests had collided in the Pacific.
"Von Mantey's aim was to find a way to force the United States to sign a treaty giving Germany free reign in the Pacific and Atlantic. He rejected ideas of a naval blockade or a naval battle and made plans for an invasion of the northeast instead" (Kaiser Wilhelm's Germany Had Plan to Take New York, reuters.com, May 8, 2002).
"The victory [in 1907] of Victor Grayson, a raving Socialist, in the West Riding of Yorkshire raised frightening prospects... with a gift for oratory... he preached Socialism as the deliverance of the poor with a fervor that swept through the mill towns like fire. His wild antics in the House twice caused his suspension and attracted attention all over Europe. The Kaiser was reported to have proposed invading England with an Army corps or two, proclaiming that he had come not as an enemy but as Victoria's grandson to deliver England "from the Socialist gang which is ruling the country." In cooperation with King Edward [his uncle] he would dissolve Parliament and re-establish autocratic monarchy as feudatory of Germany" (Barbara Tuckman, The Proud Tower, (New York, Ballantine Books, 1996), pp.379-380).
"The Nazi German invasion of Britain would have not been a gentle affair. The captured German papers leave no doubt of that. On September 9  Brauchitsch, the Commander in chief of the Army, signed a directive providing that "the able-bodied male population between the ages of seventeen and forty-five [in Britain] will, unless the local situation calls for an exceptional ruling, be interned and dispatched to the Continent... In no other conquered country, not even in Poland, had the Germans begun with such a drastic step ...[the plans]... seem designed to ensure the systematic plunder of the island and the terrorization of its inhabitants ... Everything but normal household stocks were to be confiscated at once" (William L. Shirer, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, (Sydney: Random House Australia, 1998), p.782).
The German/European Question
"... there are obvious analogies between the creation of a united Germany in the mid-nineteenth century and the history of European integration in the twentieth" (Harold James, A German Identity 1770-1990, (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1989), p.218).
There is a double rhyme here - German and European unification:
Prussian hegemony of the German empire (northern and southern states) is the rhyme for German hegemony of a future European Superpower/Empire (western and eastern states or northern/southern states).
(Tim Shipman, New map of Britain that makes Kent part of France...and it's a German idea, dailymail.co.uk, September 4, 2006).
Germany versus Britain past, Europe versus America future?
"The central fact of global politics from 1890 to 1914 was Britain's relative decline. This occurred naturally, as industrial power diffused, but was aggravated by the particular challenge of Germany. Overextended, the British sought partners to share the burdens of a world empire and were obliged in return to look kindly on those partners'Landsburg ambitions" (20th-Century International Relations, Britannica CD 99 Multimedia Edition ©1994-99, Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc).
"An assassination in the Balkans may have provided the 'spark' for war, and the conflagration which followed drew in many countries, for varying reasons. Yet, so far as the British and German governments were concerned, the 1914-18 conflict was essentially entered into because the former power wished to preserve the existing status quo whereas the latter, for a mixture of offensive and defensive motives, was taking steps to altar it. In that sense, the wartime struggle between London and Berlin was but a continuation of what had been going on for a least fifteen or twenty years before the July crisis itself" (Paul M. Kennedy, The Rise of the Anglo-German Antagonism 1860-1914, (Amherst: Humanity Books, 1980), p.470).
The struggle, then, began around the end of the Great Depression of the Nineteenth Century.
"The first industrial nation had offered the world a remarkable public experiment in liberal, capitalist democracy whose success was premised on free trade and world peace. Tuesday, 4 August 1914 brought that experiment to an abrupt end" (The Oxford History of Britain, Edited by Kenneth O. Morgan, Revised Edition, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), p.581).
"...it is no coincidence that World War I started when it did. The United Kingdom's share of world manufacturing output shrank from almost 32 percent in 1870 to just 14 percent in 1913. Sometime during that year, German output exceeded that of Britain for the first time. The Great War then became a test of strength between two powers. Similar global wars had been fought in the past almost every time a hegemonic power was displaced and a new world order created.... the Pax Britannica was over" (James Dale Davidson & William Rees-Mogg, Blood in the Streets, (New York: Summit Books, 1987), pp.65-66).
Divided Kingdom/Divided Republic
"The British Empire did not die of HYPERINFLATION. The pound collapsed in value. It did not inflate into oblivion. The British Empire simply rolled over and died. The decline of the sterling silver penny of England was no different a path than the decline and fall of Rome. The United States will follow the same path and that means there is a risk that it will break apart into regional sections ONLY AFTER the dollar is hit very hard following Europe and then Japan" (Martin Armstrong, How do empires die, armstrongeconomics.com, June 16, 2012).
Typological-Bible prophecy suggest that both Britain and America will split apart; and if that is the case a divided Britain and America will be that much easier to invade.
How the break-up will reconstitute North America, before WW3, time will tell. But it is suggested that the Europe will, at the very minimum, conquer "Atlantic America" and that Japan will, at a minimum conquer "The California Republic".
Religion and Power
Britain and America were at their hegemonic height, relative to their competitors, between 1815-1873 and 1945-20??, respectively. The dates were and will be defined by the end of wars and stockmarket crashes.
It is argued, in what follows that 'religion' plays a part in the rise and fall of nations, and that Britain and America were/are no exception and that church-going was at more or less at its peak in Britain and at its peak in America in the defining years above.
But before looking at what happened, the Biblical precedent for success is presented - the pattern that was followed, more less, by both Britain and America.
Jehoshaphat and the Keys to Success
2 Ch 19:4 Jehoshaphat lived in Jerusalem, and he went out again among the people from Beersheba to the hill country of Ephraim and turned them back to the LORD, the God of their fathers, (NIV).
2Ch 17:7 In the third year of his reign he sent his officials Ben-Hail, Obadiah, Zechariah, Nethanel and Micaiah to teach in the towns of Judah.
2Ch 17:8 With them were certain Levites - Shemaiah, Nethaniah, Zebadiah, Asahel, Shemiramoth, Jehonathan, Adonijah, Tobijah and Tob-Adonijah - and the priests Elishama and Jehoram.
2Ch 17:9 They taught throughout Judah, taking with them the Book of the Law of the LORD; they went around to all the towns of Judah and taught the people.
2Ch 17:10 The fear of the LORD fell on all the kingdoms of the lands surrounding Judah, so that they did not make war with Jehoshaphat.
2Ch 17:11 Some Philistines brought Jehoshaphat gifts and silver as tribute, and the Arabs brought him flocks: seven thousand seven hundred rams and seven thousand seven hundred goats.
2Ch 17:12 Jehoshaphat became more and more powerful; he built forts and store cities in Judah
2Ch 17:13 and had large supplies in the towns of Judah. He also kept experienced fighting men in Jerusalem.
2Ch 17:19 These were the men who served the king, besides those he stationed in the fortified cities throughout Judah. (NIV).
"As a result of divine blessing as well as sage fiscal programs Jehoshaphat brought Judah to a prosperity and strength unknown since Solomon. This evoked such esteem among his neighbors that some of them, specifically the Philistines and Arabs, submitted to his dominion voluntarily and provided him with tribute (2 Chron. 17:10-11). Their reasons were not totally devoid of self-interest, for they were motivated to a large extent by the need for Judean protection against an increasingly visible Assyrian war machine. They turned quite naturally to Jehosphaphat because he had accumulated vast provisions in storage depots throughout Judah and raised an army of enormous proportions.
"An even greater source of Jehoshaphat's strength, a strength of the heart and spirit, was the missionary activities he inaugurated throughout Judah in his third year (2 Chron. 17:7-9). Various leaders - priestly and secular alike - made their way through the length and breadth of the nation, teaching Torah as they went. Later, evidently after Jehoshaphat's alliance with Ahab, some of the evangelists penetrated even the hill country of Ephraim with their plea for reconciliation to Yahweh (2 Chron. 19:4).
2Ch 19:5 He appointed judges in the land, in each of the fortified cities of Judah.
2Ch 19:6 He told them, "Consider carefully what you do, because you are not judging for man but for the LORD, who is with you whenever you give a verdict.
2Ch 19:7 Now let the fear of the LORD be upon you. Judge carefully, for with the LORD our God there is no injustice or partiality or bribery."
2Ch 19:8 In Jerusalem also, Jehoshaphat appointed some of the Levites, priests and heads of Israelite families to administer the law of the LORD and to settle disputes. And they lived in Jerusalem.
"Jehoshaphat also introduced sweeping changes in the nation's judiciary in all the fortress cities of Judah and in Jerusalem itself created a kind of supreme court made up of religious and non-religious personnel. It was their responsibility to hear cases referred to them from the lower courts. Over all of them were Amariah, the chief priest, and Zebadiah, the leading official of Judah. All of these appointees the king charged to judge fairly..." (Eugene H. Merrill, Kingdom of Priests - A History of Old Testament Israel, (Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1996), pp.342-43).
"[The] ideal growth-and-development society would ... possess the kind of political and social institutions that favor the achievement of these goals; that would, for example:
"Secure rights of private property... Secure rights of personal liberty - secure them against both the abuses of tyranny and private disorder (crime and corruption)... Enforce rights of contract, explicit and implicit... Provide responsive government, one that will hear complaint and make redress... Provide honest government...[et cetera]" (David Landes, The Wealth and Poverty of Nations, pp.217-18).
To emphasize a crucial key to success/blessing:
"The second and third of Jehoshaphat's achievements are peace (v.10) and wealth (v.11)... The fact that they are mentioned straight after the 'Back to the Bible' campaign suggests that they are the result of God's word" (Martin J. Selman, 2 Chronicles, Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries (TOTC), D. J. Wiseman, General Editor, (Leicester: Inter-Varsity Press, 1994), p.406).
What follows in this section is a look at the material and spiritual wealth of first Britain and then America, noting that the rise to world hegemony is accompanied by religious revival, including 'back to the Bible' campaigns; and, conversely, a decline from world hegemony is accompanied by a decline in church-going.
"In 1870 England was universally regarded as the strongest and richest nation on earth, indeed in human history...
"... in the middle decades of the [nineteenth] century, England became the workshop of the world... In the 1850s Britain produced two-thirds of the world's coal, half of its iron, more than half its steel, half of its cotton cloth, 49 per cent of its hardware, virtually all of its machine tools" (Paul Johnson, The Offshore Islanders - A History of the English People, (London: Phoenix, 1992), pp.317 & 281).
"An energetic manufacturing sector pressed forward with a huge range of items, from ships and steam engines through textiles to the enormous variety of small manufactured goods which adorned Victorian houses and, by their export in British ships, 'Victorianized' the whole trading system"(The Oxford History of Britain, Edited by Kenneth O. Morgan, pp.528-29),
"The industrialisation of half a dozen major economies took place courtesy of British tools, patents, industrial know-how and skilled personnel; and it was largely financed by British capital... The railway-steamship age created the modern world-economy; the English device of the gold standard was generally adopted, and centred on London as the financial pivot of the liberal international trading system. For the English, it was the highwater mark of their fortunes relative to the rest of the world. English ideas, institutions, attitudes, tastes, pastimes, morals, clothes, laws, customs, their language and literature, units of measurement, systems of accountancy, company law, banking insurance, credit and exchange, even ... their patterns of education and religion became identified with progress across the planet. For the first time, the infinite diversities of a hundred different races, of tens of thousands of regional societies, began to merge into standard forms: and the matrix was English" (Paul Johnson, The Offshore Islanders, p.281).
"Herbert Schlossberg argues that by the time Victoria became queen in 1837, Victorian culture was already essentially in place. Focusing on the period between the 1790s and the 1840s, Schlossberg shows how the religious revival that took hold of England's culture in the early years of the nineteenth century constituted a silent revolution ... that formed the basis of Victorian culture" (The Silent Revolution and the Making of Victorian England (Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 2000), Review on backcover of book).
"If it is possible to specify a point which the beginning of national revival began to coalesce from the scattered communities of renewal ... it may be the royal proclamation of June 1, 1787. King George issued a Proclamation for the Encouragement of Piety and Virtue, under the urging of a little-known parliamentarian, William Wilberforce... The king noted the "rapid progress of impiety and licentiousness" and enjoined his subject to mend their ways; the upper classes in particular were to set a good example for others. His proclamation urged persons in authority to punish drunkenness, blasphemy, lewdness, profanation of the Sabbath, public gambling and immoral books. We do not have much reason to suppose that the issuance of the royal proclamation itself had profound effect on spiritual life or morals of the country, but its very existence suggests that something fundamental was going on in the country of which the king was taking note. He was endorsing a trend that was already well underway..." (Herbert Schlossberg, The Silent Revolution and the Making of Victorian England, p.46).
"No one will ever understand Victorian England who does not appreciate that among highly civilized, in contradistinction to more primitive, countries it was one of the most religious that the world has known" (R. C. K. Ensor, England 1870-1914, (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1936), p.137).
"In the 1850s, most people attended church. Basic Christian ideas were taught in school, legitimated by every major social institution, promoted by the social elites, reinforced by rites of passage, and pervaded every aspect of social life" (Steve Bruce, God is Dead - secularization in the West, (Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2002, p.73).
"The timing [of the 1851 Religious Census] was fortuitous, since churchgoing rates in 1851 were close to their highest level since measurement began, as Gill (forthcoming) documents. The reason for the rise in churchgoing rates over the century or so leading up to 1851 was the rise of "new dissent". By far the most numerous new element of dissent was Wesleyan Methodism and its offshoots...
"The increase in churchgoing rates between, say, 1750 and 1851 appears at least partly interpretable in terms of increased population density and the rise of dissent, both of which operated to overcome the key depressor of church attendance in rural areas - the distance between home and worship. The most influential figure behind the rise of England as a religiously plural nation - John Wesley - made it the Methodist mission to bring spiritual provision to the under-supplied, geographically isolated parts of the nation (see Currie 1967)...
"This period of "churching" exhibits parallels with that charted in the United States by Finke (1992). As they might observe, church involvement grew concurrently with a lessening of the regulation of non-Anglican religious groups, and the rise of religious pluralism. As in rural England suggest, the growth of religious pluralism fostered the construction of new churches, which acted to increase churchgoing rates...
"After 1851, however, just as this competitive religious market had been set in place and churchgoing rates had risen to very high levels, recruitment and retention of adherents began to falter... Whether this institutional decline began as early as 1850 or as late as World War I is a matter of dispute... Church attendance may have been holding its own in real terms between 1850 and 1880, but was almost certainly in decline by the 1880s...
"The negative relationships between urban-industrial development and church attendance visible in urban England in 1851 appears to anticipate the unbroken decline in churchgoing that has occurred since 1851 (or thereabouts). The twentieth century was a period of unremitting decline, for both overall church membership and attendance rates... Also, if the other major body of theory - the Stark-Bainbridge cycle of secularization innovation and revival - is valid, one must suppose that England is now long overdue the arrival of a new religious movement capable of attracting tens of millions of adherents" (Alasdair Crockett, Variation in Churchgoing Rates in England in 1851: Supply-side Deficiency or Demand-Led Decline, Discussions Papers in Economic and Social History Number 26, (University of Oxford, August 2000), pp.6 & 32-33).
Ensor argues that "the cult of hedonism, which grew with the growth of facilities for luxury" (p.141) was a factor in the declining influence of "Victorian evangelism" (p.139).
A similar pattern in America:
"Even the American taste for superlatives was stretched by the nature of the good times in the fifties. There had been nothing like it before in the history of the world. National output doubled between 1946 and 1956 and would again by 1970. With the exception of the elderly on fixed incomes, the mass of people enjoyed spectacular increases in their spending power. Personal incomes nearly tripled between 1940 and 1955. A whole new middle class, made up of 60 percent of all American families, was created... Some 13 million new homes were bought in the decade after 1948; 83 percent of American homes had a television; the number of two-car families doubled between 1951 and 1958; and the number of hot dogs went from 750 million in 1950 to 2 billion in 1960. America, with 6 percent of the world's population, was consuming one third of the world's goods and services. But that same 6 percent was making no less than two thirds of the world's manufactures" (Harold Evans, The American Century, p.435).
"After 15 years of depression and war, people were not interested in social reform but in rebuilding and expanding the educational and transportation systems, achieving stable economic growth, and, in the case of the younger generation whose lives had been most disrupted by World War II, in marrying and having children. Thus, the postwar era was the age of the housing boom, the television boom, and the baby boom, of high birth and comparatively low divorce rates, of proliferating suburbs and a self-conscious emphasis upon family "togetherness." Though frustrating to social reformers, this was probably a necessary phase of development..." (United States of America: The Peak Cold War Years, 1945-60, Encyclopaedia Britannica).
"The furious debate in some quarters over whether America was born a "Christian nation" is ironic. The historical record shows that America was not born Christian, but grew to be very Christian centuries later...
"Evangelical movements in the late 18th and early 19th centuries sent preachers out to Christianize the unorganized settlers. They competed against religious ignorance, but also against each other and the established churches. Their message of a democratic faith, in which the poor, the uneducated, and even the fallen, not just the pre-elected elite, could someday sit at God's throne eventually brought the upstart Protestant movements, such as Methodism, Baptism, and others, like Mormonism, increasing success.
"Later, over the course of the nineteenth century, middle-class Americans in great numbers formed and joined churches and by the twentieth century, they had made church-going a norm. Importantly, it was around 1900, give or take a generation, that religious fundamentalism took form in reaction to the growing role of science. That "old time religion," ironically, may be only about a century or so old.
"The "normal" religious life many Americans seem to remember is the life of the 1950s, when church-building and church-attending boomed - not coincidentally, along with the Baby Boom. Those years were the peak of church membership and attendance in American history - much higher than in Early America - but not that much higher than today.
"We err if we project that 1950s culture back to the early days of America. And we underestimate the accomplishment of legions of traveling ministers who eventually, rural hollow by rural hollow, Christianized America" (Claude S. Fischer, A Christian America? What History Show, madeinamericathebook.wordpress.com, March 26, 2010).
"If we leave aside the social, moral and political behaviour of its citizens, the United States has every appearance of being unusually godly.
"... while organized religion remains much more vigorous in the USA than in any other industrial democracy of the 'First World', there are very clear signs that mainstream Christian churches are declining in popularity and that the conservative Protestant churches are losing their doctrinal and behavioural distinctiveness. Privatization, individualism and relativism are now affecting the US churches in the way they did the British churches in the middle of the twentieth century... those three forces weakened religion by undermining the cohesion of religious organizations, reducing the degree of background provided for any worldview in the flow of everyday life, and weakening the commitment of individuals to ensuring the successful transmission of their religious culture intact to their children. At present this must stand as something of a prediction but ... we can already see the effects of increased liberalism in the figures for church adherence.
"We may want to explain the secularity of some elite groups (such as professional scientists) by the impact of science and rationalism, but to understand the mass of the population it is not self-conscious irreligion that is important. It is indifference. The primary cause of indifference is the lack of religious socialization and the lack of constant background affirmation of beliefs... The combination of cultural diversity and egalitarianism prevent our children being raised in a common faith, stop our beliefs being reaffirmed by religious celebrations of the turning of the seasons and the key events in the life cycle, and remove from everyday interaction the 'conversational' reaffirmation of a shared faith..." (Steve Bruce, God is Dead, pp.204, 227-28 & 240-41).
Who really are the Anglo-American peoples?
"I will not cease from mental Fight; Nor shall my Sword sleep in my hand: Till we have built Jerusalem, In England's green and pleasant land" - William Blake, English poet, 1804.
"We are the peculiar chosen people, the Israel of our time. We bear the ark of the liberties of the world" - Herman Melville, American author, 1850.
USA - Superpower without a Territorial Empire. Why?
"After centuries in which imperial territory and commerce went together, the United States has found how to enjoy imperial status without (mostly) the pain of empire: through the power of the purse and the media, free trade, trustworthy money and skilled armies not of colonial garrisons or officials, but of scientist and technicians, executives and entrepreneurs. And salesmen...
"As the millennium ended, the United States was the greatest power in history, the only one whose troops and diplomats, traders and bankers, factories and film makers, reporters, camera-men, currency and computers have dominated the entire planet (plus, briefly, a little of the moon)...
"Of all history's great powers ... what did it not end up with? A territorial empire. For all its hegemony of the West, and then the world, the United States did not build outward from its all-but colonies. Hawaii and Puerto Rico apart, it retreated from them. Even when next-door Cuba turned to communism, it left Cubans exiles try, and fail, at the Bay of Pigs, to win it back...." (The Economist, The strange hyperpower 1999, Millennium Edition, December 31, 1999, p.51).
"...the American people were perhaps the most reluctant imperialists in history. No sooner had they acquired an overseas empire [as a result of the 1898 Spanish-American War] than they set in motion the process of its dissolution or transformation" (American Imperialism, Encyclopaedia Britannica).
"Americans are not, at heart, an imperial people. Even benevolent hegemons sometimes have to act ruthlessly, and they need a staying power that does not come easily to people who are reasonably content with their own lives and society" (Francis Fukuyama, After Neoconservatism, nytimes.com, February 19, 2006).
Part of the answer to the above question may be traced back over 3,500 years ago to a blessing recorded in Genesis, the first book of the Bible. But before looking at this, two earlier promises in Genesis, and their fulfillment, are considered.
But before going forward, it must be stated, that the major premise of this article is that many British and American peoples comprise a major part of the Lost Ten Tribes of Israel.
It is argued, based on the present understanding of science, that the peoples of the UK (70%) and America (53%) who belong to Y-DNA haplogroup R1b cannot be related to the Jews (Israel [24%]) who belong to Y-DNA haplogroup J2. Therefore the conclusion is that science proves that the British and American peoples are not part of the Lost Ten Tribes of Israel, hence they are not descendants of Abraham. (The Germans (45%), also R1b, it is argued cannot be related to ancient neo-Assyrians who, as descendants of Abraham, would also be Y-DNA haplogroup J2).
"Cultural changes in political and social organisation - phenomena that are unique to human beings - may extend their reach into patterns of genetic variation in ways yet to be discovered" (Tian Chen Zweng, Alan J. Aw & Marcus W. Feldman, Cultural hitchhiking and competition between patrilineal kin groups explain the post-Neolithic Y-chromosome bottleneck, nature.com/articles/s41467-018-04375-6).
This article, based on typology, suggests that the above conclusions, based on the present understanding of science, will be found wanting.
Ge 12:1 Now the LORD had said unto Abram... [go] unto a land that I will show thee
Ge 12:2 And I will make of thee a great nation [goy], and I will bless thee, and make thy name great; and thou shalt be a blessing:
"God's promise to Abram has a sevenfold structure: (1) "I will make you into a great nation," (2) "I will bless you," (3) "I will make your name great," (4) "you will be a blessing," (5) "I will bless those who bless you," (6) "whoever curses you I will curse," and (7) "all peoples on earth will be blessed through you." God's original blessing on all mankind (1:28) would be restored and fulfilled through Abram and his offspring. In various ways and degrees, these promises were reaffirmed to Abram (v. 7; 15:5-21; 17:4-8; 18:18-19; 22:17-18), to Isaac (26:2-4), to Jacob (28:13-15; 35:11-12; 46:3) and to Moses (Ex 3:6-8; 6:2-8). The seventh promise is quoted in Ac 3:25 with reference to Peter's Jewish listeners (see Ac 3:12) - Abram's physical descendants - and in Gal 3:8 with reference to Paul's Gentile listeners - Abram's spiritual descendants" (Ronald Youngblood, Genesis, Kenneth Barker, General Editor, The NIV Study Bible, (Grand Rapids: Zondervan Bible Publishers, 1985), p.24).
The emphasis of this booklet is on the 'hegemonic' role of Abram's "physical descendants" as God's instrument of 'blessing' to the nations:
"... God will make of Abram a great nation. This expression is intriguing, for the Hebrew word for nation is goy, a word used frequently in the OT to describe gentile nations in the world... God does not here promise to make of Abram a great people ('am). Israel will be a goy among the goyim... The use of the word goy in this context adds the special element of "the status and stability of nationhood in a land designated for that purpose" (See E. A. Speiser, " 'People' and 'Nation' of Israel," JBL 79 (1960), 162-63). Whereas 'am refers to people or nations in terms of centripetal unity and cohesiveness, goy is linked with government and territory. Abraham's descendants will be those who grow into the status of a nation..." (Victor P. Hamilton, The Book of Genesis Chapter 1-17, R. K. Harrison, et al., General Editors The New International Commentary on the Old Testament (NICOT), (Grand Rapids, William B. Eerdman's Publishing Company, 1990), pp.371-72).
"By anchoring blessing in a land, God made the promise tangible. A land had boundaries, geography, inhabitants; it had to be possessed, occupied and fortified against attack; it needed cultivation and conservation if it was to support a population" (Joyce G. Baldwin, The Message of Genesis 12-50, J. A. Motyer, OT Series Editor, The Bible Speaks Today (BST), (Leicester: Inter-Varsity Press, 1986), p.30).
"A large population, a large territory, and a spiritual character make a nation great" (Gordon J. Wenham, Genesis 1-15, Word Biblical Commentary (WBC), David A. Hubbard, et. al., General Editors, (Nelson Reference & Electronic, 1987), p.275).
" "You shall be a blessing ... is an unusual construction... "be a blessing" occurs in only two other passages, Isa 19:24 and Zech 8:13. Its precise interpretation is uncertain. The [Bible] versions take it to be virtually equivalent to the passive participle "you shall be blessed"... [some expositor's] would render it "you will be the embodiment of blessing"... [while other] "give it a more active sense" because Abram has been blessed, "he will be a source of blessing to others." But the most likely interpretation is that suggested by Zech 8:13, "As you have been a byword for cursing among the nations ... so I will save you and you shall be a blessing." In other words, people will say, "may God make you as blessed Abram" (cf. the use of the names of Ephraim and Manesseh, 48:20). The use of Abram's name in such a blessing of course implies that he is already blessed, and as the next verse makes clear, those who bless Abram in this way will themselves be blessed. So the alternative interpretations are rightly implied by this passage, though they do not express the precise manner of "you shall be a blessing" (Gordon J. Wenham, Genesis 1-15, WBC, p.276).
"The blessings of God are not all to be turned in on Abram. A great nation, blessed, a great name - yes. But Abram must be more than a recipient. He is both a receptacle for the divine blessing and a transmitter of that blessing" (Victor P. Hamilton, The Book of Genesis Chapter 1-17, NICOT, p.373).
Ge 12:3ab And I will bless them that bless thee, and curse [qalal] him that curseth ['arar] thee
"God states that his relationship to other will be determined by the relationship of these other to Abram. Abram can expect to encounter both those who will bless him and those who will curse him..." (Victor P. Hamilton, The Book of Genesis Chapter 1-17, NICOT p.374).
"Any person or people who sought or promoted Abraham's welfare would be blessed. Conversely, whoever cursed Abram God would curse. One cursed Abram or his seed by hindering him, inflicting harm on him, or undermined his reputation.
"There are two different words for curse in v.3b. The first verb, qll, has a wider usage, meaning "disdain, treat with contempt, curse," 'rr, is stronger and more focused, and it denotes God's release of a harmful force such as a plague to punish those who obstruct the way of or mistreat any of Abram's descendants. The strength of the term with God shows God's resolve to protect Abram and his seed from all opposition" (John E. Hartley, Genesis, Robert L. Hubbard Jr., et. al, Old Testament Editors, New International Biblical Commentary (NIBC),(Peabody: Hendrickson Publishers, 2002), p.136).
"One need not go beyond ch. 12 to see an immediate fulfillment of this promise. Pharaoh cursed Abram by taking the patriarch's wife, albeit in ignorance about her married status. As a result diseases and plagues fell on Pharaoh and his household" (Victor P. Hamilton, The Book of Genesis Chapter 1-17, NICOT, p.173).
Ge 12:3c ... and in thee shall all families of the earth be blessed.
"Then God stated the highest goal for Abram's calling. All peoples on earth will be blessed through him. The verb may be ... translated "find or obtain blessing." God's primary way of working among the nations is through Abram's seed. Thus, to experience God's blessing, the various peoples must interact with Abram's offspring. Having selected one family, God in a sense shows favoritism, but his design is not parochial. God was and is working through one family for the benefits of all families. Through Abram's seed he is achieving his goal in creating the earth, namely, people worshipping only him. That this program is just rests in God's wise sovereignty" (John E. Hartley, Genesis, NIBC, p.133).
A modern example of a way this "blessing" works:
"... the four East Asian tigers ... of Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and South Korea ... benefited from an open international trading order, created and protected by the United States" (Paul Kennedy, Preparing for the Twenty-first Century, (London: Fontana Press, 1994) p.199).
"While most of the credit for Asian development rests squarely with Asians themselves, it is also irrefutable that no progress would have been possible without the intellectual framework and institutional infrastructure imported en masse from the West over the past century" (Shoaib Raza Naqvi, Asian Wall Street Journal, November 8, 1995).
Jacob/Israel as Abraham's Great Nation
Ge 35:10 And God said unto him [Abraham's grandson], Thy name is Jacob: thy name shall not be called any more Jacob, but Israel shall be thy name: and he called his name Israel.
Ge 35:11 And God said unto him, I am God Almighty: be fruitful and multiply; a nation [goy] and a company [qahal] of nations [goyim] shall be of thee, and kings shall come out of thy loins;
Ge 35:12 And the land which I gave Abraham and Isaac [son of Abraham, and father of Jacob], to thee I will give it, and to thy seed after thee will I give the land. (AV).
Ge 35:22b Now the sons of Jacob were twelve:
Ge 35:23 The sons of Leah; Reuben, Jacob's firstborn, and Simeon, and Levi, and Judah, and Issachar, and Zebulun:
Ge 35:24 The sons of Rachel; Joseph, and Benjamin:
Ge 35:25 And the sons of Bilhah, Rachel's handmaid; Dan, and Naphtali:
Ge 35:26 And the sons of Zilpah, Leah's handmaid; Gad, and Asher:
Eze 2:3 ... I am sending you to the sons of Israel, to the nations [goyim], the rebelling ones who have rebelled against Me... (The Interlinear Bible).
Ge 35: 11 A nation, indeed, a host of tribes, shall stem from you... (translation by Victor P. Hamilton).
"I sparse the u on uqehal [as an emphatic]... God is thinking in terms of a nation (goy), which is composed of a host of tribes (qehal goyim). goyim is not the usual word to refer to "tribes," but see Ezekiel 2:3 for a parallel..." (Victor P. Hamilton, The Book of Genesis 18-50,NICOT, p.381).
"This verse echoes both Isaac's blessing of Jacob in 28:3-4 and the covenant ratification with Abraham in chap. 17... "May a nation" echoes the oracle before Jacob's birth. "Two nations are in your womb" (25:23), while "a multitude of nations" echoes Isaac's prayer, "so that you become a multitude of people" (28:3)..." (Gordon Wenham, Genesis 16-50, WBC, p.325).
"Two things are promised him which we have met with often before: - (1.) That he should be the father of a great nation, great in honour and power - a company of nations shall be of thee (every tribe of Israel was a nation, and all the twelve a company of nations), great in honour and power - kings shall come out of thy loins. (2.) That he should be the master of a good land (Gen 35:12), described by the grantees, Abraham and Isaac, to whom it was promised, not by the occupants, the Canaanites in whose possession it now was. The land that was given to Abraham and Isaac is here entailed on Jacob and his seed. He shall not have children without an estate..." (Matthew Henry, Matthew Henry's Commentary on the Whole Bible, e-sword.net)
The two nations of Israel
Isa 8:14 ... the two houses of Israel... (NBV).
The ideal of the 'great' nation was of a United Kingdom of Israel, comprising twelve tribes descended from the twelve sons of Jacob/Israel. But brotherly rivalry, in the course of time, would lead to the great people splitting into two houses, or kingdoms.
2 Sam 12:8 ... I gave you [David] the house of Israel and Judah (NIV).
The "great" nation under David and Solomon was also a unification of two tribal groupings - the United Houses of Israel and Judah.
The Past As Prologue
"Gold, juniper wood, and jewels. King Solomon ran an open economy, and his fleet brought to Israel all the above and more. He was committed to globalization before the world knew there was a globe"
- ExonMobil advertisement in Foreign Affairs, November/December 2000
The modern world has experienced two periods of "globalization," sponsored first by Britain, up to WW1 and then by America, after WW2. The two periods of "globalization" were a consequence of Pax Britannica and Pax Americana. The start of WW1 and the end of WW2 was a transition period between the two "golden ages".
Ancient Israel also experienced two "golden ages". First under David and Solomon as a united Kingdom of Israel and Judah, and after a 'transition,' the second under Jeroboam II and Uzziah, as a divided kingdom of Israel and Judah.
The rise and fall of ancient Israel has many lessons for modern Israel. The nations of Israel and Judah during the second golden age and after the deaths of Jeroboam II and Uzziah are especially relevant for today.
The aftermath of Jeroboam/Uzziah is compared with the aftermath of a future stockmarket crash that leads to a time of trouble. Just as ancient Israel confronted the might of a resurgent Assyrian empire compounding her time of trouble, so the Anglo-Americans will be confronted be a resurgent German-European empire.
1Ch 29:23 Then Solomon sat on the throne of the LORD as king instead of David his father, and prospered; and all Israel obeyed him.
"The David and Solomon of the Chronicler ... must be seen not only as the David and Solomon of history, but also as typifying the Messianic king of the Chronicler's expectation" (Raymond Dillard, 1,2 Chronicles, The NIV Study Bible, p.580).
2Ch 9:22 King Solomon was greater in riches and wisdom than all the other kings of the earth.
2Ch 9:23 All the kings of the earth sought audience with Solomon to hear the wisdom God had put in his heart.
2Ch 9:24 Year after year, everyone who came brought a gift - articles of silver and gold, and robes, weapons and spices, and horses and mules.
1Ki 4:20 The people of Judah and Israel were as numerous as the sand on the seashore; they ate, they drank and they were happy. (NIV).
"The Bible with justice depicts Solomon's reign as one of unexampled prosperity. Israel enjoyed a security and a material plenty such as she had never dreamed of before and was never to know again" (John Bright, A History of Israel, 4th Edition, (Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 2000) p.217).
"Of special import is the declaration that Solomon's wisdom and wealth are the result of God's favor, since foreign potentates come to Jerusalem from all over the world to hear "the wisdom God had put in his heart" (9:23)" (Andrew E. Hill, 1,2 Chronicles, Terry Muck, General Editor, The NIV Application Commentary (NIVAC), (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2003), p.410).
2Ch 9:14a ... revenues brought in by merchants and traders.
2Ch 1:16 Solomon's horses were imported from Egypt and from Kue - the royal merchants purchased them from Kue.
2Ch 1:17 They imported a chariot from Egypt for six hundred shekels of silver, and a horse for a hundred and fifty. They also exported them to all the kings of the Hittites and of the Arameans.
2Ch 9:21 The king had a fleet of trading ships manned by Hiram's men. Once every three years it returned, carrying gold, silver and ivory, and apes and baboons. (NIV).
"International trade was ... [a] major source of Israel's material prosperity. This must surely have been undertaken with nations under Israel's political control, but the record attests most especially the commercial ties between Israel and those peoples with whom she enjoyed relationships of peaceful parity. The remarkable thing about Solomon's role is that he served more as international broker than anything else. Capitalizing of Israel's strategic location at the overland and maritime crossroads of the eastern Mediterranean world, he established a clearinghouse in Israel through which international merchandise passed. As it entered and left Israel's borders, it was assessed customs taxes which, of course, accrued to Israel's treasury. Furthermore, Solomon was able to corner the market on many commodities, so that he could sell at exorbitant[?] profit...
"Land commerce was particularly centered on horses and chariots..." (Eugene H. Merrill, Kingdom of Priests, pp.308-309).
"In short, Solomon was an arms dealer - a curious trade for a man of peace! The Chronicler draws no moral lessons from this exchange; certainly, there is no trace of criticism of Solomon on this account. The purpose of this text [2 Chr.1:14-17] in Chronicles is to demonstrate the Lord's faithfulness. Just as God had promised, Solomon has become rich" (Steven S. Tuell, First and Second Chronicles, James L. Mays, Series Editor, Interpretation - A Biblical Commentary for Teaching and Preaching, (Louisville: John Knox Press, 2001), pp.120-21).
As noted by Paul Kennedy above: "It sounds crudely mercantilistic to express it this way, but wealth is usually needed to underpin military power".
2Ch 1:14 Solomon accumulated chariots and horses; he had fourteen hundred chariots and twelve thousand horses, which he kept in the chariot cities and also with him in Jerusalem.
2Ch 9:26 He ruled over all the kings from the River to the land of the Philistines, as far as the border of Egypt. (NIV).
1Ki 4:25 And Judah and Israel dwelt safely, every man under his vine and under his fig tree, from Dan even to Beer-sheba, all the days of Solomon.
"The horse-drawn, armored chariot was the pinnacle of military technology in the Iron Age. Whenever there was room for the chariots to roll, chariotry would prevail over infantry every time. Solomon's ability to field fourteen hundred chariots (2 Chr. 1:14/1 Kgs. 10:26) demonstrated his military strength and security.
"However, security can be won at the expense of the general welfare. Doubtless for this reason, Deuteronomy 17:16 forbids the king to make slaves of his own people "in order to acquire more horses." Chronicles, however, insists that such was not the case with Solomon. Rather the king's security and wealth led to the enrichment of his entire kingdom" (Steven S. Tuell, First and Second Chronicles, Interpretation, pp.120-21).
2Sa 8:1 In the course of time, David defeated the Philistines
2Sa 8:2 David also defeated the Moabites ... the Moabites became subject to David and brought tribute.
2Sa 8:6 He put garrisons in the Aramean kingdom of Damascus, and the Arameans became subject to him and brought tribute. The LORD gave David victory wherever he went.
2Sa 8:9 David ... defeated the entire army of Hadadezer, [king of Zobah]
2Sa 8:11 King David ... subdued
2Sa 8:12 Edom and Moab, the Ammonites and the Philistines, and Amalek
2Sa 8:14 He put garrisons throughout Edom, and all the Edomites became subject to David...
1Ki 5:1 When Hiram king of Tyre heard that Solomon had been anointed king to succeed his father David, he sent his envoys to Solomon, because he had always been on friendly terms with David.
1Ki 3:1a Solomon made an alliance with Pharaoh king of Egypt and married his daughter...
1Ki 4:21&24 And Solomon reigned over all kingdoms west of the river, from Tiphsah [on the Euphrates], unto the land of the Philistines, to Gaza, and unto the border of Egypt, and had peace on all sides; they brought presents, and served Solomon all the days of his life.
"David had not only established the monarchy upon a firm basis, but had also exalted the Old Testament kingdom of God to such a height, that all the kingdoms around were obliged to bow before it" (C .F. Keil, 1 and 2 Kings, James Martin, Translator, Commentary on the Old Testament, C. F. Keil and F. Delitzsch (KD), (Peabody: Hendrickson Publishers, Inc, 2006), Vol.3, p.13).
"The extent of Solomon's kingdom and the prosperity of the people are fulfillments of the covenant with Abraham (Gen. 15:18)" (August H. Konkel, 1 & 2 Kings, NIVAC, (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2006), p.99).
"One can say without fear of contradiction that Israel under Solomon had reached the very pinnacle of international power and prestige. With Assyria and Egypt Israel could rightly claim to be of the three great powers of the tenth century" (Eugene H. Merrill, Kingdom of Priests, p.310).
Spheres of Political Influence
"The question arises, Is the term empire applicable to Israelite hegemony in the tenth century? If by "empire" one means sheer territorial expanse, it is not. If however, one has in view a domination over foreign lands and peoples which falls short of incorporation into the dominate state, then the situation under David and Solomon certainly qualifies. A more fruitful line of inquiry, however, might be to consider the various spheres over which David and Solomon exercised political influence. The first was the homeland itself. Israel under David had made the transition from a rather loose confederation of nearly autonomous tribes to a clearly definable national entity with a strong central government and a united diplomatic and military presence among the nations of the world. But Israel under David and Solomon was geographically coextensive with the older tribal territories; that is, she occupied only that area which had been assigned to the tribes in conquest times. Historically and eschatologically the Old Testament knows of an Israel expanded beyond the tribal borders, but this never appears to have been the case in the period of the united monarch.
"Israel under Solomon did not, then, formally incorporate under her jurisdiction lands that lay outside her traditional border. Solomon did, however, inherit from David a complex of provinces consisting of kingdoms and states immediately contiguous to Israel. These included Damascus, Ammon, Moab, Edom, and several smaller principalities. As provinces these areas were not considered integral parts of the homeland, but they nonetheless lost their independence and were ruled directly by Solomon through Israelite governors or other subordinates. They were subject to taxation and conscription and were expected to defend Israel against hostilities. In return they could expect the protection and benefits of the central government.
"The third sphere of political influence, and that makes empire applicable to the Israel of Solomon, was the more distant and less rigid collection of vassal states. These client nations - including Zobah, Hamath, Arabia, and possibly Philistia - were brought under Israelite control by military or diplomatic means, but were allowed to retain a certain measure of autonomy, including native rulers and internal fiscal policy. They were obligated, however, to recognize the suzerainty of the Israelite king, to provide tribute of goods and services to the king on stated occasions, and to maintain loyalty to the central government under all circumstances, especially in times of war. Solomon, as Great King, was responsible to defend these areas of his empire and otherwise to render such assistance as they might require.
"Finally, Solomon's imperial policy included a network of parity treaties with neighboring or even distant powers with whom he was on friendly terms. These treaties, as the name implied, recognized for equality of the contracting parties and usually contained provisions for mutual defense, trade, safe passages, extradition, and the like. The best example is the relationship between Solomon and Hiram of Tyre. Neither ruler was subordinate to the other, and the provisions of their treaty were clearly to the advantage of both..." (Eugene H. Merrill, Kingdom of Priests, pp.300-302).
In the Millennium perhaps there may be "allied states," while not equal with Israel, that will have more independence than "vassal states" as describe above; but still vassals recognizing the suzerainty of the Israelite king".
Excursus: The Millennium
Ps 2:6 "I have installed my King on Zion, my holy hill."
Ps 2:7 I will proclaim the decree of the LORD? He said to me, "You are my Son; today I have become your Father.
Ps 2:8 Ask of me, and I will make the nations your inheritance, the ends of the earth your possession.
Ps 2:9 You will rule them with an iron scepter; you will dash them to pieces like pottery."
Ps 2:10 Therefore, you kings, be wise; be warned, you rulers of the earth.
Ps 2:11 Serve the LORD with fear and rejoice with trembling.
Ps 2:12 Kiss the Son, lest he be angry and you be destroyed in your way, for his wrath can flare up in a moment. Blessed are all who take refuge in him.
Solomon's hegemony is a type of a future Israel/Jacob hegemony. In the Millennium, that starts three and a half years after the end of Jacob's trouble, the descendant of David/Solomon, instead of a "hegemony" over the land from the Euphrates to the Wadi of Egypt, will have a hegemony that extends "to the ends of the earth".
"... almost a thousand years before Christ (e.g., 2 Sam. 7:14; Ps. 2:7), the Davidic kings of Israel were already claiming to be sons of Yahweh...
"... the "official line" of these Davidic kings was their right to rule all the earth by Yahweh's authorization and support..." (Gerald H. Wilson, Psalms Volume 1, NIVAC, (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2002), pp.102, 112).
The king as the "son" of God "may freely ask for an extension of his rule, because it fits within God's planned universal rule. The father graciously grants to his son the promise of worldwide rule as his "inheritance." Since God is the Ruler of the world, he authorizes the Davidic king to extend his kingdom to "the ends of the earth" " (Willem A. VanGemeren, Psalms, Frank E. Gaebelein, General Editor, The Expositor's Bible Commentary (EBC), (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1991), (Vol.5, p.70).
2Ch 9:8a Blessed be the LORD thy God, which delighted in thee to set thee on his throne, to be king for the LORD thy God.
Jer 33:17 For thus saith the LORD; David shall never want a man to sit upon the throne of the house of Israel;
The Son is ultimately Jesus Christ - the LORD thy God; but He delegates the responsibility to the human descendants of David/Solomon.
Mic 5:4 He will stand and shepherd his flock in the strength of the LORD, in the majesty of the name of the LORD his God. And they will live securely, for then his greatness will reach to the ends of the earth.
"... the usage of the phrase "the ends of the earth" in Judean royal ideology implies a universal empire" (Leslie C. Allen, The Books of Joel, Obadiah, Jonah, and Micah, NICOT, (Grand Rapids, William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1976), p.347).
Solomon and his descendants were meant to extend God's hegemony to "the ends of the earth". The extension of this rule was in trouble even before the death of Solomon.
The Divided Kingdom
1Ki 11:9 And the LORD was angry with Solomon, because his heart was turned from the LORD God of Israel...
1Ki 11:11 Wherefore the LORD said unto Solomon, Forasmuch as this is done of thee, and thou hast not kept my covenant and my statutes, which I have commanded thee, I will surely rend the kingdom from thee, and will give it to thy servant.
1Ki 11:12 Notwithstanding in thy days I will not do it for David thy father's sake: but I will rend it out of the hand of thy son.
1Ki 11:13 Howbeit I will not rend away all the kingdom; but will give one tribe to thy son for David my servant's sake, and for Jerusalem's sake which I have chosen.
"No sooner had Solomon died ... than the structure erected by David fell precipitately apart to be replaced by two rival states of second-rate importance..." (John Bright, A History of Israel, p.229).
"The united kingdom of Israel and Judah of the days of David and Solomon suddenly divided in 931/930 B.C. The ten tribes of the north would henceforth be known as Israel or Ephraim, after its most assertive and most influential tribe. The two tribes in the south, Judah and Benjamin, would be known as Judah" (Walter C. Kaiser, Jr., A History of Israel, (Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 1998), p.289).
"... the consequences of the schism were disastrous. The empire was for the most part lost overnight. Neither Israel nor Judah, occupied with internal problems, had the power, or the will to hold it or, apparently, even to try: it simply went into default... They lived side by side, at times at war with each other, at times in friendly alliance, until the northern state was destroyed by the Assyrians precisely two hundred years later (722/1)" (John Bright, A History of Israel, pp.229 & 231).
But there was to be one more hurrah before the neo-Assyrian onslaught (see below).
Loyalists in the North to the South
2Ch 11:14 The Levites even abandoned their pasturelands and property, and came to Judah and Jerusalem because Jeroboam and his sons had rejected them as priests of the LORD.
2Ch 11:16 Those from every tribe of Israel who set their hearts on seeking the LORD, the God of Israel, followed the Levites to Jerusalem to offer sacrifices to the LORD, the God of their fathers.
2Ch 11:17 They strengthened the kingdom of Judah and supported Rehoboam son of Solomon three years, walking in the ways of David and Solomon during this time.
2Ch 15:9 And he [Asa, 910-869 B.C.] gathered all Judah and Benjamin, and the strangers with them out of Ephraim and Manasseh, and out of Simeon: for they fell to him out of Israel in abundance, when they saw that the LORD his God was with him.
"The Chronicler's concern with "all Israel" is one of his most pervasive themes; from the vantage point of the post-exilic community, he had not simply written them off. Here Asa enjoys the loyalty of many Northerners, as had Rehoboam before Him (11:13-17). The Chronicler speaks of actions in the North on the part of several of the kings of Judah. Asa's son Jehoshaphat ... sent a teaching delegation to the North (19:4). Hezekiah invited Israelites from Beersheba to Dan to celebrate the Passover (30:5, 11); Josiah's reforms reached into "Ephraim, Manesseh, Simeon, and as far as Naphtali" (34:6; cf. 34:21, 33)" (Raymond B. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, WBC, (Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1987), p.121).
A modern analogy, for those of the northern kingdom who joined with the southern kingdom of Israel, when the country divided after the death of Solomon - a split in the former Solomonic Empire - was the American- and British-born Royalist American colonists who remained loyal to Great Britain and King George and moved to other parts of the British Empire as the result of the secession of the thirteen colonies from the British Empire. It is estimated that 46,000, about 1.5% of the US population of 3 million in 1783, moved to Canada.
"The eighth century brought a dramatic reversal of fortune which projected Israel and Judah to heights of power and prosperity unknown since David and Solomon. This was partly to the fact that both states were blessed with able rulers. But the chief reason lay in a happy turn of world events of which Israel became the beneficiary...
"The resurgence of the sister states reached its zenith ... under the able and long-lived Jeroboam II, of Israel, and his equally long-lived and able younger contemporary, Uzziah, of Judah" (John Bright, A History of Israel, pp.255, 257).
2Ki 14:25 He [Jeroobam II] restored the coast of Israel from the entering of Hamath unto the sea of the plain, according to the word of the LORD God of Israel, which he spake by the hand of his servant Jonah, the son of Amittai, the prophet, which was of Gath-hepher.
2Ki 14:28 Now the rest of the acts of Jeroboam, and all that he did, and his might, how he warred, and how he recovered Damascus, and Hamath, which belonged to Judah, for Israel, are they not written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Israel?
"Jeroboam II was the greatest of all the kings of northern Israel..." (Walter C. Kaiser, Jr., A History of Israel, p.351).
"His reign was long, the longest of all the reigns of the kings of Israel... His character was the same with that of the rest of those kings... Yet he prospered more than most of them, for though, in that one thing, he did evil in the sight of the Lord, yet it is likely, in other respects, there was some good found in him and therefore God owned him" (Matthew Henry, Matthew Henry's Commentary on the Whole Bible).
"What he lacked in godliness ... he made up for in sheer political leadership. Following in the footsteps of his father Jehoash, whom he presumably aided in his military campaigns, Jeroboam was able not only to recover the territories of Israel proper which had fallen over the years to Damascus, but to bring all of south Aram and the Transjordon back under Israelite hegemony (2 Kings 14:25-28). Not since the days of Solomon had Israel dominated such a vast area...
"This .... was a time of reprieve and even favor. Perhaps the recovery of the kingdom would move the nation to a recovery of covenant obedience" (Eugene H. Merrill, Kingdom of Priests, p.374).
2 Ch 26:5 He [Uzziah] sought God during the days of Zechariah, who instructed him in the fear of God. As long as he sought the LORD, God gave him success.
2Ch 26:11 Uzziah had a well-trained army, ready to go out by divisions according to their numbers as mustered by Jeiel the secretary and Maaseiah the officer under the direction of Hananiah, one of the royal officials.
2Ch 26:12 The total number of family leaders over the fighting men was 2,600.
2Ch 26:13 Under their command was an army of 307,500 men trained for war, a powerful force to support the king against his enemies.
2Ch 26:14 Uzziah provided shields, spears, helmets, coats of armor, bows and slingstones for the entire army.
2Ch 26:15 In Jerusalem he made machines designed by skillful men for use on the towers and on the corner defenses to shoot arrows and hurl large stones. His fame spread far and wide, for he was greatly helped until he became powerful. (NIV).
"The reign of Uzziah ... is described in rather glowing terms by the chronicler. Uzziah's interest in military matters is emphasized: he reorganized and enlarged Judah's army until it consisted of more than three hundred thousand well-trained men..." (Eugene H. Merrill, Kingdom of Priests, p.176).
"The muster role of Uzziah's army (26:11-15) is the last of several such reports in Chronicles, all associated with righteous kings of Judah (cf. 1 Chron. 12:23-40; 21:27; 2 Chron. 13:3-4, 17; 17:12-19; 25:5-6). The Chronicler regards the maintenance of a large army by the king of Judah as a sign of God's blessing. In addition to the militia levied by tribe and led by tribal chieftain or clan elder, Uzziah's army includes another layer of leadership in the royal officials who function like chiefs of staff in today's military parlance (2 Chron. 26:11). The organization of the militia into "divisions" (26:11) represents a new development in Israel's military structure. The same is true for the armaments provided for his soldiers (26:14), since in earlier days the conscript was required to provide his own weapons (cf. Jud, 20:16-17; 1 Chron. 12:2, 8, 24). Thus the reign of Uzziah witnesses the increasing sophistication of warfare as practised by the Israelites.
"The repetition of "help" (or "support," 26:13, Heb. 'zr) frames the beginning and the end of the section 26:7, 15) and compares Uzziah favorably to kings like David (1 Chron. 12:1, 18, 21-22), Solomon (22:17) and Hezekiah (2 Chron 32:3). The Chronicle suggests that Uzziah is an inventor of sorts, designing "machines" (26:15; or "inventions," from the Heb hsb, "to think") for use in combat. The immediate context suggests that this new offensive weapon is a type of catapult (Williamson, 1,2 Chronicles, 337-38). Dillard (following Yadin), however, prefers to identify this new military technology as defensive constructions erected on the city walls and towers to offer some protection to troops stationed on the ramparts (Dillard 2, Chronicles, 209-10...)" (Andrew E. Hill, 1, 2 Chronicles, NIVAC), pp.550-551).
"But Uzziah was not only a destroyer - he was famous builder as well... His most significant achievement ... was his placement of settlements in the deserts and the Shephelah, a feat of engineering and agricultural technology that would provide a model for later generations including the Nabateans and even the Israelis of the twentieth century..." (Eugene H. Merrill, Kingdom of Priests, p.377).
"Dillard has remarked that Uzziah's love of the soil (26:10) justifies identifying him as "the patron saint of farming" among the kings of Judah (Dillard, 2 Chronicles, 209). Not since Solomon has there been a king with such agrarian interests (cf. 1 Kings 4:33)" (Andrew E. Hill, 1, 2 Chronicles, NIVAC, pp.550-551).
"By the mid-century the dimensions of Israel and Judah together lacked but little of being as great as those of the empire of Solomon. Since full advantage seems to have been taken of the favorable position in which the country found itself, a prosperity unknown since Solomon ensued. The two states being at peace with each other, and the major trade routes - up and down Trans-jordan, into Arabia, along the coastal plain, into the hinterland from the Phoenician ports - all once more passing through Israelite-held territory, tolls from caravans, together with the free interchange of goods, poured wealth into both countries...
"All this resulted in a prosperity such as no living Israelite could remember. The splendid buildings and costly ivory inlays of Phoenician or Damascene unearthed at Samaria show that Amos did not exaggerate the luxury that Israel's upper classes enjoyed... Judah was equally prosperous... In short, as the kingdoms of Israel and Judah reached the middle of the second century of their existence, they found themselves better off than they had ever been before. It was, superficially at least, a time of great optimism, and of great confidence in the promises of God for the future...
"The rather glowing picture above must, however, be balanced with another and far less beautiful one. This we gain from the books of Amos and Hosea, which afford an inside view of contemporary Israelite society, and which make it clear that the northern state, at least, in spite of its healthy appearance, was in an advanced state of decay, socially, morally, and religiously. The eighth-century prosperity was, in fact, the hectic flush of its mortal illness" (John Bright, A History of Israel, pp.258-59).
Yahweh as enemy
Isa 8:13 The LORD Almighty is the one you are to regard as holy, he is the one you are to fear, he is the one you are to dread,
Isa 8:14 and he will be a sanctuary; but for both houses of Israel he will be a stone that causes men to stumble and a rock that makes them fall. (NIV).
"In the third quarter of the eighth century, Israel was confronted by circumstances that altered her status decisively and permanently... Though they had fought with their neighbors continually, and on occasion been humiliated, they had never lost political self-determination; nor had their fortunes, although not unaffected by the current of larger world affairs, ever been dependent upon the whim of empires far away, save indirectly. The truth is that the entire history of Israel ... had been spun out in a great power vacuum; no empire had existed that had been in a position to trouble her deeply and permanently. As a result, she had never known an emergency that she had not in some way been able to master, and to survive. After the middle of the eight century this was never to be the case again. Assyria took the path of empire in earnest, and the cloud long lowering on the horizon became a line storm which swept little peoples before it like leaves. The northern state snapped before the blast and went crushing down. Though, Judah managed to survive for yet a century and a half, outliving Assyria herself, she was never, save for one brief interval, to know political independence again" (John Bright, A History of Israel, p.269).
Earlier Walter Russell Mead was quoted: "Since the glorious Revolution of 1688 that established parliamentary and Protestant rule in Britain, the Anglo-Americans have been on the winning side in every major international conflict... More than three hundred years of unbroken victory in major wars with great powers: it begins to look almost like a pattern".
But just as ancient Israel "had never known an emergency that she had not in some way been able to master, and to survive" until the emergence of the neo-Assyrian empire, so the Anglo-American and Related Peoples are going to face a time of trouble that they will not be able to master and survive with the emergence of a German-led European superpower.
Symptoms of decline
Am 6:13 you who rejoice in the conquest of Lo Debar and say, "Did we not take Karnaim by our own strength?"
Amo6:8b ... you do not grieve over the ruin of Joseph. (NIV).
"Amos, one of the prophets who lived during Jeroboam's reign (Amos 1:1), has left us ... a series of pictures, of the moral and spiritual decay that was fast leading the nation to destruction. The people bragged about their military victories (6:13) and suffered from a false sense of security (6:1). They were inordinately proud of their great houses of dressed stone decorated with inlaid ivory work and of their pleasant vineyards with their trailing grape vines and luscious fruit; but they were not concerned that it all came from exactions from the depressed and needy (5:11). They were shamelessly immoral (Am 2:7). They ate and drank and sang; they perfumed themselves and listened to music lying upon fine couches; but the woes of the common folk and their grinding poverty did not concern them at all (6:4-6). They celebrated their religious festivals with many blood offerings and with elaborate choral worship, but there was flagrant injustices everywhere, and a judge could be bribed with a piece of silver or a pair of shoes (2:6)" (M. S. Seale, "Jeroboam", Geoffrey W. Bromiley, Editor, International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (ISBE), (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans, 1982), Vol.2, p.998).
"The state of Israel, externally strong, prosperous, and confident of the future, was inwardly rotten, and sick past curing... Israel had, in fact, begun to die" (John Bright, A History of Israel, p.266).
The prophet's description of the earlier descendants of Ephraim/Israel is also a warning for their latter day descendants.
"It is certainly possible that the United States could fall apart, fracturing along its ethnic lines or the chilling and increased disparities between the wealthy and poor, between the city and the gated communities of the new suburban pods... The psychological gap between the rich and poor has grown, the rich apparently desiring to "secede" from the rest of society with their private schools and private police forces: There were already more private than public police in 1970; at the end of the American century, reports Robert Kaplan, there were three times as many, and in California four times as many. The gap between rich and poor is the most extreme in Western civilization. The top 1 percent of Americans have more wealth than the 90 per cent. Nearly 40 million have no health insurance. Crimes strike the poorest most of all. American leads Europe and Japan in beggars, murders and prisons per capita" (Harold Evans, The American Century, p.660).
2Ki 14:29a And Jeroboam slept with his fathers, even with the kings of Israel;...
"The death of Jeroboam II in 753 B.C. was the beginning of the end of the Northen Kingdom..." (Walter C. Kaiser, Jr., A History of Israel, p.352).
"... the history of the northern state becomes a tale of unmitigated disaster. Her internal sickness erupting into the open, Israel herself racked with anarchy at the very moment when resurgent Assyria presented the greatest threat of her entire history..." (John Bright, A History of Israel, pp.269-70).
"At the midpoint of the eighth century a series of events commenced which, within thirty years would bring about the collapse of Damascus, the conquest of Samaria and the end of the nation of Israel and the near capitulation of Judah. The impetus for this was the renascence of the mighty Assyrian Empire under Tiglath-pilser III and his indefatigable war machine. For more than 130 years Assyria terrorized not only Judah but the entire Near Eastern world until Nabopolassar and his illustrious son Nebuchadnezzar eliminated that menace forever" (Eugene H. Merrill, Kingdom of Priests, pp.391-92).
Isa 7:8b Within sixty-five years Ephraim will be too shattered to be a people. (NIV).
2Ki 15:29 In the days of Pekah king of Israel came Tiglath-pileser king of Assyria, and took Ijon, and Abel-beth-maachah, and Janoah, and Kedesh, and Hazor, and Gilead, and Galilee, all the land of Naphtali, and carried them captive to Assyria.
2Ki 17:3a Shalmaneser king of Assyria came up to attack Hoshea
2Ki 17:6 In the ninth year of Hoshea the king of Assyria took Samaria, and carried Israel away into Assyria, and placed them in Halah and in Habor by the river of Gozan, and in the cities of the Medes.
2Ki 17:24 The king of Assyria brought people from Babylon, Cuthah, Avva, Hamath and Sepharvaim and settled them in the towns of Samaria to replace the Israelites. They took over Samaria and lived in its towns.
Ezr 4:1a the enemies of Judah and Benjamin
Ezr 4:2b ... have been sacrificing to him since the time of Esarhaddon king of Assyria, who brought us here. (NIV).
2Ki 17:18 Therefore the LORD was very angry with Israel, and removed them out of his sight: there was none left but the tribe of Judah only.
Looking at the aftermath of the fall of the southern kingdom, some 130 years after the fall of the northern kingdom:
Jer 42:17 Indeed, all who are determined to go to Egypt to settle there will die by the sword, famine and plague; not one of them will survive or escape the disaster I will bring on them.
Jer 44:12 I will take away the remnant of Judah who were determined to go to Egypt to settle there. They will all perish in Egypt; they will fall by the sword or die from famine. From the least to the greatest...
Jer 44:11 Therefore, this is what the LORD Almighty, the God of Israel, says: I am determined to bring disaster on you and to destroy all Judah.
Jer 44:14 None of the remnant of Judah who have gone to live in Egypt will escape or survive to return to the land of Judah, to which they long to return and live; none will return except a few fugitives. (NIV).
"The final comment in the verse except refugees seems to contradict the strong language of earlier verses... If a very few return to their homeland it will be so few as merely to emphasize the extent of the judgment on the community in Egypt" (J. A. Thompson, The Book of Jeremiah, NICOT, (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans, 1980), pp. 677-78).
(J. Robert Vannoy, 1,2 Kings, Kenneth Barker, General Editor, The NIV Study Bible (NIVSB), (Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1987), p.556 - cropped).
2Ch 30:6 So the posts went with the letters from the king [Hezekiah] and his princes throughout all Israel and Judah, and according to the commandment of the king, saying, Ye children of Israel, turn again unto the LORD God of Abraham, Isaac, and Israel, and he will return to the remnant of you, that are escaped out of the hand of the kings of Assyria.
2Ch 34:21 "Go and inquire of the LORD for me [Josiah] and for the remnant in Israel and Judah about what is written in this book that has been found. (NIV).
"The prophet Isaiah had predicted that the process of deportation would take place over a sixty-five year period beginning in 734 B.C. (7:8). This is what happened for the task of moving the people continued from 734 to 669 B.C. The Assyrian king Esarhaddon (681-669 B.C.), grandson of Sargon II, completed the task. This fact can be noted in Ezra 4:2, where the Samaritan population (a mixed race with the Jewish people because of the policy of deportation) attempted to hinder the work of Governor Zerubbabel and High Priest Joshua in rebuilding the temple...
"So sparse did the population become in Israel in those days that the lions began to multiply out of control. This, too, was in accordance with the predicted judgment threatened in Leviticus 26:21-22" (Walter C. Kaiser, Jr., A History of Israel, p.365).
After Hezekiah's Passover, where a remnant of the remnant of Israel attended, there still remained over 40 years of the 65 years of 'shattering' of the northern kingdom to take place; and yet there was still a "remnant" in Israel in Josiah's days [641-609 BC] (2 Chronicles 34:9,21).
Lost to secular history
"...10 of the original 12 Hebrew tribes, which, under the leadership of Joshua, took possession of Canaan, the Promised Land, after the death of Moses ... were named Asher, Dan, Ephraim, Gad, Issachar, Manasseh, Naphtali, Reuben, Simeon, and Zebulun - all sons or grandsons of Jacob. In 930 BC the 10 tribes formed the independent Kingdom of Israel in the north and the 2 other tribes, Judah and Benjamin, set up the Kingdom of Judah in the south. Following the conquest of the northern kingdom by the Assyrians in 721 BC, the 10 tribes were gradually assimilated by other peoples and thus disappeared from history. Nevertheless, a belief persisted that one day the Ten Lost Tribes would be found" (Ten Lost Tribes of Israel, Encyclopaedia Britannica).
"The northern population had been dispersed in upper Mesopotamia... Assyrian imperial policy deliberately aimed to assimilate them into the population. However, the presence of distinctively Israelite names in documents from their exilic settlements generations after the collapse of Samaria suggests that many retained distinctive ethnic self-consciousness. (Names like Neriyaw and Paltiyau in Assyrian documents have been identified as Israelite...)" (Daniel I. Block, The Book of Ezekiel Chapters 25-28, NICOT, (Grand Rapids: William. B. Eerdmans, 1998), p.412).
Not lost to God
Eze 37:16 ... 'This is what the Sovereign LORD says: I am going to take the stick of Joseph - which is in Ephraim's hand - and of the Israelite tribes associated with him, and join it to Judah's stick, making them a single stick of wood, and they will become one in my hand.'
Eze 37:21 ... "This is what the Sovereign LORD says: I will take the Israelites out of the nations where they have gone. I will gather them from all around and bring them back into their own land.
Eze 37:22 I will make them one nation in the land, on the mountains of Israel. There will be one king over all of them and they will never again be two nations or be divided into two kingdoms. (NIV).
"It is sometimes pointed out that this never happened in the post-exilic history of Israel; but the prophet is looking for nothing less than the advent of the Messianic kingdom, when the Tabernacle of God shall be with his people (v.27...). At that time the nations shall recognize the power of Yahweh through His redemption of His people (v.28)" (G. R. Beasley-Murray, Ezekiel, D. Guthrie, et. al., Editors, New Bible Commentary (NBC), Third Edition, (Leicester: Inter-Varsity Press), 1970), p.681).
So this has not happened yet. It is yet future. For this to occur the descendants of the northern ten-tribes of Jacob/Israel must exist today. Where are they?
The key is to identify the end-time descendants of the two leading tribes - Ephraim and Manasseh - of the former northern kingdom. It would then follow that the other eight tribes would be located near the tribes of Joseph, especially Ephraim.
Some prophetic principles
Ge 49:1 And Jacob called unto his sons, and said, Gather yourselves together, that I may tell you that which shall befall you in the last days.
Ge 49:28a All these are the twelve tribes of Israel: and this is it that their father spake unto them,
"Metonymy identifies the interchange of one noun for another because of an inherent relationship between the two... A pervasive sort of prophetic metonymy occurs early in Scripture in the patriarchal blessings, in which these heroes of Genesis speak repeatedly of the later tribes and nations that will be descendant from them in terms of their individual children at the time" (J. Barton Payne, Encyclopedia of Biblical Prophecy, (Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1973), p.19).
Last days/Day of the Lord
Da 2:28a But there is a God in heaven that revealeth secrets, and maketh known to the king Nebuchadnezzar what shall be in the latter days.
"God has made known the dream to King Nebuchadnezzar, and what will be in the latter days, or at the end of this age (NEB). The meaning of this phrase in the prophets is often quite general and refers not strictly to the end of the world, but rather to what will happen 'one day', a goal for history some time 'in the future' (cf.10:14)..." (Joyce G. Baldwin, Daniel, TOTC, (Leicester: Inter-Varsity Press, 1978), p.91).
Ge 49:1 And Jacob called unto his sons, and said, Gather yourselves together, that I may tell you that which shall befall you in the last days.
Ge 49:5a & 7b Simeon and Levi are brethren;... I will divide them in Jacob, and scatter them in Israel.
This prophecy, concerning these sons of Jacob, does not necessarily refer to eschatological Messianic times as Simeon and Levi will not be scattered in Israel - see Ezekiel 48.
"The [Aramaic] expression ... "in days to come" is equivalent to the Hebrew expression... [The Hebraic] "in days to come" - first appears in Genesis 49:1, where Jacob foretold the lot of the Twelve Tribes after their conquest of Canaan some four centuries later. In Deut 4:30 it refers to the period of Israel's future adversity, in 31:29 of the period of Israel's future rebellion. In Isa 2:2 it points forward to the establishment of the millennial kingdom, in Eze 38:16 to the eschatological war of Gog against restored Israel. Here (Dan 2:28) it seems to refer to all the coming events subsequent to the lifetime of Nebuchadnezzar and including the establishment of the fifth kingdom (the Millennial Age). The other occurrence in Dan 10:14 seems to include both the "Proto-Tribulation" under Antiochus Epiphanes in the second century B.C. and the antitypical Great Tribulation under the Beast in the last days. So far as the NT usage is concerned, Peter in his Pentecost sermon in Acts 2:17 referred Joel 2:28-32 to the "last days" ... and evidently included the whole post-Crucifixion period, from the establishment of the NT church to the second coming of Christ. In Heb 1:2 the phrase ... "in these last days" ... occurs with evident reference to the church age, but without any specific terminus as quen" (Gleason L. Archer Jr., Daniel, EBC, (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1992), Vol.7, p.45).
Isa 2:11 The lofty looks of man shall be humbled, and the haughtiness of men shall be bowed down, and the LORD alone shall be exalted in that day.
"The phrase "in that day" (vv.11,17,20) is an OT technical term for the Day of the Lord; and Isaiah''s use of it could reflect his awareness of the message of his older contemporary in the north (Amos 5:18-20), who declared that this day of God's judgment would not fall simply on Israel's enemies but on herself" (Geoffrey W. Grogan, Isaiah, EBC, (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1986), Vol.6, p.39).
"In the light of biblical usage, the eschatological Day of the Lord may be defined as earth's final period of time. It commences with the judgment of Daniel's seventieth "week." It continues with the Messiah's (Christ's) return and reign on earth. And it extends to the appearance of the new heavens and the new earth (Rev 21:1), when the messianic kingdom will continue as (or, perhaps merge with) the eternal kingdom (1 Cor 15:24-28; Rev 21-22)" (Kenneth L. Barker, Zechariah, EBC, Vol.7, p.620).
Kenneth Barker's quote needs to be modified - the commencement of judgment, or the Great Tribulation, begins in the second half of Daniel's seventieth week.
Ge 49:2 Gather yourselves together,
and hear, ye sons of Jacob;
and hearken unto Israel your father.
"... the nature of Hebrew poetry always involves some form of parallelism and that one common form is called synonymous parallelism (where the second line repeats or reinforces the sense of the first line). In this type of parallelism, then the two lines together express the poet's meaning; and the second line is not trying to say some new or different thing" (Gordon D. Fee & Douglas Stuart, How To Read The Bible For All Its Worth, Second Edition, (Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1993), p.189).
How can I give you up, Ephraim?
How can I hand you over, Israel?
Hosea 11:8 (NIV)
"Synecdoche is the figure of speech that puts the part for the whole (as 'fifty sails' for 'fifty ships,' or 'ninth bat' for 'ninth batsman'); or the whole for the part (as in 'Parliament voted ... 'for A majority of the members of Parliament...'
"... It is common for the term 'England' to be used as a synecdoche for the 'United Kingdom', giving offence to Scots, Welsh, and Northern Irish" (Gordon Jarvie, Bloomsbury Grammar, (London: Bloomsbury Publishing Ltd, 1994), p.282).
Isa 7:17 ... Ephraim broke away from Judah ...
Just as 'England', the leading nation, is used, by synecdoche, as a designation of the United Kingdom, so 'Ephraim,' the leading tribe, is used, by synecdoche, as a designation of the (northern) Kingdom of Israel.
Great People and Greater Multitude of Peoples
Ge 48:3 And Jacob said unto Joseph...
Ge 48:5 ... thy two sons, Ephraim and Manasseh, which were born unto thee in the land of Egypt before I came unto thee into Egypt, are mine; as Reuben and Simeon, they shall be mine.
"Most certainly surprising Joseph, Jacob elevates Joseph's two children from grandsons to sons. To make it clear and unmistakable to Joseph what Jacob is doing, Jacob picks out his two oldest children for comparison - Reuben and Simeon. Ephraim and Manasseh may now claim Jacob as "father" as legitimately as any of his other sons. In one move Joseph's sons become coinheritors with their uncles! This, is of course, the event that explains why, in subsequent times, the descendant of Joseph held two tribal allotments, rather than Joseph himself...
"By making Joseph's sons Jacobs sons, Jacob is in effect elevating Joseph to the level of himself. That is, both men are now ancestral fathers of the tribes of Israel that will come from them" (Victor P. Hamilton, The Book of Genesis Chapters 18-20, NICOT, pp.629-30).
Jacob was an ancestral father of a Great Nation made up of a company of nations; Joseph was an ancestral father of a Great Nation and a Company of Nations.
Ge 48:17 And when Joseph saw that his father laid his right hand upon the head of Ephraim, it displeased him: and he held up his father's hand, to remove it from Ephraim's head unto Manasseh's head.
Ge 48:18 And Joseph said unto his father, Not so, my father: for this is the firstborn; put thy right hand upon his head.
Ge 48:19 And his father refused, and said, I know it, my son, I know it: he also shall become a people, and he also shall be great: but truly his younger brother shall be greater than he, and his seed shall become a multitude [melo'] of nations [goyim]. (AV).
Ge 48:19b But his younger brother shall become greater than he, and his seed shall become the fullness [melo'] of the nations [goyim.] (The Interlinear Bible).
"company of peoples... Lit., "The fullness of the nations," or "a plethora of nations." Given that the Hebrew text opens the possibility of the intermixture of non-Israelite peoples with the tribe of Ephraim, Tatg. Onqelos renders the last part of this verse, "and his descendants shall rule over the nations" ... (Victor P. Hamilton, Genesis 18-50, NICOT, p.639).
"Whereas Manasseh will become a "people," Ephraim's descendants will be "full of nations." This last phrase occurs only here and is difficult to interpret. It certainly promises greater fertility to the Ephraimites and is reminiscent of the promises to Abraham, that he would be the father of a multitude of nations (17:4-6; cf. 35:11)" (Gordon Wenham, Genesis 16-50, WBC, p.466).
Ge 48:20 And he blessed them that day, saying, In thee shall Israel bless, saying, God make thee as Ephraim and as Manasseh...
"So numerous would their descendants become that the names Ephraim and Manasseh would in days to come be a kind of prototype blessing, manifested in prosperous and vital family life. At the time of the settlements in Canaan by far the most extensive area had to be allocated to these two Joseph tribes (cf. Jos. 17:14-17, and any map of the tribal territories)" (Joyce G. Baldwin, The Message of Genesis 12-50, BST, pp.202-03).
"Whenever anyone living in Israel (i.e., the nation) wishes to bless someone and make them fruitful, one is to use the formula: May God make you like Ephraim and Manasseh... this blessing does not aim to exalt Ephraim over Manasseh. It declares the blessedness of these two tribes together" (Victor P. Hamilton, The Book of Genesis Chapters 18-20, NICOT, p.642).
"The sons' name can be invoked when Israel (the people, cf. 47:27) pronounces blessing on others: God bless you as he has blessed Ephraim and Manasseh..." (Terence E. Fretheim, The Book of Genesis, The New Interpreter's Bible (NIB), Leander E. Keck, Convener, (Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1994), Vol.1, p.660).
"Here Jacob's prayer echoes the first promise to Abraham that he would be a blessing... Jacob clearly predicts that both Joseph's sons will prove to be outstanding examples of divine blessing" (Gordon Wenham, Genesis 16-50, WBC, p.466).
"... from the time of the Judges ... the tribe of Ephraim so increased in extent and power, that it took the lead of the northern tribes and [later] became the head of the ten tribes, and its name acquired equal importance with the name Israel..." (C. F. Keil, The Pentateuch, KD, p.248).
The most common argument for the fulfillment of the Ephraimite prophecy of the "seed" of Ephraim becoming a multitude of nations, was that it was fulfilled in the time of the Old Covenant Kingdom of God, that is, when the northern Kingdom of Israel broke away from Judah. That is, Ephraim ruling over the other nine tribes was a fulfillment of a "multitude of nations" blessing.
But the problem with this is that the other nine tribes were not descended from Ephraim - they were related to Ephraim but not of the "seed" of Ephraim.
a multitude (melo') of nations
a multitude (melo') of shepherds
No where in the history of the Old Testament did the descendants of Ephraim become a multitude of nations. This means that the fulfillment of Jacob's blessing/prophecy for both Ephraim and Manesseh was yet future to this time.
The argument presented here is that the United States of America fulfills the Manasseh blessing/prophecy of a "great people"/nation, and that the English peoples of England, Australia, Canada, New Zealand and South Africa fulfills the Ephraim blessing/prophecy of a "multitude" of nations:
"The Balfour Report from the 1926 Imperial Conference declared the United Kingdom and its Dominions equal in status in all matters of internal and external affairs. This replaced the principle of a hierarchical relationship with one of 'autonomous communities within the British empire, equal in status, in no way subordinate one to another in any aspect of their domestic or external affairs, though united by common allegiance to the Crown, and freely associated as members of the British Commonwealth of Nations'.
"This document represented an important step on the road to independent nationhood. This step was based on agreement to this report at the 1926 Imperial Conference, by which the British Commonwealth accepted the principles underpinning the autonomy of the self-governing Dominions. The international recognition of the free and equal status of the Dominion members of the League of Nations was thus affirmed within the British Commonwealth. The law enacting these principles was the Statute of Westminster in 1931..." (www.foundingdocs.gov.au & www.history-nz.org).
The "seven sovereign states, each possessing a parliament, an independent elected government and freedom of decision in foreign policy" were "Britain, the Irish Free State, Canada, Newfoundland, Australia, the Union of South Africa and New Zealand. The British colonial empire remained unchanged; it consisted of the crown colonies and protectorates in Africa, Asia, the West Indies and the Pacific - all subordinated to the crown and the British parliament" (Hermann Kinder & Werner Hilgeman, The Inter-War Period/The British Commonwealth (1919-39), "The Penguin Atlas of World History", (Ringwood: Penguin Books, 1896), Vol.32, p.170).
Newfoundland joined Canada in 1949. The Irish Free State, now Eire, while a self-governing dominion was not an Ephraimite nation; and only the English, out of the peoples who make up Britain, are of Ephraim.
Brothers in the modern world
"The study of British history and culture has almost vanished from American schools today; as a result, many Americans are unaware of just how deep the similarities between the two countries go. Foreigners have a clearer ideas about this, and often lump us together as the "Anglo-Saxon powers." This isn't about ethnicity [yes it is; and the result]: the term "Anglo-Saxon" today is used to describe a cultural heritage that continues to influence Britain and the United States. For more than three hundred years, the English and then the Americans have seen their wars against countries like France, Germany, Japan, and Russia as battles between good and evil, between freedom and slavery. During the same time, the enemies of the Anglo-Saxon powers have seen the Anglo-Saxons as cold, cruel, greedy, and hypocritical. The Anglo-Saxon powers fight under the banner of liberal capitalism; their enemies oppose it...
"It is unpardonable vulgar to say so, but in three hundred years of warfare the English-speaking powers kept winning... The Anglo-Saxon powers did not just win wars. They changed the way the world lives, thinks, and organizes itself as much as any of the great civilizations of the past..." (Walter Russell Mead, God and Gold, pp.13-14).
"... it is evidently true that the countries which are in most respects the most thoroughly modernized by any definition that rest on economic and technological progress - Britain in the nineteenth century, the United States today - are significantly more religious than most.
"The key to the ability of the Anglophone world to advance so far west and to maintain its lead position in the global caravan is not, then, that it is or has been more secular than other societies...
"It is to dynamic religion rather than secularization that we must look for explanations of the Anglo-Saxon ascendancy..." (Walter Russell Mead, God and Gold, pp.198-99).
Taking away the hedge
Isa 5:5 And now go to; I will tell you what I will do to my vineyard: I will take away the hedge thereof, and it shall be eaten up; and break down the wall thereof, and it shall be trodden down:
Isa 5:6 And I will lay it waste: it shall not be pruned, nor digged; but there shall come up briers and thorns: I will also command the clouds that they rain no rain upon it.
Isa 5:7 For the vineyard of the LORD of hosts is the house of Israel, and the men of Judah his pleasant plant: and he looked for judgment, but behold oppression; for righteousness, but behold a cry.
"With the decline of Christianity, Europe is also experiencing a rise in what politicians euphemistically call "antisocial behavior." The restrained civility that was once a hallmark of English life has all but vanished, to be replaced by a startling rudeness. Profanity in the street and on television has become the norm. Once, a lifetime ago, an English writer warned of a future in which the state would keep the population under permanent surveillance. Today, George Orwell's imaginary Big Brother is the name of a television series in which individuals volunteer for surveillance by the rest of the population. Far from being inhibited by their loss of privacy, they glory in mutual degradation. Shame has gone; so has civility. On Friday and Saturday nights, most English city centers become no-go zones where drunken, knife-wielding youths brawl with one another and the police. Another striking symptom of this new primitivism is the extraordinary surge in the popularity of tattoos, once associated with the unruly Picts of the Far North. In this modern decline and fall, it seems, at least some of the barbarians come from within the empire" (Niall Ferguson, Empire Falls, vanityfair.com, November 2006).
Eze 3:17 Son of man, I have made thee a watchman unto the house of Israel: therefore hear the word at my mouth, and give them warning from me.
"The terrible challenge of the task as it was laid on Ezekiel lay in the identity of the enemy he was to warn against. It was Yahweh himself. The phrase translated 'give them warning from me' (3:17); 33:7), could more correctly be translated 'warn them against me'. It was Yahweh who was the attacker, coming in judgment upon his own people, not merely the human foreign armies who were his agents. The traditional expectation of Yahweh as the defender of Israel against the enemies had been reversed. He is now the enemy they face..." (Christopher J. H. Wright, The Message of Ezekiel, BST, (Leicester, Inter-Varsity Press, 2001), p.29).
Rod of God's anger
Isa 10:5 Woe to the Assyrian, the rod of my anger, in whose hand is the club of my wrath!
Isa 10:6 I send him against a godless nation, I dispatch him against a people who anger me, to seize loot and snatch plunder, and to trample them down like mud in the streets. (NIV).
"A century ago, Max Weber, a founder of sociology, observed that the Protestant work ethic was what had made northern Europe and America rich. Recently, Niall Ferguson, a British historian at New York University, argued that today's economic stagnation in Germany [at the time of writing, as Germany, through wage compression, higher productivity growth and being the beneficiary of the American and Chinese bubble economies, was able to engineer a cyclical upturn] and other European countries owes much to the decline of religious belief and church attendance during the past four decades. The Protestant work ethic, he thinks, is dead" (The Economist, God, man and growth, November 15, 2003, p.76).
The coming Great Depression is going to usher in a religious revival in Europe, not orientated around Protestantism, but around Roman Catholicism. As has been observed with Jehoshaphat, Britain and America, religious revival is going to play its part in Europe's coming prosperity and military power; reinforced with loot and plunder.
Europe and her allies are going to be God's rod of anger against the Anglo-Saxon-Celtic and kindred peoples in WW3.
You are in whether you like it not
Dt 29:12a You are standing here in order to enter into a covenant with the LORD your God...
Dt 29:14 I am making this covenant, with its oath, not only with you
Dt 29:15 who are standing here with us today in the presence of the LORD our God but also with those who are not here today.
God is the God of modern Israel - the Anglo-Saxon-Celtic and Related Peoples. Modern Israel/Jacob is still bound by the covenant. The blessings of the covenant have been enjoyed, now, with the decline of religion and the secularization of society, come the curses.
Lev 26:31a And I will make your cities waste...
Lev 26:32 And I will bring the land into desolation: and your enemies which dwell therein shall be astonished at it.
Lev 26:33 And I will scatter you among the heathen ["nations," NIV], and will draw out a sword after you: and your land shall be desolate, and your cities waste.
Earlier this proposed Nazi directive was noted: "the able-bodied male population between the ages of seventeen and forty-five [in Britain] will, unless the local situation calls for an exceptional ruling, be interned and dispatched to the Continent... In no other conquered country, not even in Poland, had the Germans begun with such a drastic step ...[the plans]... seem designed to ensure the systematic plunder of the island and the terrorization of its inhabitants..."
WW2 was not the time for the proposal to be carried out. But is getting closer to when the "hedge" is taken away and for a future 'directive' to be carried out.
Just as the earlier descendants of Jacob/Israel were 'spued' out of the land of Israel and Judah, in two subsequent captivities, so the end-time descendants of Jacob/Israel will be 'spued' out of the British Isles, North America and Australasia and other places in one captivity.
The Beginning of Sorrows
Mt 24:3 And as he sat upon the mount of Olives, the disciples came unto him privately, saying, Tell us ... what shall be the sign of thy coming, and of the end of the world?
Mt 24:6 And ye shall hear of wars and rumours of wars: see that ye be not troubled: for all these things must come to pass, but the end is not yet.
Mt 24:7 For nation shall rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom: and there shall be famines, and pestilences, and earthquakes, in divers places.
Mt 24:8 All these are the beginning of sorrows.
"The world is not naturally a peaceful, organized place; it has to be made peaceful by some kind of overarching authority. My great fear is that if the United States opts out, maybe nobody will fill it" (Niall Ferguson, comment in video documentary The World Without US, 2008).
The world is about to change. A future stockmarket crash is going to usher in the Great Depression of the Twenty-first Century - the "beginning of sorrows". It will be a time of such instability and uncertainty that it will seem that end of the world is nigh.
"How many look up to him [Hitler] with touching faith as their helper, their savior, their deliverer from unbearable distress" - Louis Solmitz, Hamburg schoolteacher, 1932 - (ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007817).
Eventually a German-led European superpower will opt in, appearing as saviour but will soon after plunge the world, and especially Jacob/Israel, into a time of trouble never before experienced.
The time of trouble - WW3
Before addressing this topic another biblical prophetic concept is introduced:
"The words "typical" or "typological" derive from the Greek word typos, which means "model" or "pattern " (Jonathan Lunde, An Introduction to General Questions in the New Testament Use of the Old Testament, Kenneth Berding, et.al, General Editors, Three Views on the New Testament Use of the Old Testament, (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2008), p.18).
"Type, Typology. A hermeneutical concept in which a biblical place (Jerusalem, Zion), person (Adam, Melchizedek), event (flood, brazen serpent), institution (feasts, covenants), office (prophet, priest, king) or object (tabernacle, altar, incense) becomes a pattern by which later persons or places are interpreted due to the unity of events within salvation-history..." (G. R. Osborne, "Typology", ISBE, Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans, 1988), Vol.4, p.930).
Or as Jonathan Lunde puts it: "...it refers to events, institutions, or people that foreshadow future things" (ibid., p.19).
Heb 8:5 ... [the earthly tabernacle] is a copy and shadow of what is in heaven. This is why Moses was warned when he was about to build the tabernacle: "See to it that you make everything according to the pattern [Gk. tupos] shown you on the mountain." (NIV).
Heb 9:24 For Christ did not enter a man-made sanctuary that was only a copy [Gk. antitupos] of the true one; he entered heaven itself... (NIV).
"The "type" [Gk. typos] is the original person or event and the "antitype" (Gk. antitypos; cf. 1 Pet.3:21) the latter "copy" that fulfils the former..." (G. R. Osborne, ibid., Vol. 4, p.930). [The earthly tabernacle being an exception].
"[Some] texts are typological-prophetic in their fulfillment. This means that pattern and promise are present, so that a short-term event pictures (or "patterns") a long-term fulfillment... It is often debated whether this is a prophetic category in the strict sense of the term since often the pattern is not identifiable until the ultimate fulfilment is seen. In light of this observation about realization, it is best to distinguish between two types of typological-prophetic fulfillment. [Only part of the first type follows]. The first is typological-PROPHETIC. In these texts, there is a short-term historical referent and yet the promise's initial fulfillment is such that an expectation remains that more of the pattern needs "filling up" to be completely fulfilled. The passage begs for and demands additional fulfillment (because God's Word is true). In fact, such expectation usually already existed among Jewish readers of these texts. A nonchristological example is Isaiah 65-66, where the descriptions of victory over the enemies are so idyllically portrayed as a new creation that the expectation arose of a greater, ultimate fulfillment than merely the return from the Babylonian exile. This fulfillment looked for total restoration, a type of "golden age"...
"Another way in which OT passages might be fulfilled in this way is for a promise to be only partially realized in the short term, so that the expectation of its completion is anticipated in the future. The image of the "day of the Lord" fits here. Although "day of the Lord imagery" is fulfilled in certain events within the OT (e.g., parts of Joel 2), the incomplete nature of that fulfillment anticipates the decisive period of such fulfillment (the "day par excellence")..." (Darrell L. Bock, "Single Meaning, Multiple Contents and Referents," Three Views on the New Testament Use of the Old Testament, pp.118-19).
Mt 24:1 Jesus left the temple and was walking away when his disciples came up to him to call his attention to its buildings.
Mt 24:2 "Do you see all these things?" he asked. "I tell you the truth, not one stone here will be left on another; every one will be thrown down."
Mt 24:3 And as he sat upon the mount of Olives, the disciples came unto him privately, saying, Tell us, when shall these things be? and what shall be the sign of thy coming, and of the end of the world ["age", NIV]?
"The fact that the destruction of the temple and the 'close of the age' can be dealt with together ... indicates that there is a close theological connection between them" (R. T. France, Matthew, Leon Morris, General Editor, Tyndale New Testament Commentaries (TNTC), (Leicester: Inter-Varsity Press, 1987), p.334).
The destruction of the temple, which includes the events leading up to, and after, it, is the 'type,' and the close of the age is the 'antitype'.
"It is not uncommon for prophetic material to move between type and antitype without calling attention to exactly what is happening" (Robert H. Mounce, Matthew, W. Ward Gasque, NT Editor, NIBC, (Peabody: Hendrickson Publishers, 1991), p.222).
"Bible prophecy regularly exhibits this characteristic of telescoping the future, so that the more distant event appears to merge with the nearer so as to become indistinguishable from it. The best known passage in which this telescoping features is the discourse of Jesus in Matthew 24 and Mark 13, where He speaks both of the fall of Jerusalem and of the end of the age. Only after the former event had taken place did it become possible to distinguish which passages applied to the events of AD 70, and which were predictions of the more distant future. The common factors in judgment, whenever it takes place, and the similarity between the methods of one tyrant and another, account for the apparent homogeneity of the chapter. 'It seems...that neither an exclusively historical nor an exclusively eschatological interpretation is satisfactory, and that we may allow for a double reference, for a mingling of historical and eschatological.' The historical is still future at the time of writing, but relates to a recognizable situation identified when the event takes pace. Other parts of the discourse look to the second coming and the end of the age" (Joyce G. Baldwin, Daniel, TOTC, p.202).
"Reicke ("Synoptic Prophecies") has shown the language in the Olivet Discourse prophesying the Fall of Jerusalem to be largely OT categories. Not only is it general, it does not describe any detail peculiar to the known history of the Jewish War (A.D. 66-73). Reicke goes so far as to conclude that the Olivet Discourse as found in any of the Synoptics could not have been composed after A.D. 70..." (D. A. Carson, Matthew, EBC, (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1984), Vol.8, p.489).
It is suggested here that the 'details' describe the antitype, the type being understood from the antitype.
The 'type' (AD70):
"Now the number of those that were carried captive during this whole war was collected to be ninety-seven thousand; as was the number of those who perished during the whole siege eleven hundred thousand, the greater part of whom were indeed of the same nation [with the citizen of Jerusalem]; but not belonging to the city itself; for there were come up from all the country to the feast of unleavened bread, and were on a sudden shut up by an army, which, at the very first, occasioned so great a traitness among them that there came a pestilential destruction upon them, and soon afterwards such a famine, as destroyed them more suddenly...
"According the multitude of those that therein perished exceeded all the destructions that either men or God ever brought upon the world..." (Flavius Josephus, The Wars of the Jews, in "The Works of Josephus," New Update Version, Translated by William Whiton, (Peabody: Hendrickson Publishers, 1987), p.749).
Mt 24:21 For then shall be great tribulation, such as was not since the beginning of the world to this time, no, nor ever shall be.
Mt 24:22 And except those days should be shortened, there should no flesh be saved: but for the elect's sake those days shall be shortened.
"While the time of the siege and destruction of Jerusalem was horrible, Matthew description here indicates a time of tribulation that did not occur during the fall of Jerusalem. The horrors that fell on the Jewish people and on the entire world with the two world wars of the twentieth century are a sombre warning that the devastation that comes from humanity's unleashed depravity will yet be unequalled. The vison Jesus paints must yet be ahead. The apostle John reveals such a future time of incredible horror (Rev. 7-19)" (Michael J. Wilkins, Matthew, NIVAC, (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2004), p.780).
"The fall of Jerusalem becomes a type of the great and final tribulation that, if God should not intervene, would bring an end to the human race" (Robert H. Mounce, Matthew, NIBC, p.225).
"There have been a greater number of deaths - six million in the Nazi death camps, mostly Jews, and an estimated twenty million under Stalin, but never so high a percentage of a great city's population so thoroughly and painfully exterminated and enslaved as during the fall of Jerusalem" (D. A. Carson, Matthew, EBC, Vol. 8, 501).
The distress of AD 70 is only an inferior type of the distress at the end of the age - just as the earthly tabernacle is an inferior copy of the heavenly tabernacle. If what happened in AD 70 was bad, it will be much worse in the antitype.
WW3 is the war to end all 'world' wars.
"According the multitude of those that therein perished exceeded all the destructions that either men or God ever brought upon the world..." (Flavius Josephus, The Wars of the Jews, p.749).
Mt 24:21 For then there will be great distress, unequaled from the beginning of the world until now - and never to be equaled again. (NIV).
Prophecy, then, has a near-future application and a far-future application - 'type' and 'antitype'. Prophecy is also a message for near-future recipients and far-future recipients.
Repentance - one last chance
(Type - God's people, 7th century BC; Antitype - God's people, 21st century AD; cp. Zep 3:9-20).
Zep 1:14 The great day of the LORD is near, it is near, and hasteth greatly, even the voice of the day of the LORD: the mighty man shall cry there bitterly.
Zep 1:17 And I will bring distress upon men, that they shall walk like blind men, because they have sinned against the LORD: and their blood shall be poured out as dust, and their flesh as the dung.
Zep 2:1 Gather yourselves together, yea, gather together, O nation not desired;
Zep 2:2a Before the decree bring forth...
Zep 2:3 Seek ye the LORD, all ye meek of the earth, which have wrought his judgment; seek righteousness, seek meekness: it may be ye shall be hid in the day of the LORD'S anger.
"From first to last his [Zephaniah's] design was, not to drive the people to despair, but to drive them to God and to their duty - not to frighten them out of their wits, but to frighten them out of their sins. In pursuance of that he here calls them to repentance, national repentance, as the only way to prevent national ruin" (Matthew Henry, Matthew Henry's Commentary on the Whole Bible).
"The gathering together (in repentance) must take place before the judgment if it is to be averted" (Larry Walker, Zephaniah, EBC, Vol.7, p.553).
The descendants of Jacob in the decline of the Anglo-American hegemony need to follow the example of the descendants in the rise of the Anglo-American hegemony. Religious revival and national repentance are required to escape the Lord's anger.
"The focus of the oracle narrows down to the "humble of the land," [Zep 2:3a] who might survive the coming conflagration" (Robert A. Bennett, The Book of Zephaniah, NIB, (Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1996), Vol.7, p.685).
"Zephaniah is concerned with national repentance than with the repentance of only a small sector within the nation" (J. Alec Motyer, Zephaniah, Thomas Edward McComiskey, Editor, "The Minor Prophets," (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 1998), Vol. 3, p.926).
While national repentance is required, the admonition for the "humble" to seek the Lord is recognition that the call to repentance will be heeded only by a remnant - whereas the whole nation should be "meek".
Isa 26:20 Come, my people, enter thou into thy chambers, and shut (sagar) thy doors about thee: hide thyself as it were for a little moment, until the indignation be overpast ('abar).
Isa 26:21 For, behold, the LORD cometh out of his place to punish the inhabitants of the earth for their iniquity: the earth also shall disclose her blood, and shall no more cover her slain.
Ge 7:16 And they that went in ... and the LORD shut (sagar) him in.
Ex 12:22b and none of you shall go out at the door of his house until the morning.
Ex 12:23a For the LORD will pass ('abar) through to smite the Egyptians...
"The day of wrath, at fullest measure, lies still in the future. It will finally encompass, not Judah and Jerusalem of 587 B.C., but all the "inhabitants of the earth" (26:21)" (Christopher R. Seitz, Isaiah 1-39, Interpretation, (Louisville: John Knox Press, 1993), pp.195-96).
"Go, my people, enter your rooms is an expression of that compassion of God which has always made possible an escape from his wrath for those who would avail themselves of it. So Noah escaped the flood, Lot escaped Sodom, and the Hebrew people escaped the death of the firstborn" (John N. Oswalt, The Book of Isaiah - Chapters 1-39, NICOT, (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans, 1986), p.488).
"... shut the doors. This looks back to the shutting of the door of the ark (Gn 7:1, 16) and entering indoors at the Passover (Ex 12:22-23)... In that day they will be as safe as in the ark or inside the blood-marked homes (Ex 12-13). Passed by is the 'pass over' verb of Exod 12:12-13)" (Alec Motyer, Isaiah, TOTC, (Leicester: Inter-Varsity Press, 1999), pp.178-179)
"The indignation here does not seem to be directed against Israel, as in 10:25, but against Israel's oppressors (30:27; Dan 11:36; Zep. 3:8)" (John N. Oswalt, The Book of Isaiah - Chapters 1-39, NICOT, p.488).
Rev 12:6 And the woman fled into the wilderness, where she hath a place prepared of God, that they should feed her there a thousand two hundred and threescore days.
The wrath of God against Israel's oppressors occurs in the final 360 days of the Great Tribulation experienced by Israel. A remnant of God's people are protected through the whole 1260 days and corresponds to the type, Ezek 9:4-6 and the antitype, Revelation 7:4-8. There is also a sealing protection that occurs at the beginning of the last 360 days of the 1260 days which is covered in Rev 7:1-3 and 9-17. (Revelation 7 is a retro-prospective insert prophecy in the chronological story flow of the book of Revelation, with 7:4-8 concerning the retrospective aspect and 7:9-17 concerning the prospective aspect).
Jacob's trouble and consolation
Jer 30:2 "This is what the LORD, the God of Israel, says: 'Write in a book all the words I have spoken to you. (NIV).
"Chapters 30-33 interrupt the biographical material supplied by Baruch, and comprise a group of sayings about the restoration of Israel and Judah, a theme which had received some attention earlier in the book. However, to this point the tone of the prophecies has been extremely sombre, since Jeremiah was proclaiming impending disaster as punishment for national apostasy..." (R. K. Harrison, Jeremiah and Lamentations, TOTC, (Leicester: Inter-Varsity Press, 1973), p.133).
"These four chapters comprise a distinct subsection in Jeremiah. They are not, however, a simply unity" (J. Andrew Dearman, Jeremiah/Lamentations, NIVAC, (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2002), p.267).
"Chapters 30 and 31 are almost completely poetical, while chs. 32 and 33 are mainly prose" (J. A. Thompson, The Book of Jeremiah, NICOT, (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans, 1980), p.551).
"Chapters 30-31 are often called by interpreters the "Book of Consolation" or the "Book of Hope" because they contain proclamations of Israel and Judah's restoration to the Promised Land. Restoration - or better said, the creation of a better relationship with the Lord - is also central here. The same restoration-orientated hope is part of chapters 32-33, so that their interpretation is linked with the two previous chapters. Nevertheless, no concrete setting in Jeremiah's ministry is given for the proclamation of chapters 30-31 as there is with chapters 32-33. The latter are set in the last days of the Judean state (587 B.C.), the tenth year of Zedekiah and the eighteen of Nebuchadnezzar (32:2; 33:1)..." (J. Andrew Dearman, Jeremiah/Lamentations, NIVAC, p.267).
"Hope was integral to Jeremiah's preaching... judgment was never an end in itself but the means Yahweh used to bring Israel into a new and lasting relationship with himself. The high point of these chapters lies in 31:31-34" (J. A. Thompson, The Book of Jeremiah, NICOT, p.551).
Jer 30:3 The days are coming,' declares the LORD, 'when I will bring my people Israel and Judah back from captivity and restore them to the land I gave their forefathers to possess,' says the LORD." (NIV).
"In prophetic language the expression days are coming was commonly used for future events. These were not always of an eschatological character, although they sometimes were" (J. A. Thompson, The Book of Jeremiah, NICOT, p.553).
The context establishes the meaning.
"... the words, "the days are coming" (v.3) look toward eschatological times (cf. 3:16; 16:14; 31:27, 31). Jeremiah is contemplating the distant, nor near, future of the nation" (Charles L. Feinberg, Jeremiah, EBC, Vol.6, p.559).
"The superscription, by the use of both Israel and Judah, affirms that all Israel, both the northern kingdom (Israel) and the southern kingdom (Judah), is the subject of Yahweh's promise" (J. A. Thompson, The Book of Jeremiah, NICOT, p.554).
Jer 30:7a-bá Alas! for that day is great, so that none is like it: it is even the time of Jacob's trouble;
Jer 30:14a All your allies have forgotten you; they care nothing for you.
"Jeremiah is stating that before the just-mentioned promise of restoration can be fulfilled, the nation must be severely disciplined, but not the extent of final calamity...
" "That day" was not one immediately at hand. It is not the day of the destruction of Jerusalem but the day of God's comprehensive judgment. The present is not to be excluded, but it is swallowed up in the future. That day was to be marked by great calamities... v.7 speaks of Jacob's trouble. The prophetic Scriptures are replete with references to this unique time of Jacobss distress; e.g., "There is none like it" (cf. Matt 24:21 with the earlier prediction in 12:1; cf. also 46:10; Isa 2:12-21; 13:6; 34:1-8; Eze 30:3; Joel 1:15; 2:1-2, 11; Amos 5:18-20; Mic 1:2-5; Zeph 1:2-3:8; Zech 14:1-8, 12-15 among others" (Charles L. Feinberg, Jeremiah, EBC, Vol.6, p.560).
The message of Jeremiah was for near-future recipients and far-future recipients. The near-future recipients were the people of the house of Judah, in that Jerusalem would soon be captured by the Babylonians, the people put to the sword and the survivors taken into captivity, far from their home-land. It was a time of trouble for them, but only a type of what was going to happen in the far-future to the end-time descendants of both the northern kingdom of Israel and the southern kingdom of Judah, the antitype.
The fate of the northern kingdom of Israel - defeat and exile by the Assyrians - and the fate of the southern kingdom of Judah - defeat and exile by the Babylonians - is the fate of the end-time descendants of Israel and Judah - defeat and exile by the Europeans and their allies - a fate far worse than their forebears.
Charles Feinberg notes that "the nation must be severely disciplined". But Israel and Judah are still two nations. It is, therefore, suggested that the end-time descendants of Israel and Judah are many nations - the tribes going their own ways - but allowing for a 'union' between some of those tribal-nations.
Jer 30:7bâ but he shall be saved out of it.
"The prophet paints a picture of terror and panic, of pain and death, of a time of destruction that is the day of the Lord's judgments. The heaped-up description, the sharpness of the picture in vv.5-7a, only heightens the sudden and unexpected words of v. 7b: "yet he will be rescued from it" " (Patrick D. Miller, The Book of Jeremiah, NIB, Vol.6, p.806).
Jer 30:8a For it shall come to pass in that day, saith the LORD of hosts, that I will break his yoke from off thy neck, and will burst thy bonds, and strangers shall no more serve themselves of him:
"The fall of Babylon [539 BC] and the breaking of its yoke were indeed to happen, but with far less upheaval than is depicted here" (Derek Kidner, The Message of Jeremiah, BST, (Leicester: Inter-Varsity Press, 1987), p.104).
The near-future recipients of the kingdom Judah saw the destruction of Jerusalem and the survivors go into exile. The return from captivity would begin some 45 years later. What happened?
Jer 29:4 Thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel, unto all that are carried away captives, whom I have caused to be carried away from Jerusalem unto Babylon; [this refers to the captivity prior to the fall of Jerusalem].
Jer 29:5 Build ye houses, and dwell in them; and plant gardens, and eat the fruit of them;
Jer 29:6 Take ye wives, and beget sons and daughters; and take wives for your sons, and give your daughters to husbands, that they may bear sons and daughters; that ye may be increased there, and not diminished.
Jer 29:7 And seek the peace of the city whither I have caused you to be carried away captives, and pray unto the LORD for it: for in the peace thereof shall ye have peace.
"In general, it is of the greatest importance to remember in regard to this Eastern dispersion, that only a minority of the Jews, consisting in all of about 50,000, originally returned from Babylon, first under Zerubbabel and afterwards under Ezra (537 BC, and 459-458 BC). Nor was their inferiority confined to numbers. The wealthiest and most influential of the Jews remained behind..." (Alfred Edersheim, The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah, (Peabody: Hendrickson Publishers, 1993), p.5).
Isa 14:3 And it shall come to pass in the day that the LORD shall give thee rest from thy sorrow, and from thy fear, and from the hard bondage wherein thou wast made to serve,
Isa 14:4 That thou shalt take up this proverb against the king of Babylon, and say, How hath the oppressor ceased! the golden city ceased!
"It has troubled some scholars that chapters 50-51 [of Jeremiah] predict the violent destruction of Babylon, whereas its defeat by Cyrus in 539 B.C. took place without a battle and with no damage to the city. But with other predictive prophecies, if a fulfillment does not occur in one period, it is to be sought for in another and future one" (Charles L. Feinberg, Jeremiah, EBC, p.672).
Therefore the "hard bondage" of Israel and Judah - Jacob's trouble - is to be sought for in another and future time.
And since the Babylonian yoke was replaced with, the Persian yoke, though much lighter, the breaking of the yoke that Jeremiah prophesied would happen is also to be sought for in another and future time.
Jer 30:9 But they shall serve the LORD their God, and David their king, whom I will raise up unto them.
Jer 30:10 Therefore fear thou not, O my servant Jacob, saith the LORD; neither be dismayed, O Israel: for, lo, I will save thee from afar, and thy seed from the land of their captivity; and Jacob shall return, and shall be in rest, and be quiet, and none shall make him afraid.
"In time [some forty-five years later], Judah will indeed be permitted to return to the land, but a Davidic king does not begin to rule from a Jerusalemite throne. Upon the failure of a human kingship, these royal oracles (as well as the royal psalms) began to have messianic significance..." (Tremper Longman III, Jeremiah, Lamentations, NIBC, p.200).
"Only in the most preliminary way may "the yoke" (v.8) refer to bondage to Nebuchadnezzar, what is meant is total liberation from all foreign oppressors. This can be effected only by the glorious intervention of Israel's messianic King (cf. Ezek 34:23; Hos 3:5). After the yoke of foreign rule has been broken, the benevolent yoke of their King will be gladly assumed by the godly in Israel and Judah (cf. Matt 11:28-30). It is significant that in prophetic Scriptures a resurrection of David himself is not predicted as antecedent to the rule of his Son, the Lord Jesus Christ, on the Davidic throne. The person indicated here is the future ideal King, the so-called second David (cf. "last Adam" and "second man" (1 Cor 15:45-47). The messianic regent is a scion of the house of David (cf. Ezek 37:24-25). The Targum, though interpretive, is correct in identifying this ideal King as "Messiah, the son of David" (Charles L. Feinberg, Jeremiah, EBC, Vol.6, p.561).
"Verse 9 ... [describes] ... the future age as one when Israel would "serve the Lord their God and David their king"... It sees in the restoration of the Davidic monarchy the divinely ordained means through which the disunity of Israel and Judah would be overcome by a new central government and also the symbol and guarantee of Israel's freedom from foreign rule. The Davidic kingship embodied a revered tradition of a rich and successful pass and Israel's claim to pre-eminence among the nations. So the new age promised to Israel by God was to be one in which it would be free from the yoke of servitude to foreign nations. As we find so consistently in the formulations of prophetic hope, the essential principles of freedom to live under a just government provided by a native kingship are thought to be assured by the divine will. Only by a monarchic government of this kind could true religion and genuine prosperity be achieved. So it comes about that the prophetic message of hope embodies an implicit ideology of Israel's return to nationhood" (R. E. Clements, Jeremiah, Interpretation, (Louisville: John Knox Press, 1988) pp.180-81).
Jer 30:14b ... I have struck you as an enemy would and punished you as would the cruel, because your guilt is so great and your sins so many.
Jacob's trouble is a time of correction/punishment. The near-future recipients - the people of Judah - suffered for their sins; and the far-future recipients - end-time people of Judah and Israel - will also suffer for their sins.
The near-future recipients - the house of Judah - were organised politically as a nation; so, typology suggests, that the end-time people of Judah and Israel will also be organized political, but not as one nation. The house of Judah is recognized as the State of Israel; but the house of Israel needs to be recognized as nations.
It is suggested here, that Ephraim - a multitude of nations - and Manasseh - a great nation - are two most easily identified peoples/nations of the end-time descendant of the house of Israel.
The following prophecy suggests that the end-time descendants of Ephraim and Manasseh would be the military strongest of these nations prior to their fall.
Future trouble and future greatness
Mic 5:1a Now gather thyself in troops, O daughter of troops: he hath laid siege against us: they shall smite the judge of Israel with a rod upon the cheek.
"Surrounded and humiliated, they seem to have no hope of deliverance. Their ruler is completely unable to defend himself and is reduced to public disgrace, further demoralizing the people. Micah places himself among the citizens of the besieged city (us)... The events described here fits best with what happened under Hezekiah when Sennacherib besieged Jerusalem in 701 BC..." (David Prior, The Message of Joel, Micah & Habakkuk, BST, (Leicester: Inter-Varsity Press, 1988), p.157).
This is a type-antitype prophecy which involves two kings - Hezekiah, the type, and the Messiah, the antitype; and two Assyrian oppressors of Israel - the neo-Assyrians, the type, and the end-time Assyrians, the antitype.
In 5:1a the Assyrians are besieging Jerusalem and it leads into this telescopic prophecy - jumping from the type to antitype.
Mic 5:2 But thou, Bethlehem Ephratah, though thou be little among the thousands of Judah, yet out of thee shall he come forth unto me that is to be ruler in Israel; whose goings forth have been from of old, from everlasting.
Mic 5:3 Therefore will he give them up, until the time that she which travaileth hath brought forth: then the remnant of his brethren shall return unto the children of Israel.
Isa 49:5a & 6b And now, saith the LORD that formed me from the womb to be his servant ...thou shouldest be my servant to raise up the tribes of Jacob, and to restore the preserved of Israel:
Mic 5:7 And the remnant of Jacob shall be in the midst of many people as a dew from the LORD, as the showers upon the grass, that tarrieth not for man, nor waiteth for the sons of men.
Mic 5:8 And the remnant of Jacob shall be among the Gentiles in the midst of many people as a lion among the beasts of the forest, as a young lion among the flocks of sheep: who, if he go through, both treadeth down, and teareth in pieces, and none can deliver [nsl].
"... [the oracle, 5:1-6] moves from the present distress to future salvation, more particularly from the humiliation of Jerusalem's king (v.1) to the Messiah's victory (vv.2-5)" (Bruce K. Waltke, Micah, TOTC, (Leicester: Inter-Varsity Press, 1988), p.181).
This prophecy, from the 8th century BC, delivered after the major deportations of the northern kingdom to Assyria, and in the context of the Assyrian threat to Jerusalem, looks forward to the 21st century AD. While there is 'salvation' for Hezekiah and Jerusalem, the type, the prophecy concerns the salvation of Jesus Christ at His second coming, the antitype, and the future reunion and role of the house of Israel and Judah in the Millennium.
"What is to be Israel's role in the future? In this short passage, we see a sharp contrast between a positive and negative effect of Israel on its neighbors" (Daniel J. Simundson, The Book of Micah, NIB, Vol.7, p.574).
"The antithetic nature of their parallelism is shown in the use of contrasting imagery: the gentle, refreshing dew and the savage, destructive lion. In paradoxical fashion the two different roles of the remnant are spelled out: to be channel of divine blessing and agent of divine judgment...
"The dew means more to the Palestinian than it does to those live in areas where rainfall is spread more evenly over the year. Micah's geophysical environment was one where rain is almost totally lacking from June to September. In such an area the dews, which could be very heavy (cf. Judg. 6:38), were of great importance to vegetation... In the delightfully direct thinking of Israel, dew was a literal godsend...
"So the point appears to be the beneficent effect of Israel on the nations, bringing life and renewal. This sacred obligation to be the channel of God's grace, although often obscured in the vicissitudes of the nation's history, is a basic ingredient of Israel's self-understanding. Its role of divine blessing is not only stressed at the outset of the Abraham narratives but taken over by the ideology of Davidic kingship" (Leslie C. Allen, The Books of Joel, Obadiah, Jonah, and Micah, NICOT, pp.352-54).
"But to those who refuse to acknowledge the remnant as God's mediators of blessing, it becomes a lion that proudly and sovereignly passes by, tramples its victims and tears them fatally with none to deliver..." (Bruce Waltke, Micah, "The Minor Prophets", (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 1993), Vol.2, p.713).
"The remnant will be like the ferocious lion both "among the beasts of the forests" and "among flocks of sheep." Since "beasts of the forest" are themselves dangerous and predatory, the simile aims to accent the surpassing pride, prowess and predatoriness of the lion, and so the exceeding greatness of the singular remnant to the many great nations. Moreover, the "beasts of the forest" (i.e., predatory wild animals) and "flocks of sheep" (i.e., preyed-upon domesticated animals) is a merism, exact opposites, representing all animals. The merism of similes represent the remnant of Jacob dominating all nations both great and powerful, weak and small, none is exempted. Whereas, according to verse 6b Messiah will deliver Israel from Assyria, according to verse 8 none can deliver the enemy from Israel (both using nsl)" (Bruce Waltke, Micah, "The Minor Prophets", Vol.2, p.714).
Getting ahead of the story
Mic 5:10 And it shall come to pass in that day, saith the LORD, that I will cut off thy horses out of the midst of thee, and I will destroy thy chariots:
Mic 5:11 And I will cut off the cities of thy land, and throw down all thy strong holds:
Mic 5:12 And I will cut off witchcrafts out of thine hand; and thou shalt have no more soothsayers:
Mic 5:13 Thy graven images also will I cut off, and thy standing images out of the midst of thee; and thou shalt no more worship the work of thine hands.
Mic 5:14 And I will pluck up thy groves out of the midst of thee: so will I destroy thy cities.
But before Israel experiences another cycle of prosperity another war will precedes it.
"Most of this oracle, vv.10-14, is an implicit indictment of God's people. They have pinned their faith to various secular and religious substitutes for God, which must be destroyed, and destroyed they would be. In the name of Yahweh the prophet announces to the nation God's intention to intervene and strike away these artificial supports" (Leslie C. Allen, The Books of Joel, Obadiah, Jonah, and Micah, NICOT, p.356).
"It is hardly conceivable that an eighth-century prophet would envision the remnant as being exalted by God and made the vehicle of God's activity in the worldwide while guilty of trusting in their own strength (vv.10-11) and still practicing idolatry (vv.13-14). It was for these reasons the eighth-century prophets proclaimed Israel's downfall" (Thomas E. McComiskey, Micah, EBC, Vol.7. p.432).
"Verse 10-15 are marked off from the preceding prophecy in verses 7-9 by the introductory formulas "in that day" and "says the LORD," and by its own rhetorical unity..." (Bruce Waltke, Micah, "The Minor Prophets", Vol.2, p.717).
"Israel herself will be purged of militarism and idolatry in the latter days... All of the prophets condemned trusting in horses and chariots for the security of the nation (Isa 2:7; 30:15-17; Hos 10:13; Ps 20:7). Uzziah, one of the great kings in Judah, was famous for his military establishment, but it became an occasion for sin for him (2 Chr 26:15-16)" (Ralph L. Smith, Micah-Malachi, WBC, (Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1984), p.48).
Mic 5:10 And it shall come to pass in that day, saith the LORD, that I will cut off thy horses out of the midst of thee, and I will destroy thy chariots:
Mic 5:9 Thine hand shall be lifted up upon thine adversaries, and all thine enemies shall be cut off.
"Military and religious objects of faith are to be struck from Israel's grasp. God's implied purpose is that the people should be brought to faith in him alone. Then, and then only, will they be given victory they crave, which they have sought by improper means" (Leslie C. Allen, The Books of Joel, Obadiah, Jonah, and Micah, NICOT, p.356).
Micah 5:10-14 therefore precedes Christ's return and Micah 5:7-8 succeeds Christ's return.
"Chariots, horses, fortresses then were comparable to hydrogen bombs, guided missiles and bomb shelters today..." (Ralph L. Smith, Micah-Malachi, WBC, p.48).
For Israel,"in the latter days" to be purged of chariots, horses and fortress implies that both the northern and southern houses are nations possessing them.
"The Israel Defense Forces ... consist of the army, air force and navy... The Israel Defense Forces have been involved in several major wars and border conflicts in its short history, making it one of the most battle-trained armed forces in the world...
"The nation's military relies heavily on high-tech weapons systems designed and manufactured in Israel as well as some foreign imports. Since 1967, the United States has been a particularly notable foreign contributor of military aid to Israel... The Arrow missile is one of the world's few operational anti-ballistic missile systems. Israel's Iron Dome anti-missile air defense system gained worldwide acclaim after intercepting hundreds of Qassam, 122 mm (5 in) Grad and Fajr-5 artillery rockets fire by Palestinian militants...
"Since the Yom Kippur War, Israel has developed a network of reconnaissance satellites. The success of the Ofeq program has made Israel one of seven countries capable of launching such satellites...
"Israel is widely believed to possess nuclear weapons as well as chemical and biological weapons of mass destruction..." (Israel, Wikipedia).
The Middle-East nation of Israel represents the southern kingdom; Britain and America represents the northern kingdom.
The fulfillment of these verses - in that day - will occur in WW3.
Jacob prior to Christ's return will be like dew and a lion among the nations in their rise to world hegemony but becoming corrupted by trusting in their own strength and practicing idolatry.
The British Empire and the United States of America in the world prior to Christ's return, are types of Israel in the world, after Christ's return. The type being inferior to the antitype.
Da 2:44 And in the days of these kings shall the God of heaven set up a kingdom, which shall never be destroyed: and the kingdom shall not be left to other people, but it shall break in pieces and consume all these kingdoms, and it shall stand for ever.
Just as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, after the Napoleonic Wars, and the United States of America after WW2, acceded to world hegemony, Israel will also accede to world hegemony, but unlike Britain and America before it, Jacob will not lose it.
The Anglo-American Peoples, it may be argue, are 'typological' Israel - both in doing good and evil. That is, they have impacted the world as one would expect from literal Israel, the nation that was 'elected' by God to be His instrument of blessing in the world.
Gen 12:3 I will bless those who bless you, and whoever curses you I will curse; and all peoples on earth will be blessed through you
"Virtually all the ideas, knowledge, techniques and institutions around which the world revolves came from the European theatre and its ocean offshoots; many of them came quite explicitly from England, which was the principle matrix of modern society. Moreover, the West is still the chief repository of free institutions; and these alone, in the long run, guarantee further progress in ideas and inventions. Powerful societies are rising elsewhere not by virtue of their rejection of western world habits but by their success in imitating them... The sober and unpopular truth is that whatever hope there is for mankind - at least for the foreseeable future - lies in the ingenuity and the civilised standards of the West, above all in those western elements permeated by English ideas and traditions...
"[Nineteenth Century] England operated from motives of self-interest, which happened to coincide (by the disposition of a benign providence) with the long term interests of the civilised world, in fact of the entire human community. England was moving in the direction of progress and pulling the world along in her wake... The English had grasped that salient truth that international morality and the pursuit of wealth were not merely compatible but, in a sense identical..." (Paul Johnson, The Offshore Islanders, pp.9 & 317).
In the future God, through Israel, will created a new society "pulling the world along in her wake".
Mic 4:2 And many nations shall come, and say, Come, and let us go up to the mountain of the LORD, and to the house of the God of Jacob; and he will teach us of his ways, and we will walk in his paths: for the law shall go forth of Zion, and the word of the LORD from Jerusalem.
It is through an Israelite empire that God will bless the world. The Davidic/Solomonic and British Empires provide the types for the future.
If the idea that the English and Americans are Ephraim and Manesseh respectively cannot be accepted, who then of the people of the world would Christ chose to be his instrument of blessing to the world?
It is suggested here that in surveying the history of the modern world, and in the future reviewing it after WW3, the example, despite the bad, of the British and Americans people would place them as leading candidates for Christ to use to establish His empire.
Below is an article by Nial Ferguson, (nailferguson.com, June 1, 2003), that is a resume for the top job. The British empire has been chosen as empire is the means by which God, through Israel, will rule to the "ends of the earth" and this empire is the 'antitype' of the Davidic/Solomonic empire.
"Resume: Why we ruled the world
"IN 1897, the year of her Diamond Jubilee, Queen Victoria reigned supreme at the apex of the most extensive empire in world history. The figures are astonishing. In 1860 the territorial extent of the British Empire had some 9.5 million square miles; by 1909 the total had risen to 12.7 million. The British Empire now covered around 25 per cent of the world's land surface - making it three times the size of the French Empire and ten times that of the Germans - and controlled roughly the same proportion of the world's population: some 444 million people lived under some form of British rule.
"Not only had Britain led the scramble for Africa, she had been in the forefront of another scramble in the Far East, gobbling up the north of Borneo, Malaya, and a chunk of New Guinea, to say nothing of a string of islands in the Pacific. According to the St James's Gazette, the Queen-Empress held sway over "one continent, a hundred peninsulas, five hundred promontories, a thousand lakes, two thousand rivers, ten thousand islands". Maps showing its territory coloured an eye-catching red hung in schools all over the country.
"The extent of Britain's Empire could be seen not only in the world's atlases and censuses. Britain was also the world's banker, investing immense sums around the world. By 1914 the gross nominal value of Britain's stock of capital invested abroad was £3.8 billion, between two-fifths and a half of all foreign-owned assets. That was more than double French overseas investment and more than three times the German figure. No other major economy has ever held such a large proportion of its assets overseas. More British capital was invested in the Americas than in Britain itself between 1865 and 1914. Small wonder the British began to assume that they had the God-given right to rule the world.
"Not all of the British Empire was formally under British rule: the maps underestimated the extent of the imperial reach. The immense amounts of capital sunk into Latin America, for example, gave Britain so much leverage - especially in Argentina and Brazil - that it seems quite legitimate to speak of "informal imperialism" in these countries.
"Nor was it only through investment that the British extended their informal Empire. Commercial negotiations also pushed large sectors of the world economy to accept free trade: witness the commercial treaties with Latin American countries, Turkey, Morocco, Siam, Japan and the South Sea Islands. By the late 19th century, around 60 per cent of British trade was with extra-European partners. Free trade with the developing world suited Britain. With her huge earnings from overseas investment, not forgetting other "invisibles" such as insurance and shipping, she could afford to import vastly more than she exported. Moreover, the terms of trade - the relationship between export and import prices - moved by around 10 per cent in Britain's favour between 1870 and 1914.
"Britain also set the standard for the international monetary system. In 1868 only Britain and a number of her economic dependencies - Portugal, Egypt, Canada, Chile and Australia - were on the gold standard (which fixed the value of a country's paper money in terms of gold and obliged its central bank to convert notes into gold on demand). France and the other members of the Latin Monetary Union, as well as Russia, Persia and some Latin American states, were on the bimetallic system, while most of the rest of the world was on the silver standard. By 1908, however, only China, Persia and a handful of Central American countries were still on silver. The gold standard had become, in effect, the global monetary system. In all but name, it was a sterling standard.
"Many charges can of course be levelled against the British Empire. I do not claim, as Lord Curzon did, that "the British Empire is under Providence the greatest instrument for good that the world has seen"; nor, as General Smuts claimed, that it was "the widest system of organised human freedom which has ever existed in human history". The Empire was never so altruistic. In the 18th century the British were as zealous in the acquisition and exploitation of slaves as they were subsequently zealous in trying to stamp slavery out; and for much longer they practised a form of racial discrimination and segregation that we today consider abhorrent. When imperial authority was challenged - in India in 1857, in Jamaica in 1831 or 1865, in South Africa in 1899 - the British response was brutal. When famine struck (Ireland in the 1840s, India in the 1870s) their response was negligent, in some measure positively culpable.
"Nevertheless, the fact remains that no organisation in history has done more to promote the free movement of goods, capital and labour than the British Empire in the 19th and early 20th centuries. And no organisation has done more to impose Western norms of law, order and governance around the world. For much (though certainly not all) of its history, the British Empire acted as an agency for relatively incorrupt government. Prima facie, there therefore seems a plausible case that empire enhanced global welfare - in other words, was a Good Thing.
"And yet, within a single lifetime, the Empire unravelled. In the last decade of the Victorian era an obscure public schoolboy made a prophecy about the British Empire's fate in the coming century: "I can see vast changes coming over a now peaceful world; great upheavals, terrible struggles; wars such as one cannot imagine; and I tell you London will be in danger - London will be attacked and I shall be very prominent in the defence of London . . . I see further ahead than you do. I see into the future. The country will be subjected somehow to a tremendous invasion . . . but I will tell you I shall be in command of the defences of London and I shall save London and the Empire from disaster."
"Winston Churchill was just 16 when he spoke these words to a fellow Harrovian, Murland Evans. They were astonishingly prescient. Churchill did save London, and indeed Britain. But, in the end, not even he could save the British Empire.
"By the time Churchill died in 1965 all its most important parts had gone. Why? Traditional accounts of "decolonisation" tend to give the credit (or the blame) to the nationalist movements within the colonies, from Sinn Fein in Ireland to Congress in India. The end of the Empire is portrayed as a victory for "freedom fighters", who took up arms from Dublin to Delhi to rid peoples of the yoke of colonial rule. This is misleading. Throughout the 20th century, the principal threats - and the most plausible alternatives - to British rule were not national independence movements, but other empires.
"These alternative empires were significantly harsher in their treatment of subject peoples than Britain. Even before the First World War, Belgian rule in the notionally "independent" Congo had become a byword for the abuse of human rights. Rubber plantations and railways were built and operated on the basis of slave labour, and the profits flowed directly into the pocket of King Leopold II. Such was the rapacity of his regime that the cost in human life from murder, starvation, disease and reduced fertility has been estimated at ten million: half the existing population.
"The French did not behave much better than the Belgians in their part of the Congo: population loss was comparably huge. In Algeria, New Caledonia and Vietnam too, there was a policy of systematic expropriation of native land which made a mockery of Gallic rhetoric about universal citizenship. German overseas administration was no more liberal. Nor should the comparisons be confined to West European powers. Japanese colonial rule in Korea - a protectorate from 1905 and a colony directly ruled from Tokyo from 1910 - was conspicuously harsh.
"We should also remember the quality of Russian rule in Poland, in the Caucasus, in the Central Asian provinces of Turkestan and Turkmenia; and in the Far East, where the new Trans-Siberian Railway took the Tsar's writ all the way to Sakhalin and Vladivostok and finally into Manchuria. In their European colonies the Russians pursued aggressive policies of "russification". In Central Asia, resistance to Russian colonisation was dealt with uncompromisingly: a revolt by Muslims in Samarkand and Semirechie in 1916 was bloodily suppressed and the rebel death toll may have reached hundreds of thousands. Yet all this would pale into insignificance alongside the crimes of the Russian, Japanese, German and Italian empires in the 1930s and 1940s. By the time Churchill became Prime Minister in 1940, the most likely alternatives to British rule were Hirohito's Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, Hitler's Thousand Year Reich and Mussolini's New Rome. Nor could the threat posed by Stalin's Soviet Union be discounted, though until after the Second World War most of his energies were devoted to terrorising his own subjects.
"It was the staggering cost of fighting these imperial rivals that ultimately ruined the British Empire. In other words, the Empire was dismantled not because it had oppressed subject peoples for centuries, but because it took up arms for just a few years against far more oppressive empires. In the end, the British sacrificed the Empire to stop the Germans, Japanese and Italians from keeping theirs. Did not that sacrifice alone expunge all the Empire's other sins? It did the right thing, regardless of the cost. And that was why the ultimate, if reluctant, heir of Britain's global power was not one of the evil empires of the East, but Britain's most successful former colony."
Unfortunately for the descendant of Jacob no human equivalent to Winston Churchill will appear on the scene to save the modern nations of Jacob from predatory gentile empires in WW3.
Isa 49:5 And now, saith the LORD that formed me [Jesus Christ] from the womb to be his servant, to bring Jacob again to him, Though Israel be not gathered, yet shall I be glorious in the eyes of the LORD, and my God shall be my strength.
But a former human descendant of Jacob will enter the breach and save Jacob and the peoples of the world from being completely wiped out in WW3.
Jesus Christ, the descendant of Abraham, will be a blessing and a curse to the nations through the United Kingdom of Judah and Israel.
Mission - first half of Daniel's seventieth week, at it applies to Christ and Israel the Church
Lk 4:17 And there was delivered unto him the book of the prophet Esaias [Isaiah]. And when he had opened the book, he found the place where it was written,
Lk 4:18 The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he hath anointed me to preach the gospel to the poor; he hath sent me to heal the brokenhearted, to preach deliverance to the captives, and recovering of sight to the blind, to set at liberty them that are bruised,
Lk 4:19 To preach the acceptable year of the Lord.
Lk 4:20a And he closed the book, and he gave it again to the minister, and sat down...
Christ's Disciples Mission
Mt 15:24 But he answered and said, I am not sent but unto the lost sheep of the house of Israel.
Mt 10:6 But go rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel.
Mt 4:17 From that time Jesus began to preach, and to say, Repent: for the kingdom of heaven is at hand.
Mt 10:7 And as ye go, preach, saying, The kingdom of heaven is at hand.
"There is a striking parallel between the mission of the disciples and that of Jesus himself (cf. on 9:35, and also the parallel between 10:5-6 and 15:24). The words they are to preach are the same as those of Jesus in 4:17, and the acts of healing in [Matt 10] v.8 cover practically all the types of Jesus' healing miracles recorded in chapters 8 and 9. Cf. also the description of Jesus' ministry in 11:5). Their mission is an extension of his, for which they are vested with his authority" (R. T. France, Matthew, TNTC, p.179).
Mission - second half of Daniel's seventieth week, as it applies to Christ and Israel the Kingdom
Isa 61:1 The Spirit of the Lord GOD is upon me; because the LORD hath anointed me to preach good tidings unto the meek; he hath sent me to bind up the brokenhearted, to proclaim liberty to the captives, and the opening of the prison to them that are bound;
Isa 61:2 To proclaim the acceptable year of the LORD, and the day of vengeance of our God; to comfort all that mourn;
Isa 63:4 For the day of vengeance is in mine heart, and the year of my redeemed is come.
Isa 63:5 And I looked, and there was none to help;... therefore mine own arm brought salvation unto me; and my fury, it upheld me.
Isa 63:6 And I will tread down the people [nations] in mine anger, and make them drunk in my fury, and I will bring down their strength to the earth.
Ps 149:6 Let the high praises of God be in their mouth, and a twoedged sword in their hand;
Ps 149:7 To execute vengeance upon the heathen, and punishments upon the people;
Ps 149:8 To bind their kings with chains, and their nobles with fetters of iron;
Ps 149:9 To execute upon them the judgment written: this honour have all his saints...
Israel - God's rod
Ps 20:7 Some trust in chariots and some in horses, but we trust in the name of the LORD our God.
1Sa 17:47 And all this assembly shall know that the LORD saveth not with sword and spear: for the battle is the LORD'S, and he will give you into our hands.
"This psalm by Israel's military genius shows that the Scriptures do not decry the use of means; they discredit confidence in them (cf. Dt. 17:16:17; Ps. 149:6-9; Ne 4:9, 13-14)" (Bruce K. Waltke, Micah, TOTC, p.189).
"Trust in military resources? The Old Testament does not restrict kings from having military forces, nor does it argue that cities should never have defensive walls. Military conquests were necessary for the nation of Israel to inherit the land of the Canaanites, but God repeatedly reminded the covenant people that he was the One, who was actually going before them to defeat their enemies (Deut. 17:1-6; 9:1-3). God assumes that kings will have an army (Deut. 17:16; 1 Sam. 8:11-12) but gives regulations about their size (Deut. 17:6), treatment of captives (20:10-14), the destruction of whole cities, and the dedication of all the booty to God (Josh. 6:17-24; 1 Sam. 15:1-3). The problem comes with the consequences of having large military forces.
"God insists that his people should not put their hope in a large army (Deut. 17:6), trust in military alliances to bring success (Isa. 30:1-3; 31:1-3), or use a superior military force to inhumanely mistreat people (Amos 1). When kings have large armies, they are tempted to think in their pride that they are sovereign over the world (Isa. 10:5-15; 36:13-20; 37:22-29).
"The prophets teach that God is the One who removes rulers from power and raise up kings and nations (Dan. 2). Sometimes he uses armies to defeat his enemies (Josh. 6; Hab. 1), but at other times the divine warrior himself defeats his enemies without human military effort. The Egyptian army was drowned in the Red Sea (Ex. 14-15). God miraculously defeated the Assyrian army at Jerusalem when the angel of the Lord killed 185,000 troops (Isa. 37:36)..." (Gary V. Smith, Hosea/Amos/Micah, NIVAC, p.541).
Mic 5:9 Thine hand shall be lifted up upon thine adversaries, and all thine enemies shall be cut off.
"The prophet is recalling a traditional role associated with holy war. There is no mention of God in this stanza but the prophet's theme is highly theological. The final phrase "and none shall deliver" is used frequently in connection with Yahweh's punishment of his enemies. Here there is a shift of application to Israel as the earthly representative of the divine Victor. God's cause, with which Israel is identified, must triumph" (Leslie C. Allen, The Books of Joel, Obadiah, Jonah, and Micah, NICOT, p.354).
Mic 5:15 And I will execute vengeance in anger and fury upon the heathen, such as they have not heard.
"The word ... "vengeance" (v 15) needs some explanation. We often associate the idea of revenge, retaliation, vindictiveness, excessive punishment with the word "vengeance." Those concepts do not apply when this word is used of God in the OT. It is used of a judge or suzerain whose responsibility it was to determine the innocent or guilt of an accused, then to administer grace or punishment as the case demanded. Here Micah says that Yahweh acting as Judge of the world will punish those nations who rebel against him... the nations who would not acknowledge the sovereignty of Yahweh" (Ralph L. Smith, Micah-Malachi, WBC, pp.49, 48).
Defeat and Restoration
Zec 9:9a Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion; shout, O daughter of Jerusalem: behold, thy King cometh unto thee: he is just, and having salvation;...
Zec 9:10 And I will cut off the chariot from Ephraim, and the horse from Jerusalem, and the battle bow shall be cut off: and he shall speak peace unto the heathen: and his dominion shall be from sea even to sea, and from the river even to the ends of the earth.
"The war-chariots and horses, in which the kingdoms of the world seek their strength, will be exterminated by Jehovah out of Ephraim and Jerusalem (cf. Mic 5:9). And so also will the war-chariots, for which "the battle-bow" stands synecdochically. Ephraim denotes the former kingdom of the ten tribes, and Jerusalem is mentioned as the capital in the place of the kingdom of Judah. Under the Messiah will the two kingdoms that were formerly divided be united once more, and through the destruction of their military power will their nature be also changed, the covenant nation be divested of its political and worldly character, and made into a spiritual nation or kingdom. The rule of this King will also speak peace to the nations ... through the extermination of the materials of war out of Israel, as well as by the peaceful settlement of the contests of the nations, He will establish a kingdom of peace, which will extend over all the earth...
"With the spread of His kingdom over the earth, treated of in v.10, the fulfilment continues till the annihilation of all the ungodly powers, after which all war will ceased. But this end can only be reached through severe conflicts and victory. This is the subject of the following section" (C. F. Keil, The Minor Prophets, KD, Vol.10, pp.577-79).
It is argued that the destruction of Ephraim's and Judah's military power will occur in the Great Tribulation, prior to Jesus Christ's return to the earth. Christ uses the coming German-led European superpower and her allies to bring this about.
Isa 40:2 Speak ye comfortably to Jerusalem, and cry unto her, that her warfare is accomplished, that her iniquity is pardoned: for she hath received of the LORD'S hand double for all her sins.
"Faced with the apostasy and injustice of Israel herself in the time of the monarchy ... God turns to fight against his own people, according to the prophets (cf. Jer. 4 or Eze 13); and it is not until ... Isaiah announces that Israel's "warfare is ended" (Isa. 40:2) that God ceases his onslaught against his people. Then in ... Isaiah (cf. 42:10-13; 59:15-20), he arms himself once more to put down his enemies and to bring in his kingdom among the faithful" (Elizabeth Achtemeier, Nahum-Malachi, Interpretation, (Louisville: John Knox Press, 1986), p.148).
Zec 9:11 As for thee also, by the blood of thy covenant I have sent forth thy prisoners out of the pit wherein is no water.
Zec 9:12 Turn you to the strong hold, ye prisoners of hope: even today do I declare that I will render double unto thee;
"Not only will the Lord free Zion from a faithless dependence on her own strength (v. 10), but he will also loose her from a waterless pit. This metaphor expressing confinement recalls Zion's subservience to national powers... When the once proud kingdoms of Israel and Judah collapsed before the onslaught of cruel conquerors..." (Thomas McComiskey, Zechariah, "The Minor Prophets," Vol.3, p.1170).
"The first of these announcements concerns the release of prisoners "from the waterless pit." The same phrase occurs in Jer. 34:8, referring to Jeremiah's imprisonment. But also and more suggestively Joseph's brothers put him in "a waterless pit" before selling him to merchants bound for Egypt (Gen 37:24), where he became a slave and a prisoner (Gen39:1m 20-22). Allusion to Joseph makes sense in this context, not only because the release of prisoners is at stake, but also because Joseph was the father of Ephraim. Ephraim, the former northern kingdom, is included in the dominion of Zion's king (vv.9-10) and among those who count as Zion's prisoners, the return of whom will count as double restoration for Zion/Jerusalem" (Ben C. Ollenburger, The Book of Zechariah, NIB, Vol.7, p.810).
Zec 9:13 When I have bent Judah for me, filled the bow with Ephraim, and raised up thy sons, O Zion, against thy sons, O Greece, and made thee as the sword of a mighty man.
"These freed prisoners will become weapons in God's hands for fighting battles... This united community is referred to as the "sons [of] Zion," signaling a return to the ideal of David and Solomon's long reign. Together these sons of Zion will form another piece of military equipment for the divine warrior: his sword" (Mark J. Boda, Haggai, Zechariah, NIVAC, (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2004), pp.120-121).
"The double recompense which the Lord will make to His people, will consist in the fact that He not only liberates them out of captivity and bondage, and makes them into an independent nation, but that He helps them to victory over the power of the world, so that they will tread it down, i.e., completely subdue it... The expression, "I stretch," etc., implies that the Lord will subdue the enemies by Judah and Ephraim, and therefore Israel will carry on this conflict in the power of its God. The figurative description is a bold one. Judah is the extended bow; Ephraim the arrow which God shoots at the foe... (I fill) ... is to be understood as signifying the laying of the arrow upon the bow, and not to be explained from 2Ki 9:24, "to fill the hand with the bow." A bow is filled when it is supplied with the arrow for shooting. We must bear in mind that the matter is divided rhetorically between the parallel members; and the thought is this: Judah and Ephraim are bow and arrow in the hand of Jehovah... The sons of Javan are the Greeks, as the world-power, the Graeco-Macedonian monarchy (cf. Dan 8:21), against which the Lord will make His people into a hero's sword. This took place in weak beginnings, even in the wars between the Maccabees and the Seleucidae, to which, according to Jerome, the Jews understood our prophecy to refer; but it must not be restricted to this, as the further description in vv.14,15 points to the complete subjugation of the imperial power" (C. F. Keil, The Minor Prophets, KD, Vol.10, pp.580-81).
Zec 9:14 And the LORD shall be seen over them, and his arrow shall go forth as the lightning: and the Lord GOD shall blow the trumpet, and shall go with whirlwinds of the south.
Zec 9:15 The LORD of hosts shall defend them; and they shall devour, and subdue with sling stones; and they shall drink, and make a noise as through wine; and they shall be filled like bowls, and as the corners of the altar.
"Jehovah appears above them, i.e., coming from heaven as a defence, to fight for them (the sons of Zion), as a mighty man of war (Psa 24:8). His arrow goes out like the lightning ... for the fact described, compare Hab 3:11. Marching at the head of His people, He gives the signal of battle with a trumpet-blast, and attacks the enemy with terribly devastating violence. The description rests upon the poetical descriptions of the coming of the Lord to judgment, the colours of which are borrowed from the phenomena of a storm (cf. Psalm 18 and Hab 3:8.). Storms of the south are the most violent storms, as they come from the Arabian desert, which bounds Canaan on the south (Isa 21:1; cf. Hos 13:15). But Jehovah not only fights for His people; He is also a shield to them in battle, covering them against the weapons of the foe. This is affirmed in "[I] will protect them" in v.15. Hence they are able to destroy their enemies, and, like devouring lions, to eat their flesh and drink their blood. That this figure lies at the foundation of the horrible picture of "and they shall devour", is evident from Num 23:24, which was the passage that Zechariah had in his mind: "Behold a people like the lioness; it rises up, and like the lion does it lift itself up: it lies not down till it devour the prey, and drink the blood of the slain." Hence the object to "they shall devour" is not the possessions of the heathen, but their flesh... The description of the enemy as sling-stones is to be explained from the figure in 1Sa 25:29, to hurl away the soul of the enemy. They drunk (sc., the blood of the enemy) even to intoxication, making a noise, as if intoxicated with wine ... and even to overflowing, so that they become full, like the sacrificial bowls in which the blood of the sacrificial animals was caught, and like the corners of the altar, which were sprinkled with the sacrificial blood. "zaviyth" are corners, not the horns of the altar. The sacrificial blood was not sprinkled upon these; they were simply smeared with a little blood applied with the finger, in the case of the expiatory sacrifices. According to the law (Lev 1:5, Lev 1:11; Lev 3:2, etc.), the blood was to be swung against the altar. This was done, according to rabbinical tradition (Mishn. Seb. 1Sa 25:4., and Rashi on Lev 1:5), in such a manner, that with two sprinklings all the four sides of the altar were wetted, - a result which could only be ensured by swinging the bowls filled with blood, so as to strike the corners of the altar" (C. F. Keil, The Minor Prophets, KD, Vol.10, pp.581-82).
Ex 14:24 And it came to pass, that in the morning watch the LORD looked unto the host of the Egyptians through the pillar of fire and of the cloud, and troubled the host of the Egyptians,
Ex 14:25 And took off their chariot wheels, that they drave them heavily: so that the Egyptians said, Let us flee from the face of Israel; for the LORD fighteth for them against the Egyptians.
Dt 2:31 And the LORD said unto me, Behold, I have begun to give Sihon and his land before thee: begin to possess, that thou mayest inherit his land.
Dt 2:33 And the LORD our God delivered him before us; and we smote him, and his sons, and all his people.
Jos 10:10 And the LORD discomfited them before Israel, and slew them with a great slaughter at Gibeon, and chased them along the way that goeth up to Beth-horon, and smote them to Azekah, and unto Makkedah.
Jos 10:11 And it came to pass, as they fled from before Israel, and were in the going down to Beth-horon, that the LORD cast down great stones from heaven upon them unto Azekah, and they died: they were more which died with hailstones than they whom the children of Israel slew with the sword.
"The combination of Judah and Ephraim, in [Zechariah 9] verse 13, speaks of a united people of God who - through God's help - are able to overcome the world (represented here by Greece)...
"They will have battles to fight, but God will be with them and fight for them, as he did for Israel at the time of the exodus" (Barry Webb, The Message of Zechariah, BST, (Leicester: Inter-Varsity Press, 2003), p.134).
Ps 2:10 Therefore, you kings, be wise; be warned, you rulers of the earth.
Ps 2:11 Serve the LORD with fear and rejoice with trembling.
Ps 2:12 Kiss the Son, lest he be angry and you be destroyed in your way, for his wrath can flare up in a moment...
Ps 149:6 Let the high praises of God be in their mouth, and a twoedged sword in their hand;
Ps 149:7 To execute vengeance upon the heathen, and punishments upon the people;
Ps 149:8 To bind their kings with chains, and their nobles with fetters of iron;
Ps 149:9 To execute upon them the judgment written: this honour have all his saints...
"As the next to the last psalm in the book, Psalm 149 corresponds to the location of Psalm 2 as the second. Psalm 2 announces that it is through the anointed king that the LORD will claim kings and nations for his rule. In Psalm 149, the human instrument is the assembly of the faithful, who seem in their service to be a messianic community through whom the LORD achieves what was assigned to the vocation of the Davidic king..." (James L. Mays, Psalms, Interpretation, (Louisville: John Knox Press, 1994), p.448).
Ps 149:6 Let the high praises of God be in their mouth, and a twoedged sword in their hand;
"The glance is here directed to the future. The people of the present have again, in their God, attained to a lofty self-consciousness, the consciousness of their destiny, viz., to subjugate the whole world of nations to the God of Israel. In the presence of the re-exaltation which they have experienced their throat is full of words and songs exalting Jahve ... and as servants of this God, the rightful Lord of all the heathen (Psa 82:8), they hold in their hand a many-mouthed, i.e., many edged sword..., in order to take the field on behalf of the true religion..." (F. Delitzsch, Psalms, Francis Bolton, Translator, KD, Vol.5, pp.856-57).
"Note that it is by the combination of praise and sword that the faithful serve the vengeance of the LORD. Sword without praise would not serve; only the sword that can be drawn in praise of the LORD can serve. The vengeance is not theirs; they are to carry out the judgment decreed, "the written sentence," as the Hebrew puts it. The vengeance of the LORD is the action the LORD takes to maintain and enforce his reign against his adversaries... In the Psalms, the vengeance of the Lord is his vindication of his relation to his people, who suffer under the assault of the nations (Psalm 79, see vv.9-10), and his vindication of those who trust him against the threat and oppression of the wicked (Psalm 94). Here it is the vengeance against the nations and their rulers that is the concern. In the rhetoric and theology of the Psalms, nations and their rulers are typically the opposition to the reign of the LORD. They are system of rule in history that threaten to dissolve and overwhelm the story of the LORD's people, who represent and make known his reign... We cannot be certain to what particular source, if any, the reference to "the written verdict" refers. A likely source is the prophetic oracles against the actions, which speak more often than any other written tradition of the LORD's vengeance. If that is right, the psalm is calling the faithful to prepare for service when the prophetic words are being fulfilled.
"Like some of the other hymns about the reign of the LORD, this one has some illuminating connections with the prophecies in Isaiah 40-66. These are the prophecies that speak overall of the LORD's revelation of his kingship in the world through the victorious salvation of his people (e.g. 40:1-11; 41:21-29; 52:7-10). Specifically, the LORD in these prophecies promises to make Israel a two-edged instrument to crush those who war against them (41:11-16) and to adorn his people with a saving victory (55:5; 60:9). In assigning to the faithful the role of warriors who carry out the LORD's judgment on the nations, the hymn can be grouped with prophecies in Micah 4:13 and Zechariah 10:5; 12:6" (James L. Mays, Psalms, Inspiration, pp.447-48).
Ps 149:8 To bind their kings with chains, and their nobles with fetters of iron;
Ps 149:4 For the LORD taketh pleasure in his people: he will beautify the meek with salvation.
"There is an eschatological, almost apocalyptic, dimension to the psalms anticipation of a warfare of the faithful that will settle the conflict between the kingdoms of this world and the kingdom of God. The expectation of a victory over nations and people that leaves kings and princes in chains as subdued captives is a vision that transcends local conflicts and specific wars. Inspired by Psalms and prophecies of the coming kingdom, this psalmist has composed a hymn that calls the faithful to a praise and militancy that serves its coming... Something wonderful and strange is afoot here, the lowly becoming the warriors who fight for the kingdom and inherit the earth" (James L. Mays, Psalms, Inspiration, p.448).
"The liability that accrues to the nations for oppression of Israel will be punished by the divine judge, who will ensure that eventual justice is done. The effectiveness of the retribution will be sealed by the capture of their kings and ruling classes. By such means God's promises of judgment will be fulfilled. Then God's people, as representatives of this king of kings will come into their own in a demonstration of v 4 and will be recognized before the world (cf. Rom 8:19)" (Leslie C. Allen, Psalms 101-150, WBC, (Nelson Reference & Electronic, 2002), pp.399-400).
The type - Germany and Japan after WW2
Mic 5:5 And this man shall be the peace, when the Assyrian shall come into our land: and when he shall tread in our palaces, then shall we raise against him seven shepherds, and eight principal men.
Mic 5:6 And they shall waste the land of Assyria with the sword, and the land of Nimrod in the entrances thereof: thus shall he deliver us from the Assyrian, when he cometh into our land, and when he treadeth within our borders.
"With the total defeat of Hitler's regime, no German government remained. Instead supreme authority was vested in an Allied Control Council of Great Britain, France, the United States, and the Soviet Union. Each of these powers administered its own occupation zone... The former capital, Berlin, was likewise divided into four sectors. The future policy towards Germany had been outlined at the Potsdam conference, though its implementation varied in the different zones. The most immediate measures of the victors were concerned with the liquidation of the Nazi system, the transformation Germany's economy to peace-time production, and the transfer of administrative functions into German hands. On November 20  the trial of major Nazi leaders opened at Nurnberg before an inter-Allied tribunal. In addition, thousands of lesser Nazis were removed from office and held for trial...
"Sept. 30  The International Tribunal of Nurnberg announced its decision. The Nazi Leadership Corps, the S.S., the Security Police, and the Gestapo were found criminal organizations, while the S.A., the cabinet, and the general staff were acquitted. Of the 22 defendants, Schacht, Fritzsche, and Papen were acquitted, the rest received sentences ranging from ten years' imprisonment to death. Shortly before his scheduled execution, on October 15, Herman Goering committed suicide...
"1949... The Federal Republic, with Bonn as capital came into existence on May 23... [On] Aug. 14 ... A United State court at Nurnberg concluded the last of its war crimes trials with the sentencing of 19 German government officials and diplomats" (An Encyclopaedia of World History, Compiled and Edited by William Langer, 4th Edition, (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1968), pp.1178-80).
"At the end of World War II, Japan was occupied by the Allied Powers, led by the United States with a contribution from the British Commonwealth... The occupation transformed Japan into a democracy modeled somewhat after the American New Deal...
"While these other reforms were taking place, various military tribunals, most notably the International Military Tribunal for the Far East in Ichigaya, were trying Japan's war criminals and sentencing many to death and imprisonment...
"The San Francisco Peace Treaty signed on September 8, 1951 marked the end of the Allied occupation, and after it came into force on April 28, 1952, Japan was once again an independent country, save for the Ryukyu Islands" (Occupation of Japan, Wikipedia).
Joshua, son of Nun and Joshua, son of God
Joshua, son of Nun, and his conquest of the land of Canaan is the type; Joshua, son of God, and His conquest of the earth is the antitype.
The typology of the conquest of Jericho, the type, and Jerusalem, the antitype, introduces the typology.
Jos 6:15 And it came to pass on the seventh day, that they rose early about the dawning of the day, and compassed the city after the same manner seven times: only on that day they compassed the city seven times.
Jos 6:16 And it came to pass at the seventh time, when the priests blew with the trumpets, Joshua said unto the people, Shout; for the LORD hath given you the city.
Rev 8:2 And I saw the seven angels which stood before God; and to them were given seven trumpets.
Rev 11:15 And the seventh angel sounded;
Rev 15:1 And I saw another sign in heaven ... seven angels having the seven last plagues;
The six days of marching, once around Jericho, picture the sounding of the trumpets by the first six angels of the seventh seal in the Book of Revelation.
The seventh day of marching, seven times around Jericho, picture the sounding of the seventh trumpet (Revelation 11:15). After the resumption of the chronological story line of Revelation, that is, after the retro-perspective prophecy of Revelation 12-14, it is revealed that the seventh trumpet comprises seven angels and their plagues (Revelation 15-16).
After the seventh time around Jericho, on the seventh day, the battle for Jericho began. After the seventh of seven plagues is poured out "the battle of that great day of God Almighty" (Revelation 16:14), the battle for Jerusalem begins.
Battle of Jericho (OT)
Battle of Jerusalem (NT)
Jos 6:20a ...and it came to pass, when the people heard the sound of the trumpet, the people shouted with a great shout, that the wall fell down flat,
1Th 4:16 For the Lord himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God:
Jos 6:20bso that the people went up into the city, every man straight before him, and they took the city.
Zec 14:3 Then shall the LORD go forth, and fight against those nations, as when he fought in the day of battle.
"Jericho ... was the key to the conquest of the whole land, the possession of which would open the way to the whole, as it were, into their hands...
"Through this arrangement, that the walls of Jericho were not to fall till after they had been marched round for seven days, and not till after this had been repeated seven times on the seventh day, and then amidst the blast of the jubilee trumpets and the war-cry of the soldiers of the people of God, the destruction of this town, the key to Canaan, was intended by God to become a type of the final destruction at the last day of the power of this world, which exalted itself against the kingdom of God. In this way He not only showed to His congregation that it would not be all at once, but only after long-continued conflict, and at the end of the world, that the worldly power by which it was opposed would be overthrown, but also proved to the enemies of His kingdom, that however long their power may sustain itself in opposition to the kingdom of God, it would at last be destroyed in a moment" (C.F. Keil, The Book of Joshua, KD, Vol.2, pp.50-52).
The conquest of Canaan by Joshua pictures the conquest of the earth by Jesus Christ, in the second half of Christ's prophetic week.
After the conquest by Joshua, there was still work to do by Israel in taking possession of the land and typology suggests that after the end of Christ's prophetic week, there is still work to by Israel do in taking possession of the earth.
Jos 11:16 So Joshua took all that land, the hills, and all the south country, and all the land of Goshen, and the valley, and the plain, and the mountain of Israel, and the valley of the same;
Jos 11:23 So Joshua took the whole land, according to all that the LORD said unto Moses; and Joshua gave it for an inheritance unto Israel according to their divisions by their tribes. And the land rested from war.
Jos 23:4 Behold, I have divided unto you by lot these nations that remain, to be an inheritance for your tribes, from Jordan, with all the nations that I have cut off, even unto the great sea westward.
Jos 23:5 And the LORD your God, he shall expel them from before you, and drive them from out of your sight; and ye shall possess their land, as the LORD your God hath promised unto you.
"The occupation of the land was not yet complete (see 23:4-5; Jdg 1-2), but the national campaign was over and Israel was finally established in the promised land. No power was left in Canaan that could threaten to dislodge her...
"Conquest had to be followed by settlement, which required a survey, then a fair distribution, and then a full occupation of the land. A distinction must therefore be made between the national wars of conquest (Joshua) and the tribal wars of occupation (Jdg 1-2)..." (Arthur Lewis, Joshua, NIVSB, pp.320, 315).
Jabin and Gog - the Annihilations of the Northern Coalitions
Jos 11:10b Hazor* had been the head (ro'sh) of all these kingdoms (NIV).
Eze 38:3b Gog, the chief (ro'sh) prince of Meshech and Tubal
Jos 11:1b he sent to Jobab king of Madon, and to the king of Shimron, and to the king of Achshaph,
Jos 11:2 And to the kings that were on the north of the mountains, and of the plains south of Chinneroth, and in the valley, and in the borders of Dor on the west,
Jos 11:3 And to the Canaanite on the east and on the west, and to the Amorite, and the Hittite, and the Perizzite, and the Jebusite in the mountains, and to the Hivite under Hermon in the land of Mizpeh
Eze 38:4 And I will turn thee back, and put hooks into thy jaws, and I will bring thee forth, and all thine army, horses and horsemen, all of them clothed with all sorts of armour, even a great company with bucklers and shields, all of them handling swords
Eze 38:5 Persia, Ethiopia, and Libya with them; all of them with shield and helmet:
Eze 38:6 Gomer, and all his bands; the house of Togarmah of the north quarters, and all his bands: and many people with thee.
Jos 11:4 And they went out, they and all their hosts with them, much people, even as the sand that is upon the sea shore in multitude, with horses and chariots very many.
Eze 38:9 Thou shalt ascend and come like a storm, thou shalt be like a cloud to cover the land, thou, and all thy bands, and many people with thee.
Jos 11:5 And when all these kings were met together, they came and pitched together at the waters of Merom, to fight against Israel.
Eze 39:2b and will cause thee to come up from the north parts, and will bring thee upon the mountains of Israel:
* Jabin was the king of Hazor (11:1).
The typology of Jabin and Gog suggests that Joshua son of Nun's victory over Jabin at the end of the 'major' conquest of Canaan is a type of the conquest of Joshua son of God's victory over Gog at the end of the 'major' conquest of the world.
"This chapter draws the long saga of Israel's conquest of Canaan to a close. It opens with the last Canaanite coalition massing for war (vv.1-5) and ends on the peaceful note that war no longer ravages the land (v.23b)...
"With considerable skill the writer pictures the battle [of Meron] as the decisive, stunning climax of the entire conquest" (Robert L. Hubbard Jr., Joshua, NIVAC, (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2009), pp.324-25).
"...in the destruction of Gog and his gathering of peoples, the last attack of the heathen world-power upon the kingdom of God will be judged and overthrown, so that from that time forth the people of God will no more have to fear a foe who can disturb its peace and its blessedness in the everlasting possession of the inheritance given to it by the Lord" (C. F. Keil, Ezekiel, KD, Vol.9, p.341).
"Shiloh became the center of national life... The transfer of the ark from Gilgal to Shiloh was symbolic of the completion of the Conquest because Gilgal was only on the edge of the Promised Land but Shiloh was in the center. Though the Israelites had the land "under their control," they did not possess it all. They had not subdued all the Canaanites..." (Donald H. Madwig, Joshua, EBC, Vol.3, (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1992), p.339).
Old Covenant Kingdom of God
New Covenant Kingdom of God
Jos 18:1 And the whole congregation of the children of Israel assembled together at Shiloh, and set up the tabernacle of the congregation there. And the land was subdued before them.
Eze 40:2a In visions of God he took me to the land of Israel...
Eze 43:10 "Son of man, describe the temple to the people of Israel,
Jos 18:10 Joshua then cast lots for them in Shiloh in the presence of the LORD (NIV).
Eze 43:5b and the glory of the LORD filled the temple.
Eze 43:7 He said: ... This is where I will live among the Israelites forever. (NIV).
"It is also striking that the setting up of the symbol of access to Yahweh is done only when the land had rest from war... They receive their land when they provide a place for Yahweh to speak to them. Such is done in an atmosphere of peace, not of war..." (Trent C. Butler, Joshua, WBC, (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 2009), p.204).
Old Covenant Mission to the Gentiles
Dt 4:6 Keep therefore and do them; for this is your wisdom and your understanding in the sight of the nations, which shall hear all these statutes, and say, Surely this great nation is a wise and understanding people.
Dt 4:7 For what nation is there so great, who hath God so nigh unto them, as the LORD our God is in all things that we call upon him for?
Dt 4:8 And what nation is there so great, that hath statutes and judgments so righteous as all this law, which I set before you this day?
1Ki 8:41 Moreover concerning a stranger, that is not of thy people Israel, but cometh out of a far country for thy name's sake;
1Ki 8:42 (For they shall hear of thy great name, and of thy strong hand, and of thy stretched out arm;) when he shall come and pray toward this house;
1Ki 8:43 Hear thou in heaven thy dwellingplace, and do according to all that the stranger calleth to thee for: that all people of the earth may know thy name, to fear thee, as do thy people Israel;...
"... Israel definitely had a sense of mission, not in the sense of going somewhere but of being something. They were to be the holy people of the living God YHWH. They were to know him for who he is, to preserve the true and exclusive worship [of] YHWH, and to live according to his ways and laws within loyal commitment to their covenantal relationship with him. In all these respects they would be a light and witness to the nations...
"... the nations were portrayed in the Old Testament as witness of all that God was doing in, for or to Israel... the expectation of Israel's faith and worship (if not always the outcome of their practice) was that the nations would come to benefit from that salvation and give thanks for it. This meant that the nations would eventually acknowledge and worship Israel's God, YHWH, with all the concomitant responsibilities and blessings of such worship" (Christopher J. H. Wright, The Mission of God, (Nottingham: Inter-Varsity Press, 2006), pp.504, 455).
1Ki 4:21&24 And Solomon reigned over all kingdoms west of the river, from Tiphsah [on the Euphrates], unto the land of the Philistines, to Gaza, and unto the border of Egypt, and had peace on all sides; they brought presents, and served Solomon all the days of his life.
1Ki 11:4a For it came to pass, when Solomon was old, that his wives turned away his heart after other gods...
1Ki 11:5 For Solomon went after ... Milcom the abomination of the Ammonites.
1Ki 11:7a Then did Solomon build an high place for Chemosh, the abomination of Moab...
While various nations became subject to David and Solomon there appears to have been no active mission to bring them into covenant with YHWH.
New Covenant Mission to the Gentiles
Isa 49:5 And now, saith the LORD that formed me from the womb to be his servant, to bring Jacob again to him, Though Israel be not gathered, yet shall I be glorious in the eyes of the LORD, and my God shall be my strength.
Isa 49:6 And he said, It is a light thing that thou shouldest be my servant to raise up the tribes of Jacob, and to restore the preserved of Israel: I will also give thee for a light to the Gentiles, that thou mayest be my salvation unto the end of the earth.
God commissioned Jesus Christ "to raise up the tribe of Jacob". Christ carries out this commission in the seventieth week of Daniel's prophecy. In the first half He raised up the Israel the Church.
Jas 1:1 James, a servant of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ, to the twelve tribes which are scattered abroad, greeting.
"Who are these twelve tribes? To answer we must follow ... the straight line from the Old Testament into the New. Our Lord Jesus chose out twelve apostles (Mk. 3:13-14) and looked forward to the day of his own glory when they would sit on the twelve thrones ruling the tribes of Israel (Mt. 19:28). In doing this he was not creating a 'new' Israel (either alongside or replacing an 'old' Israel); he was leading the Israel of the New Covenant, the apostolic people of our Lord Jesus Christ, those whom Paul calls 'the Israel of God' (Gal.6:16). In a word, 'Israel' is the name of the people of Jesus; it is the inalienable title of his church... Old Testament terms again describe New Testament people... They are the Lord's twelve tribes and they are dispersed throughout a menacing and testing world..." (Alec Motyer, The Message of James, John R. W Stott, NT Series Editor, BST, (Leicester: Inter-Varsity Press, 1985), pp.24-25).
Eze 37:21 And say unto them, Thus saith the Lord GOD; Behold, I will take the children of Israel from among the heathen, whither they be gone, and will gather them on every side, and bring them into their own land:
Eze 37:22 And I will make them one nation in the land upon the mountains of Israel; and one king shall be king to them all: and they shall be no more two nations, neither shall they be divided into two kingdoms any more at all:
In the second half of the seventieth week Christ raises up Israel the Kingdom. After the 'raising up' comes the 'going-mission' to the Gentiles:
Ac 13:46a Then Paul and Barnabas waxed bold, and said...
Ac 13:47 For so hath the Lord commanded us, saying, I have set thee to be a light of the Gentiles, that thou shouldest be for salvation unto the ends of the earth.
Isa 66:19 And I will set a sign among them, and I will send those that escape of them unto the nations, to Tarshish, Pul, and Lud, that draw the bow, to Tubal, and Javan, to the isles afar off, that have not heard my fame, neither have seen my glory; and they shall declare my glory among the Gentiles.
Jn 20:21 Then said Jesus to them again, Peace be unto you: as my Father hath sent me, even so send I you.
God 'gives' Jesus Christ the commission to the Gentiles and then He delegates that commission to His people.
"The prophet Isaiah surely called his nation to function actively as a missionary to the Gentiles and nations at large. The case for an active missionary call to Israel is exceedingly strong in the two Servant Songs of Isaiah 42 and 49.
"Once it is admitted that Israel also functioned and was designated as the "Servant of the Lord," it is difficult to limit her involvement in the spread of the gospel simply to a passive role of centripetally calling the nations of the world to herself. She must bring the religious teaching, usually translated "bring justice," to the nations. The instruction as to what is right must come from those who have been entrusted with the oracles of God.
"But she was marked out long ago in the time of Abraham "to be a covenant to the people" of the earth. Once the word "people" is shown to be equal to the Gentile nations of the earth, then it must mean all the Gentiles and peoples of the world are to be consolidated in the very same covenant that Yahweh had made with Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and David and that Jeremiah spelled out in the New Covenant. All these covenants had the same basic core even though new features were added. But the people who were included in the blessing of these covenants were the same. They were initially given to Israel so that Israel could share them with all the peoples of the earth.
"What really puts the final clincher on this argument is that the task of being "the light of the Gentiles" is assigned to the Servant. In this role, Yahweh will take the hand of the remnant of Israel and guide them in the work of witnessing. If any doubts still remain, then notice how the apostle Paul takes this identical word given to the Servant and declares in Acts 13:47 that this is the same word that explains why he, too, went to the Gentiles. The command, then, was not limited to the Messiah as Servant, but also embraced the remnant of Israel.
"If any doubts remain as how far Israel was to go with this message, that too is abundantly clear in this text of Isaiah: it was "to the ends of the earth."
"Such a witness must not be carried out of Israel's own power, but the Holy Spirit would come on this remnant like rain on a dry and thirsty land. So Israel must witness on behalf of the Lord... All their speaking up as servant-messengers must reach out to beckon the Gentiles until all humanity was a chance to know the at the Lord is the only Savior, Redeemer, and Mighty One over all" (Walter C. Kaiser, Jr, Mission in the Old Testament, (Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 2000), pp.62-63).
Isa 66:23 And it shall come to pass, that from one new moon to another, and from one sabbath to another, shall all flesh come to worship before me, saith the LORD.
Zec 14:17 And it shall be, that whoso will not come up of all the families of the earth unto Jerusalem to worship the King, the LORD of hosts, even upon them shall be no rain.
Zec 14:18 And if the family of Egypt go not up, and come not, that have no rain; there shall be the plague, wherewith the LORD will smite the heathen that come not up to keep the feast of tabernacles.
Zec 14:19 This shall be the punishment of Egypt, and the punishment of all nations that come not up to keep the feast of tabernacles.
"In God's kingdom the gentiles would be brought within that covenant when they come to worship in the Temple the King, the Lord of hosts..." (Joyce G. Baldwin, Haggai Zechariah Malachi, TOTC, (Leicester: Inter-Varsity Press, 1972), p.206).
"The entrance of the heathen into the kingdom of God is depicted under the figure of the festal journeys to the sanctuary of Jehovah, which had to be repeated year by year. Of the feasts which they will keep there every year, the feast of tabernacles is mentioned, not because it occurred in the autumn, and the autumn was the best time for travelling..., or because it was the greatest feast of rejoicing kept by the Jews, or for any other outward reason, but simply on account of its internal significance ... in its historical allusion as a feast of thanksgiving for the gracious protection of Israel in its wanderings through the desert, and its introduction into the promised land with its abundance of glorious blessings, whereby it foreshadowed the blessedness to be enjoyed in the kingdom of God... This feast will be kept by the heathen who have come to believe in the living God, to thank the Lord for His grace, that He has brought them out of the wanderings of this life into the blessedness of His kingdom of peace. With this view of the significance of the feast of tabernacles, it is also possible to harmonize the punishment threatened in v. 17 for neglecting to keep this feast, - namely, that the rain will not be (come) upon the families of the nations which absent themselves from this feast. For rain is an individualizing expression denoting the blessing of God generally, and is mentioned here with reference to the fact, that without rain the fruits of the land, on the enjoyment of which our happiness depends, will not flourish. The meaning of the threat is, therefore, that those families which do not come to worship the Lord, will be punished by Him with the withdrawal of the blessings of His grace. The Egyptians are mentioned again, by way of example, as those upon whom the punishment will fall... It (the fact that the rain does not come) will be the plague, etc. The prophet mentions Egypt especially ... as the nation which showed the greatest hostility to Jehovah and His people in the olden time, and for the purpose of showing that this nation was also to attain to a full participation in the blessings of salvation bestowed upon Israel (cf. Isa 19:19.)... Moreover, we must not infer from the way in which this is carried out in 17-19, that at the time of the completion of the kingdom of God there will still be heathen, who will abstain from the worship of the true God; but the thought is simply this: there will then be no more room for heathenism within the sphere of the kingdom of God. To this there is appended the thought, in vv. 20 and 21, that everything unholy will then be removed from that kingdom" (C . F. Keil, Minor Prophets, KD, Vol.10, p.625).
The type - The Evangelicals
"Three groups emerged from the Evangelical Revival in the eighteenth century: the Methodists, separated from the Church of England after Wesley's death ; the Calvinists...; and the Evangelical Anglicans...
"The Anglican Evangelists believed that Christ died for the whole world... They also held that, through Christian missions, the whole world would eventually come to faith in Christ" (Michael Hennell, "The Evangelicals", Dr Tim Dowley, Organizing Editor, Revised Edition, A Lion Handbook - The History of Christianity (Oxford: Lion Publishing, 1990), p.538).
"Two strands led to a new Protestant world vision. One was prophetic: the thought of the earth 'filled with the knowledge of the Lord as the waters cover the seas'... The other strand is evangelical: the sense of God's command to preach the gospel, which broke through theological rigidity and hubris of sanctified sel-interest. In America these impulses led to a renewed concern for the Indians. In Britain, with no neigbouring non-Christian peoples, but now wide awake to regions overseas, the same thoughts (often coming from America sources) produced a concern for the evangelization of the world.
"The new organization - the missionary society - turned prophetic conviction into action... the Evangelicals saw preaching as calling sinners to God through faith in Jesus Christ...
"Only in the 1820s and 1830s did interest in overseas missions become a regular feature of British church life generally. This was partly due to the success Evangelicals in influencing English and Scottish life. Many of their values were adopted outside their circle. In particular, the idea of Britain as a Christian nation, with Christian responsibilities overseas, took root.
"Bishoprics were established in India and elsewhere... Through the Victorian era, and long after it, overseas mission was taken for granted in the European churches..." (A. F. "Outposts of Empire," A Lion Handbook - The History of Christianity, pp.558-59).
Isa 19:23 In that day there will be a highway from Egypt to Assyria. The Assyrians will go to Egypt and the Egyptians to Assyria. The Egyptians and Assyrians will worship together.
Isa 19:24 In that day Israel will be the third, along with Egypt and Assyria, a blessing on the earth.
Isa 19:25 The LORD Almighty will bless them, saying, "Blessed be Egypt my people, Assyria my handiwork, and Israel my inheritance." (NIV).
"... harmony in worship. First it was five [Egyptian] cities (18), then the whole land (19-22), and now the whole world. The period of the Assyrian crisis was typical of world history. The would be imperialists, Assyria and Egypt, created a world of tension, division, uncertainty and suffering. But where worldly power divides, true religion based on revelation (cf. 2:2-4) unites" (Alec Motyer, Isaiah, TOTC, p.142).
"A highway is a favorite metaphor in this book for the removal of alienation and separation (11:16; 33:8; 35:8; 49:11: 62:10). In rough and hilly Israel, the force of such a figure is obvious. God's longing is for swift and open communication between himself and all peoples, but also among all peoples. His promise is that it will be so one day. In this respect Assyria and Egypt stand for all the warring nation of the earth...
"Egypt will serve [God] with Assyria is a contextual understanding because the clause could equally well be read "the Egyptians will serve Assyria"... but the contest demands the alternate reading, the "serving" being understood as worship, a common meaning for "serve" ('abad; cf. 43:23, 24; 60:11, 12)" (John N. Oswalt, The Book of Isaiah - Chapters 1-39, NICOT, pp.380-381).
"Friendly intercourse is established between Egypt and Assyria by the fact that both nations are now converted to Jehovah. The road of communication runs through Canaan" (F. Delitzsh, Isaiah, KD, Vol.7, p.239).
Friendly intercourse among the nations, based on common worship, results in peace and prosperity.
"Israel has now reached the great end of its calling - to be a blessing in "the midst of the earth" (b'kereb ha' aretz, in the whole circuit of the earth), all nations being here represented by Egypt and Assyria...[in the] eschatological conclusion to chapter 19 ... Egypt [western] and Assyria [eastern] are raised above themselves into representatives of the two halves of the heathen world" (F. Delitzsh, Isaiah, KD, Vol.7, p.239).
"Israel, Egypt, and Assyria are placed on a par. Among them Israel will exist for blessing, but all of them are at one before God. In a remarkable statement Isaiah applies terms previously restricted to Israel to both Egypt and Assyria. He calls Egypt my people (cf. 10:24; 43:6, 7; Hos. 1:10; 2:23; Jer. 11:4) and Assyria the work of my hand (cf. 60:21; 64:8; Ps. 119:73; 138:8). It is true that the favorite term my inheritance is reserved for Israel, but the claim that this term gives a slightly special standing to Israel lack evidence. The point being made is that if Israel turns to the nations in trust she will be prostituting her ministry to them. Instead, she is to be the vehicle whereby those very nations can turn to her God and become partners with her in service to him and enjoy his blessings" (John N. Oswalt, The Book of Isaiah - Chapters 1-39, NICOT, pp.380-381).
"This essential equalization of the heathen nations and Israel is no degradation to the latter. For although from this time forward there is to be no essential difference between the nations in their relation to God, it is still the God of Israel who obtains this universal recognition, and the nation of Israel that has become, according to the promise, the medium of blessing to the world" (F. Delitzsh, Isaiah, KD, pp.239-40).
8:13a And it shall come to pass, that as ye were a curse among the heathen,
12:2a And I will make of thee a great nation
8:13b O house of Judah, and house of Israel;
19:24a In that day shall be (hayah) Israel...
12:2b ... and thou shalt be (hayah) a blessing (berakah):
8:13c ... and ye shall be (hayah) a blessing (berakah)
19:24c a blessing (berakah) in the midst of the land:
Jer 24:9 And I will deliver them to be removed into all the kingdoms of the earth for their hurt, to be a reproach and a proverb, a taunt and a curse, in all places whither I shall drive them.
" "The thought conveyed is that "the Lord promised, that as Israel had been a curse among the nations - that is, as other nations, when imprecating curses upon their foes, were wont to wish then the fate of Israel - so it would come to pass in time to come that Israel's lot should be so remarkable for its happiness that those who prayed for blessings on their friends would wish they might be as Israel" (C. H. H. Wright, Zechariah and His Prophecies. (Brampton Lectures 1878), London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1979, p.187). As they were used in the formula for cursing, so they will be referred to in the formula for blessing. (Compare Isa. 65:15; Jer. 24:9; 29:22)" (Charles L. Feinberg, God Remembers - A Study of Zechariah, (Eugene: Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2003), p.108).
"... the way the language of blessing and curse is constructed creates an unmistakable link to another tradition of blessing and curse: the Abrahamic tradition. Although the word pair curse/blessing is typical of the Deuteronomic covenant texts, the verbal phrase in which the word "blessing" occurs in 8:13 ("you will be a blessing") is reminiscent of the promise of Abraham in Genesis 12:2. There God promised to bless Abraham, and he will in turn become a source of blessing to the nations. Zechariah represents a similar trend. The people had been an example of curse among the nations, but they will become a source of blessing to the nations" (Mark J. Boda, Haggai, Zechariah, NIVAC, p.385).
The Source of Blessing
Ps 72:1 Give the king thy judgments, O God, and thy righteousness unto the king's son.
"Psalm 72 is one of the "royal psalms" - psalms whose content is focused on the life and well-being of the kings of Israel/Judah - and essentially a series of entreaties that God will establish and extend the righteous rule of the monarch so that all nations will submit to his reign and experience the blessings of God's kingdom through him (72:11, 17)" (Gerald H. Wilson, Psalms Volume 1, NIVAC, p.985).
"Perhaps the most obvious observation to make about Psalm 72 is the disparity between the portrayal of the king and the actual behavior of the kings of Israel and Judah.
"... the disparity invites an eschatological understanding of Psalm 72. Even after the failure and disappearance of the monarchy, Psalm 72 continued to be read and heard as a proclamation of God's reign and a portrayal of God's royal policy - God's will - for the world. By the time the psalm took its place in the psalter, it almost certainly was already understood messianicly. For some Jews in the post-exilic era, Psalm 72 probably expressed the longing for the historical restoration of the monarchy by a king who would finally get things right. For a later generation of Jews who would become Christians, Psalm 72 expressed the conviction that Jesus was that messiah, that king..." (J. Clinton McCann, Jr., The Book of Psalms, NIB, (Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1996), Vol.4, pp.964-65).
Ps 72:17 His name shall endure for ever: his name shall be continued as long as the sun: and men shall be blessed in him: all nations shall call him blessed.
"The psalm concludes on a note of universal benediction for and from the golden king of Israel. In a sense, this universal praise mirrors that received by the paradigmatic king of opulent glory, Solomon. Indeed, the whole psalm owes much to Solomon's wisdom, opulence, and world influence as described in 1 Kings 8-10. The visit of the Queen of Sheba and her astonishment at Solomon's wisdom, the account his growing wealth through trade and political alliance, and the international reputation of this young king all provide the background from which Psalm 72 draws its impetus and thrust.
"But even Solomon in all his glory fades in comparison to the golden king of Psalm 72" (Gerald H. Wilson, Psalms Volume 1, NIVAC, p.990).
"At the end, Psalm 72 passes subtly from a description of hoped-for grandeur of human kingship into what can only be described as a universalizing messianic expectation. The groundwork has already been laid with the ... description of the universal sovereignty of the monarch (72:8-11)... But the shift begins most decidedly in 72:17a with the jussive entreaty "May his name endure forever, may it continue as long as the sun."
"While this plea is ostensibly directed towards the long life of the righteous king and shares much in common with the similar expression in 72:5 - "He will endure as long as the sun, as long as the moon, through all generations" - the introduction of the phrase "his name" links back to the growing theme of the universal authority and dominion of Yahweh that has marked the sequence of Psalms 56-72. Throughout these psalms it has been the name of God that has focused the praise of the psalmists. The king has appeared in these psalms as well, but his name - the king's name - is never the object of praise.
"Here at the end of Psalm 72, however, at the end of Book 2 of the Psalter ... the line between king and God are becoming blurred. The king will so rule that the reign of God will be extended to the earth, and the earth will respond with abundant produce. This king will be the source of blessings, not only for Israel but for all the nations of the earth (72:17). This king, then, will provide the resolution to the age-old division that has separated nation from nation and humanity from God. This king will usher in the blessing of Israel and of all the families of the earth that was promised to Abraham in Genesis 12:1-3.
"With this last promise (or entreaty) we have clearly passed over into messianic expectation" (Gerald H. Wilson, Psalms Volume 1, NIVAC, p.992-93).
Ac 3:25 Ye are the children of the prophets, and of the covenant which God made with our fathers, saying unto Abraham, And in thy seed shall all the kindreds of the earth be blessed.
Ac 3:26 Unto you first God, having raised up his Son Jesus, sent him to bless you, in turning away every one of you from his iniquities.
"... it is at least clear that Psalm 72, views the ultimate purpose of the monarchy in terms of the fulfillment of God's purposes for the whole creation (see Ps 47:8-9; Isa 2:2-4; 19:23-25)" (J. Clinton McCann, Jr., The Book of Psalms, NIB, Vol.4, p.964).
Eze 34:24 And I the LORD will be their God, and my servant David a prince among them; I the LORD have spoken it.
Eze 37:24 And David my servant shall be king over them; and they all shall have one shepherd: they shall also walk in my judgments, and observe my statutes, and do them.
Jer 33:17 For thus saith the LORD; David shall never want a man to sit upon the throne of the house of Israel;
"David" in the Ezekielian verses is the Davidic Messiah, Jesus Christ.
Therefore, in the Millennium there will be three levels of kingship - two divine and one human.
Lk 2:1 And it came to pass in those days, that there went out a decree from Caesar Augustus, that all the world should be taxed.
Lk 4:5 And the devil, taking him [Jesus Christ] up into an high mountain, showed unto him all the kingdoms of the world in a moment of time.
Lk 4:6 And the devil said unto him, All this power will I give thee, and the glory of them: for that is delivered unto me; and to whomsoever I will I give it.
"... we have been led to believe that "all the world" was under the charge of the Roman emperor (2:1; 3:1). Now, however, in a way clearly parallel to the scenario painted in Revelation 13, we discover that the world of humanity is actually ruled by the devil..." (Joel B. Green, The Gospel of Luke, Ned B. Stonehouse, et. al., General Editors, The New International Commentary on the New Testament (NICNT), (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans, 1997), p.194).
"The devil ... claims both authority over the kingdoms and the prerogative to give that authority to whomever he chooses" (R. Alan Culpepper, The Gospel of Luke, NIB, (Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1995), Vol. 9, p.99).
"The temptation is for Jesus to rule the kingdoms of the world - i.e., to assume the role presently played by the Roman emperor, and to do it capitulating to the devil's kingship" (M. Eugene Boring, The Gospel of Matthew, NIB, (Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1994), Vol.8, p.64).
"Whatever rule the devil exercises is that allowed him by God; he can only delegate to Jesus what has already been delegated to him" (Joel B. Green, The Gospel of Luke, NICNT, p.195).
In the Millennium, God as kingmaker delegates to Jesus Christ the "kingship" that was previously exercised by "the devil". Christ then delegates the rule of "the kingdoms of the world" to the sons of David.
Eze 44:1 Then he brought me back the way of the gate of the outward sanctuary which looketh toward the east; and it was shut.
Eze 44:2 Then said the LORD unto me; This gate shall be shut, it shall not be opened, and no man shall enter in by it; because the LORD, the God of Israel, hath entered in by it, therefore it shall be shut.
Eze 44:3 It is for the prince; the prince, he shall sit in it to eat bread before the LORD; he shall enter by the way of the porch of that gate, and shall go out by the way of the same.
"... the identification of the prince as a descendant of David is lacking... although it is hard to imagine that Ezekiel had a different dynasty in mind. Why is that? Because in Ezekiel's vision there is another central royal figure, the Lord himself reigning in the temple. The past abuses of the monarchy will be done away with, legislated out of existence by a rearrangement of the land and by specific commands to the future monarch; but the monarch himself remains as a representative of the people. He remains in place, but only as the vassal of the Great King, God himself" (Ian M. Duguid, Ezekiel, NIVAC, (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1999), p.523).
2Ch 9:8 Blessed be the LORD thy God, which delighted in thee [Solomon] to set thee on his throne, to be king for the LORD thy God: because thy God loved Israel, to establish them for ever, therefore made he thee king over them, to do judgment and justice.
The throne of the Lord under the Old Kingdom Covenant was Jesus Christ's, as the "Word of God"; and the throne of the Lord under the New Kingdom Covenant will also be Jesus Christss, as the "Son of God".
Human kings of the line of David will rule "the kingdoms of the world" for God and Jesus Christ. But instead of Satan exercising the 'intermediate-invisible' kingship, God delegates it to Jesus Christ.
But Christ will also 'rule' from the Millennial Temple in the same way he did from the Solomonic Temple.
Mal 3:1 Behold, I will send my messenger, and he shall prepare the way before me: and the Lord, whom ye seek, shall suddenly come to his temple, even the messenger of the covenant, whom ye delight in: behold, he shall come, saith the LORD of hosts.
Eze 45:17 It will be the duty of the prince to provide the burnt offerings, grain offerings and drink offerings at the festivals, the New Moons and the Sabbaths - at all the appointed feasts of the house of Israel. He will provide the sin [purification] offerings, grain offerings, burnt offerings and fellowship offerings to make atonement for the house of Israel. (NIV).
The prince "must provide the victims/produce for all the sacrifices, which are listed in one of the most comprehensive catalogues in the OT: purification offering (hatta't), grain offering (minha), burnt offering ('ola), peace offering (selamim), and libations (nesek). Conspicuous for its absence is the reparation offering (aasam)... the frequency with which Ezekiel's Torah refers to the aasam (40:39; 42:13; 44:29; 46:20) leaves no doubt about is inclusion in the regular cult ritual. [N.B. The reparation offering never appears as a public sacrifice].
"It is evident from these lists that in Ezekiel's new order sin [and ritual impurity] will continue to be a problem for the nation. As he had done through Moses, however, through this prophet Yahweh reveals his magnanimous provision for forgiveness and fellowship with him" (Daniel I. Block, The Book of Ezekiel Chapters 25-48, NICOT, p.659).
Conclusion - 'Present at the Creation'
Isa 65:17 For, behold, I create new heavens and a new earth: and the former shall not be remembered, nor come into mind.
"When Dean Acheson, Harry Truman's post-war secretary of state, wrote his autobiography, he chose a grandiloquent title to describe his dozen years in government. He had been "Present at the Creation", he said, by which he meant the building by America of a new world, out of the wartime rubble of the old - or, at any rate, of half a new world, the free half, while an ally turned enemy, the Soviet Union, built the other half..." (Bill Emmott, Present at the creation, economist.com, June 27, 2002).
1945 - the end of WW2 - is a major turning point in the Anglo-American Hegemonic Cycle - see Appendix 2. "Cycles of War and Prosperity" is the sub-title to this 'cycle'.
What 1945 was to America, 1815 was for Britain. The end of these wars established Britain first, and America second as the hegemonic powers of their respective eras.
The end of WW3 will once again see the British and the Americans, along with the other descendants of Jacob, as hegemonic people.
But unlike the previous wars, that ended in 1815 and 1945, the "Anglo-Saxons" nations will be defeated, occupied and nearly wiped out.
But yet, like 1815 and 1945, the Anglo-Saxons will ultimately be victorious when Christ returns to His people to deliver and restore them.
The descendants of Jacob are to experience a cleansing judgment - punishment and purification - where by only a small remnant will survive. This remnant will then be "Present at the Creation" of a new world by Jesus Christ. And like Dean Acheson, they will be involved in the building of this "new world, out of the wartime rubble of the old".
Rev 12:7 And there was war in heaven: Michael and his angels fought against the dragon; and the dragon fought and his angels,
Rev 12:8 And prevailed not; neither was their place found any more in heaven.
Rev 12:9 And the great dragon was cast out, that old serpent, called the Devil, and Satan, which deceiveth the whole world: he was cast out into the earth, and his angels were cast out with him.
Not only will there be 'earthly' warfare, there will also be 'heavenly' warfare. The latter warfare results in a the cleansing and purification of the former realm of Satan, for a new kingdom to replace Satan's kingdom - a new 'heaven' to complement a new 'earth'.
Ro 8:21 that the creation itself will be liberated from its bondage to decay and brought into the glorious freedom of the children of God. (NIV).
2Ti 4:18a The Lord will rescue me from every evil attack and will bring me safely to his heavenly kingdom. (NIV).
[After the wars at the return of Christ] "there will remain Israel and the heathen [Gentiles]... These will be subjects of a general conversion (11:15). "The veil" shall be taken off Israel first, then from off "all people" (Isa 25:7). The glories attending Christ's appearing, the destruction of antichrist, transfiguration of the Church, and binding of Satan, will prepare the nations for embracing the gospel... If revelation is to recommence in the millennial kingdom, converted Israel must head humanity. Jews and Gentiles stand on an equal footing, as both alike needing mercy; but as regards God's instrumentalities for establishing His kingdom on earth, Israel is His chosen people. The Israelite priest-kings on earth are what the transfigured priest-kings are in heaven... A new time of revelation will begin by the outpouring of the Spirit (Zech 12:10). Ezekiel, son of a priest, sets forth Israel's priestly character; Daniel, the statesman, its kingly; Jeremiah ... both its priestly and kingly... The Mosaic ceremonial corresponds to Israel's priestly office; the civil law to its kingly office... in the millennium both Jews and Gentiles united, under the first-born brother, Israel, walk in the light of God, realizing the full life of humanity... Earthly and heavenly glories shall be united in the twofold election. Elect Israel in the flesh shall stand at the head of the earthly; the elect spiritual church, the Bride, in the heavenly. These elections are not merely for the good of the elect, but for whom they minister. The heavenly Church is elected, not merely to salvation, but to rule in love, and minister blessings over the earth, as king-priests" (A. R. Fausset, Revelation, A Commentary Critical, Experimental and Practical on the Old and New Testaments by Robert Jamieson, A. R. Fausset and David Brown (JFB), Vol.3, Pt.3, p.722).
Am 9:11 In that day will I raise up the tabernacle of David that is fallen, and close up the breaches thereof; and I will raise up his ruins, and I will build it as in the days of old:
Am 9:12 That they may possess the remnant of Edom, and of all the heathen, which are called by my name, saith the LORD that doeth this.
"The glorified Son of man shall rule mankind by His transfigured Church in heaven, and by His people Israel on earth: Israel shall be the priestly mediator of blessings to the whole world..." (A. R. Fausset, Revelation, JFB, Vol.3, Pt.3, p.692).
Ge 22:1a Some time later God tested Abraham.
1Ch 29:17a I know, my God, that you test the heart and are pleased with integrity.
1Ch 29:18 O LORD, God of our fathers Abraham, Isaac and Israel, keep this desire in the hearts of your people forever, and keep their hearts loyal to you.
Jas 1:3 because you know that the testing of your faith develops perseverance. (NIV).
"David's blessing closes with a petition for the people of his realm: "Keep their hearts loyal to you" (29:18). The Chronicler can see nothing more significant for his own audience. The "heart" is crucial to physical and spiritual life. David well knows that divine "cardiac stress tests" are essential to a healthy spiritual life (29:17). Moses also understood that God must test the heart to reveal motives for the sake of encouraging dependence on God and loyalty to him (cf. Deut 8:2-3). The Old Testament principle of divine testing, including the complementary work of "self-testing," is affirmed in the New Testament (James 1:3-8; on self-assessment cf. Lam 3:40; 2 Cor. 13:5; Gal. 6:4)... "God ... tests the hearts of his people to encourage integrity and loyalty..." (Andrew E. Hill, 1,2 Chronicles, NIVAC, pp.350, 648).
Dt 8:16b ... to humble and to test you so that in the end it might go well with you.
Dt 8:17 You may say to yourself, "My power and the strength of my hands have produced this wealth for me."
Dt 8:18a But remember the LORD your God, for it is he who gives you the ability to produce wealth. (NIV).
Testing will be required for spiritual growth in the Millennium; especially for keeping perspective in a prosperous world. Hezekiah provides a type for Millennial kings and people.
2Ch 31:20 This is what Hezekiah did throughout Judah, doing what was good and right and faithful before the LORD his God.
2Ch 31:21 In everything that he undertook in the service of God's temple and in obedience to the law and the commands, he sought his God and worked wholeheartedly. And so he prospered. (NIV).
"The Chronicler had idealized David and Solomon by portraying them as all-but-sinless figures. For the Chronicler Hezekiah was the zenith of the sons of David who followed. He draws many parallels between the reigns of those first rulers of a united Kingdom and this ruler, who was the first to rule alone after the Northern Kingdom had been carried away... In this regard the Chronicler can be thought of as the first of that long line of Jewish interpreters who would idealize Hezekiah and eventually treat him, along with David and Solomon, as messianic figures. In their faithfulness they embodied the hopes of Israel for the future, for the restoration of a united people enjoying peace, victory and prosperity under the righteous rule of the sons of David" (Raymond B. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, WBC, pp.260-61).
2Ch 32:31 Howbeit in the business of the ambassadors of the princes of Babylon, who sent unto him to inquire of the wonder that was done in the land, God left him, to try him, that he might know all that was in his heart.
2Ch 32:25 But Hezekiah's heart was proud and he did not respond to the kindness shown him; therefore the LORD'S wrath was on him and on Judah and Jerusalem.
2Ch 32:26 Then Hezekiah repented of the pride of his heart, as did the people of Jerusalem; therefore the LORD'S wrath did not come upon them during the days of Hezekiah.
2Ch 32:27a Hezekiah had very great riches and honor,
2Ch 32:29b for God had given him very great riches.
2Ch 32:30b He succeeded in everything he undertook. (NIV).
"Hezekiah's "success" (32:30) may be viewed as God's reward for overcoming the circumstances of God's testing in his life (32:31). Divine testing is a recurring theme, not because God needs to know the intents of the human heart, but rather because the Lord tests the hearts of his servants so that they might respond to him in complete faith as a result of the discernment that emerges form the kind of self-knowledge (cf. Deut. 8:2-3)" (Andrew E. Hill, 1,2 Chronicles, NIVAC, p.596).
"The "wrath" (32:25) that came on Hezekiah and Judah as a result of Hezekiah's pride would then be a reference to Sennacherib's invasion. Rather than exile of the population as occurring as threatened (2 Kgs 18:31-32 // Isa 36:16-17), this disaster did not come on Judah "in the days of Hezekiah" (36:26)... There would be "peace and security" (2 Kgs 20:19) during the lifetime of Hezekiah" (Raymond B. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, WBC, p.259).
While Hezekiah and the people of Jerusalem escaped the 'wrath' of Assyrian deportation, the Assyrian king Sennacherib's campaign against Judah is a type of a future campaign against God's people, as presented in Appendix 1.
While Israel will be tested during the Millennium, Israel will not so fall from grace that she would require the type of correction that was inflicted on ancient Israel and will be inflicted on pre-millennial Israel by ancient and modern Assyria and Babylon, respectively.
Assyria, Babylon and Israel in the End-Times
Reappearing in History
As quoted above: "Following the conquest of the northern kingdom by the Assyrians in 721 BC, the 10 tribes were gradually assimilated by other peoples and thus disappeared from history. Nevertheless, a belief persisted that one day the Ten Lost Tribes would be found" (Ten Lost Tribes of Israel, Encyclopaedia Britannica).
"Cyaxares and Nabopolassar made an alliance for the purpose of dividing Assyria. In 612 Kalakh and Nineveh succumbed to the superior strength of the allies... the Babylonians and the Medes ... conquered Harran in 610... In 609 the remaining Assyrian troops had to capitulate. With this event Assyria disappeared from history" (The Neo-Assyrian Empire, Encyclopaedia Britannica).
The Bible definitely reveals that the descendant of the northern kingdom of Israel would exist in the end-times.
Typology suggests that not only the descendant of the northern kingdom of Israel would exist in the end-time so would the end-time descendants of Assyria.
This is the argument:
"Storm and Sun: Assyria and Immanuel"
Isa 7:14 Therefore the Lord himself shall give you a sign; Behold, a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel.
"These chapters [7:1 - 12:6] have been called "The Book of Immanuel", after the promised child of 7:14; 8:8, whose nature and reign emerge in 9:1-7; 11:1-10, against a background of local menace (7:1ff.) and world-wide dispersion (11:11ff.). The prophecies arise straight out of a contemporary crisis, but they extend to the last days (9:1) and the whole earth (11:9, 10; 12:4,5)" (Derek Kidner, Isaiah, D. Guthrie, et. al., Editors, New Bible Commentary (NBC), 3rd Edition, (Leicester: Inter-Yarsity Press, 1970), p.595).
"... seen in the light of its total context, the Immanuel prophecy is found to be interlaced with tensions on the topic of the time of its fulfilment. On the one hand, it has as its context the times of the Assyrian (see 7:17ff.; 8:8; 9:1ff.; 10:34-11:1). But equally it seems to belong to the undated future. Thus 9:1 looks back to the darkness of the Assyrian times and forward to the 'latter time' in which the birth will take place. Again, 11:1 belongs to a time when Judah as well as Israel will have been re-gathered from world-wide dispersal (verses 11, 12), yet according to 8:8 and 10:33 the Assyrian overran but did not destroy Judah...
"Isaiah proceeded, from the start, from the knowledge of the ultimate fall of Judah and Jerusalem and the captivity of the people (see 6:9ff.). This, coupled with his awareness that the Assyrian was not to be the instrument of this destruction, would necessarily involve the projecting of the ultimate hope into the undated future..." (J. A. Motyer, Context and Content in the Interpretation of Isaiah 7:14, p.124).
(1) THE MOMENT OF DECISION
9:8 - 10:4
The Lord's word comes to Judah. On the kings decision hangs the future of the dynasty.
The Lord's word comes to Ephraim. A wealth of imminent divine anger awaits disobedience.
(2) THE JUDGMENT
7:18 - 8:8
The Assyrian Invasion: Damascus and Samaria are despoiled; Judah overwhelmed as by an all but fatal flood.
The Assyrian Invasion: Judah is under threat; the punishment of Assyria is certain.
(3) THE REMNANT
The foes of God's people are doomed, but His people are secure. It is not, however, an unconditional security: those who reject His word are without hope.
The destruction of the king of Assyria; the salvation of a remnant of Israel; the dramatic deliverance of Zion.
(4) THE GLORIOUS HOPE
The birth and reign of the Davidic prince brings victory, joy and piece to His people, and His reign ever extends.
The perfection of the Davidic Prince, and His reign over the Gentiles, and over a re-gathered Israel and Judah.
(J. A. Motyer, Context and Content in the Interpretation of Isaiah 7:14, Tyndale Bulletin 21 (1970), tyndalehouse.com, pp.122-23).
The typical 'falls' of Judah and Jerusalem occurred under the Babylonians in 587 or 586 BC and under the Romans in 70 AD.
The Assyrian invasion of Israel and Judah of the Eighth Century BC and the Babylonian Invasion of Judah of the Sixth Century BC; and the Roman Invasion of the First Century AD, according to Christ's Olivet prophecy; are the 'types' for the end-time invasion of Israel and Judah.
Isa 10:22 For though thy people Israel be as the sand of the sea, yet a remnant of them shall return: the consumption decreed shall overflow with righteousness.
Isa 11:11 In that day the Lord will reach out his hand a second time to reclaim the remnant that is left of his people from Assyria, from Lower Egypt, from Upper Egypt, from Cush, from Elam, from Babylonia, from Hamath and from the islands of the sea.
Isa 11:12 He will raise a banner for the nations and gather the exiles of Israel; he will assemble the scattered people of Judah from the four quarters of the earth.
In the context of the near-future Eighth Century prophecies concerning Israel and Judah there are also far-future prophecies concerning Israel and Judah.
The 'telescoping' of near-future and far-future crises, therefore, suggest that Assyria will be the "rod of God's anger" in both the near-future and far-future fulfillments of prophecy.
While Assyria and Egypt may be used symbolically for the nations, as in Isaiah 19:23-25, this does not deny that the literal descendant of Assyria and Egypt will exist in the end-time.
Typology would suggest that the end-time Babylonians would also be end-time Assyrian allies.
Sennacherib and the Beast/Antichrist
Isa 36:1 In the fourteenth year of King Hezekiah's reign, Sennacherib king of Assyria attacked all the fortified cities of Judah and captured them...
2Ki 18:14 So Hezekiah king of Judah sent this message to the king of Assyria at Lachish... (NIV).
"Next Sennacherib moved up to Jerusalem. On the way he laid siege to Lachish. Although the Assyrian texts do not mention Lachish, Sennacherib pictured this siege with graphic detail on his palace wall in Nineveh... In addition to the Biblical record, there are the archaeological excavations of Lachish and Jerusalem and the Nineveh reliefs... Especially revealing are the Assyrian reliefs that come from the southwest palace of Ninevah depicting the capture of Lachish. There Sennacherib is presented as sitting of his throne (nimedu) while the people of Lachish pass in front of him with their carts and belongings. The scene is filled with pathos, for the people are leaving the city as a spoil for the Assyrians as the populace heads out for deportation. Likewise, the graphic depiction of the capture of the city itself is one filled with violence and enormous energy as the walls are breached and many lives are lost" (Walter C. Kaiser, Jr., A History of Israel, pp.379-80).
"The next set of panels, which appear to depict later scenes of the battle, show Judean captives marching out of the city and into bondage, while their fallen brethren are stripped naked and impaled on Assyrian spears. The next panels depict the grisly torture and murder of captured Judeans, while those still alive beg for mercy. The last panels show the Assyrian king Sennacherib on his throne observing the procession of booty that had been taken from Lachish" (Lachish Relief - 701 BC, Jewish History.com).
"In the Nineveh relief, whole families are carried off... Many people also died in the battle, as is witnessed by a mass grave which was later found by archaeologists, with 1500 human skeletons, mainly of women and children, mixed with pottery from the year 701 BCE" (Jacqueline Schaalje, Laschish - Archaelogy in Israel, jewishmag.com)
"As for Hezekiah the Jew, who did not submit to my yoke, 46 of his strong cities, as well as the small cities in their neighborhood, which were without number - by levelling with battering-rams (?) and by bringing up siege-engines (?), I besieged and took (those cities). 200,150 people, great and small, male and female, horses, mules, asses, camels, cattle and sheep, without number, I brought away from them and counted as spoil. Himself, like a caged bird I shut up in Jerusalem, his royal city. Earthworks I threw against him - the one coming out of the city-gate, I turned back to his misery.
"The cities of his that which I had despoiled I cut off from his land and to Mitinti, king of Ashdod, Padi, king of Ekron, and Silli-Bêl, king of Gaza, I gave. And (thus) I diminished his land...
"I added to the former tribute and laid upon him, the giving (up) of their land (as well as) imposts - gifts for my majesty..." (D. D. Luckenbill, The Annals of Sennacherib, (Oriental Institute Publications, No.2), (Chicago: University of Chicago, 1924), pp.11-12).
Isa 29:3 And I will camp against thee round about, and will lay siege against thee with a mount, and I will raise forts against thee.
Isa 29:7 And the multitude of all the nations that fight against Ariel, even all that fight against her and her munition, and that distress her, shall be as a dream of a night vision.
"Here, as often in prophecy, and especially in Isaiah, the near and far horizons blend. The near view is of Sennacherib's invasion and the destruction of the Assyrian host by the angel of the Lord (Isaiah 36, 37); the far view is that of the final gathering of the Gentile hosts against Jerusalem at the end of the great tribulation (Psa 2:5); (Rev 7:14) when a still greater deliverance will be wrought..." (C. I. Scofield, Scofield Reference Notes (1917 Edition), e-sword.net).
Isa 37:33 Therefore thus saith the LORD concerning the king of Assyria, He shall not come into this city, nor shoot an arrow there, nor come before it with shields, nor cast a bank against it.
Isa 37:36 Then the angel of the LORD went forth, and smote in the camp of the Assyrians a hundred and fourscore and five thousand: and when they arose early in the morning, behold, they were all dead corpses.
Isa 37:37 So Sennacherib king of Assyria departed, and went and returned, and dwelt at Nineveh.
Isa 37:38 And it came to pass, as he was worshipping in the house of Nisroch his god, that Adrammelech and Sharezer his sons smote him with the sword;...
Sennacherib, the king of Assyria, and his campaign against Hezekiah and the Judahites is a type of a the Beast/Antichrist and his campaign against the end-time people of God - both of Israel and Judah.
Isa 30:19a O people of Zion, who live in Jerusalem, you will weep no more. How gracious he will be when you cry for help! As soon as he hears, he will answer you. (NIV).
"After this promising declaration, the prophet turns and addresses the people of the future in the people of his own time" (F. Delitzsch, Isaiah, KD, Vol.7, p.532).
It is suggested here that Isaiah 30 is a telescopic prophecy so that it concerns the near-future and far future. In both scenarios the people of God are oppressed, rescued by divine intervention, and a Davidic king victorious.
The prophecy begins addressing the near-future and ends addressing the far-future. The far-future recipients comprehends the message addressed to the near-future recipients in type and the near-future comprehends the message addressed to the far-future in antitype.
Isa 30:1 Woe to the rebellious children, saith the LORD, that take counsel, but not of me...
Isa 30:2 That walk to go down into Egypt ... to strengthen themselves in the strength of Pharaoh...
"The underlying problem is that they are obstinate children - their rebellion against Assyria is a result of the that attitude" (John Goldingay, Isaiah, NIBC, (Peabody: Hendrickson Publishers, 2001), p.165)
The rebellious people of God of the near-future, manifested in their alliance with Egypt, are a type of the rebellious people of God of the far-future, manifested in their 'covenant' with the Antichrist (cp. Dan 9:27), which typology suggest will include the building of a temple.
Isa 30:18 And therefore will the LORD wait, that he may be gracious unto you, and therefore will he be exalted, that he may have mercy upon you: for the LORD is a God of judgment: blessed are all they that wait for him.
Both the near-future and far-future people are punished and corrected by God - a cleansing judgment. God then rescues the remnant of His people. In the following verses the blessings that God will bestow on His remnant are outlined:
Isa 30:23 Then shall he give the rain of thy seed, that thou shalt sow the ground withal; and bread of the increase of the earth, and it shall be fat and plenteous: in that day shall thy cattle feed in large pastures.
Isa 30:24 The oxen likewise and the young asses that ear the ground shall eat clean provender, which hath been winnowed with the shovel and with the fan.
Isa 30:25 And there shall be upon every high mountain, and upon every high hill, rivers and streams of waters in the day of the great slaughter, when the towers fall.
Isa 30:26 Moreover the light of the moon shall be as the light of the sun, and the light of the sun shall be sevenfold, as the light of seven days, in the day that the LORD bindeth up the breach of his people, and healeth the stroke of their wound.
The description in verses 19-26 describe the blessings for the far-future recipients which then becomes a 'type' of the blessings for the near-future. That the description is far-future is suggested in these comments on these verses:
"It is difficult to avoid the conclusion that the prophecy has passed beyond anything as yet fulfilled and has located itself in God's eschatological purposes" (Geoffrey W. Grogan, Isaiah, EBC, Vol.6, p.198).
"What is envisaged here is a complete reversal of the situation presented in the opening chapter of the book. There the LORD's discipline had left Judah devastated, and her land devoured by aliens (1:7) Metaphorically she is described as bruised and bleeding, with her wounds unbandaged (1:8). Here, in chapter 30, the wounds are bound up and the land restored. Abundant, God-given rain ensures bumper crops and prosperous herds, and working animals that are strong because of their rich fare (23-24). If chapter 1 refers to the devastation caused by Sennacherib's invasion, this passage refers to the recovery that would follow it, by God's grace. But at the same time it also envisages something greater, of which the immediate recovery would be a foretaste. For Isaiah goes on, in verse 25 and 26a to speak of a transformed cosmos in which streams will flow on the tops of mountains and the sun will be seven times brighter! Clearly, at this point Isaiah leaves the plane of history and fires our imagination with images of paradise - a world too beautiful for words to describe or finite minds to grasp" (Barry Webb, The Message of Isaiah, BST, (Leicester: Inter-Varsity Press, 1996), p.130).
"Springs do not break out on mountaintops, nor could any living thing endure a sun seven times brighter that at present. Thus Isaiah makes it plain he is speaking of something more than mere physical blessing. He is speaking of a time when all that is good about human life will be made incredibly better, and that includes love, integrity, faithfulness, justice, righteousness, etc" (John N. Oswalt, The Book of Isaiah - Chapters 1-39, NICOT, p.562)
"This is not a materialistic vision as such, but a vision of creation restored. Sin brought a restraint on the in-built processes of creation (Gn. 3:17-19), but the coming glory will see the curse removed (11:6-9; Am 9:13). The Lord will play his part in the new earth (23a), and earth will respond richly (23b; Ho. 2:21-22). In contrast to the afflicted labor to which human wisdom put them (6-7), the beasts will share the bounty of the new creation (24)...
"Isaiah continues his upwards movement in describing the new creation: first the soil (23a), then the beasts (23b - 24), now up to the hills and on to the heavenly bodies. He does not elaborate on the great slaughter and the fall of the towers, but passages like 2:12; 13:1-12; 25:1-5 show that his vision of the Day of the Lord includes the overthrow of his foes and of their systems of self-security. But the other side of the Day is transformation (arid hill-tops flowing with water), hitherto unexperienced light as creation is restored to its true powers (seven times: 24:23; Rom 8:21), and healing for those whom both their own sinfulness and divine chastisements have wounded" (Alec Motyer, Isaiah, TOTC, p.203).
"Heaven and earth will then put on their sabbath dress; for it will be the Sabbath of the world's history, the seventh day in the world's week. The light of the seven days of the world's week will be all concentrated in the seventh. For the beginning of creation was light, and its close will be light as well" (F. Delitzsch, Isaiah, KD, Vol.7,p.325).
"Verse 25-26 contrast "slaughter" with "healing." This may refer to earth's final battle in which Israel's enemies are finally destroyed and Israel triumphs (cf. Zech. 14:1-4; Mal. 4:1-2)..." (John N. Oswalt, Isaiah, NIVAC, (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2003), p.347).
Isa 2:15 And upon every high tower, and upon every fenced wall,
Isa 2:17 And the loftiness of man shall be bowed down, and the haughtiness of men shall be made low: and the LORD alone shall be exalted in that day.
"The same-long-range perspective is implied by the ominous reference in verse 25 to the day of great slaughter, when the towers fall (cf. 2:15). Something far more terrible than Sennacherib's invasion must befall the world before the new perfect age of God's blessing can come - a truth which Isaiah constantly holds before us. The world must be purged of its evil by God's judgment before, finally and for ever, 'the sun of righteousness will rise with healing in its wing' " (Barry Webb, The Message of Isaiah, BST, p.130).
Isa 30:19 O people of Zion, who live in Jerusalem, you will weep no more. (NIV).
"Some places have become symbols of spiritual realities. Zion-Jerusalem is the people of God, Babylon the world in arrogant opposition to God..." (Geoffrey W. Grogan, Isaiah, EBC, Vol.6, p.199).
In the near-future the consolation of God for Zion/Jerusalem was for the remnant in Jerusalem; in the far future the consolation of God for Zion/Jerusalem is for the remnant of the people of God, which would include those that flee Jerusalem at Christ's return (Zechariah 14:2-5).
In the near-future Sennacherib failed to capture Jerusalem - the type; in the far-future the Beast takes over Jerusalem - the antitype; Jerusalem becomes the capital city of the Antichrist.
Da 11:45 And he shall plant the tabernacles of his palace between the seas in the glorious holy mountain; yet he shall come to his end, and none shall help him.
God as Warrior
30:27a Behold, the name of the LORD cometh from far, burning with his anger, and the burden thereof is heavy: his lips are full of indignation
19:11 And I saw heaven opened, and behold a white horse; and he that sat upon him was called Faithful and True, and in righteousness he doth judge and make war.
30:27b ... and his tongue as a devouring fire:
19:12 His eyes were as a flame of fire...
30:28 And his breath, as an overflowing stream, shall reach to the midst of the neck, to sift the nations with the sieve of vanity: and there shall be a bridle in the jaws of the people, causing them to err.
19:19 And I saw the beast, and the kings of the earth, and their armies, gathered together to make war against him that sat on the horse, and against his army.
30:31 For through the voice of the LORD shall the Assyrian be beaten down...
19:20 And the beast was taken,
30:33 For Tophet is ordained of old; yea, for the king it is prepared; he hath made it deep and large: the pile thereof is fire and much wood; the breath of the LORD, like a stream of brimstone, doth kindle it.
19:20b and with him the false prophet... These both were cast alive into a lake of fire burning with brimstone.
"While these verses survey the immediate situation, naming 'the Assyrian' (v.31), they apply to the end time" (Derek Kidner, Isaiah, NBC, p.609).
"The third picture of the LORD as the warrior (27-33), has the same double focus that we have seen in the previous image. In the foreground stands the coming overthrow of Assyria (31). But in the background stands the final, universal judgment, when the LORD's wrath will fall on the nations (28)... The coming defeat of the Assyrians will be a foretaste of that final victory" (Barry Webb, The Message of Isaiah, BST, pp.130-31).
"As in 30:23-26, the language has a certain "end of history" flavor. It is highly emotive and loaded with vivid imagery. Yet verse 31 makes it clear that the ultimate subject of God's wrath here is Assyria. This should make us cautious about what passages we assign as 'end-time' promises" (John N. Oswalt, Isaiah, NIVAC, pp.347-348).
"Alternatively, Assyria may be more general cipher for the nations at large, whom Yahweh will finally defeat" (Christopher R. Seitz, Isaiah 1-39, Interpretation, p.220).
"Dreadful fall of Sennacherib's army, an event most manifestly typical of the terrible and sudden overthrow of Antichrist; as, unless this typical reference be admitted, no possible connection can be imagined between the stupendous events which took place in Hezekiah's reign, and the very remote and inconceivably more glorious displays of Divine vengeance and mercy in the days of the Messiah" (Adam Clarke, Adam Clarke's Commentary on the Bible, e-sword.net).
John Oswalt's caution may be mitigated if Assyria is not limited to the near-future, so that it includes the literal Assyrian/Assyrians of the far-future.
The near-future outcome resulted in an ethnic Jewish king, Hezekiah, overcoming an ethnic Assyrian king, Sennacherib, which suggests that the far-future outcomes results in the ethnic Jewish king, Jesus Christ, overcoming an ethnic Assyrian king, the Antichrist.
[It does not necessary follow that the antitype is also of the same ethnicity as the type. The Greek-Seleucid Antiochus Epiphanes is also a type of the Antichrist, compare the little horn of Daniel 8, but the Antichrist is not Greek as the prophecies of Daniel 2 and 7 reveal].
Isa 31:7 For in that day every man shall cast away his idols of silver, and his idols of gold, which your own hands have made unto you for a sin.
Isa 31:8 Then shall the Assyrian fall with the sword, not of a mighty man; and the sword, not of a mean man, shall devour him: but he shall flee from the sword, and his young men shall be discomfited.
Isa 31:9 And he shall pass over to his strong hold for fear, and his princes shall be afraid of the ensign, saith the LORD, whose fire is in Zion, and his furnace in Jerusalem.
"Again ... as so often in this book, the immediate horizon of unfolding events does not exhaust the prophet's vision. For in the latter half of verse 8 and the first half of verse 9 the figurative sword of verse 8a gives way to the literal one, and what seems to be in view here is the final collapse and destruction of Assyria - an event which did not occur until 612, with the fall of Nineveh. [This was the time of the collapse of Assyria of the near-future]. And the closing lines of verse 9, which speaks of the LORD's fire ... in Zion, also embraces more than the overview of Sennacherib's army in 701. For the fiery presence of the LORD in Zion has already acquired, from such passages as 4:2-6 and 29:5-8, connotations of the LORD's future reign, when all Zion's enemies will be destroyed. The LORD's fire in Zion will then be (for Judah) no longer the fire of his judgment, but the fire of his saving presence: the complete reversal of the Ariel oracle of 29:1-5. This future glorious reign of the LORD in Zion is explicitly taken up in chapters 32-33 which immediately follow.
"In view of all this, the expression in that day in verse 7 must be allowed to point pass the events of 701 (wonderful as they were) to something more distant and more perfect, as it so often does elsewhere in this book. There was no perfect repentance or perfect salvation in 701. But God's gracious goodness to his people when they cried out to him then was a foretaste of something far greater and more glorious which he has in store for all who turn to him for salvation" (Barry Webb, The Message of Isaiah, BST, p.134).
"... the Assyrian ... [is a] type of all God's enemies in every age... Sennacherib is representative of some powerful head of the ungodly in the latter ages" (A. R. Fausset, Isaiah, JFB, (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1993), Vol.2, Pt.1, pp.659 & 660).
"The day referred to here is the ultimate Day of the Lord (cf. 2:20)" (Alec Motyer, Isaiah, TOTC, p.203).
Isa 32:1 Behold, a king shall reign in righteousness, and princes shall rule in judgment.
Isa 32:2 And a man shall be as an hiding place from the wind, and a covert from the tempest; as rivers of water in a dry place, as the shadow of a great rock in a weary land.
"In chapters 32-35, the same blended meanings of near and far fulfilments are found. The near view is still of Sennacherib's invasion, the far view of the day of the Lord. (Isa 2:10-22); (Rev 19:11-21) and the kingdom blessing to follow" (C. I. Scofield, Scofield Reference Notes).
"Having called his people to repent not only in the light of the coming Assyrian deliverance (31:8-9) but also (and as a priority) in the light of the Day of the Lord (31:6-7), he [Isaiah] now explores the glories of that day and the wonderful works of the Lord. In addition, it is typical of this major section of the book of Isaiah to move from Assyrian darkness to the brightness of the coming King (cf. 8:20 -9:2ff; 10:33 - 11:1f.). In this way the light of hope shines behind the clouds of adversity and sustains the Lord's suffering people. Isaiah foresees a royal administration which secures true values (1) and affords proper protection (2). The people of this king are also themselves transformed (3-4), and false values come to an end (5-9). It is a vison of a true king and a new society" (Alec Motyer, Isaiah, TOTC, p.204).
Earlier it was noted that:
"The prophecies arise straight out of a contemporary crisis, but they extend to the last days (9:1) and the whole earth (11:9, 10; 12:4,5)" (Derek Kidner, Isaiah, NBC, p.595).
Better the prophecies jumps from the contemporary crises, in this case, in the time of Hezekiah to a future crisis before and at the return of Jesus Christ.
As noted above the telescopic prophecy concerns the oppression of God's near-future and far-future peoples, who are both rescued by divine intervention, with victorious Davidic kings. The similarities opens the door for the oppressors, in both scenarios, to be the literal Assyrians.
It was also noted earlier that:
"A pervasive sort of prophetic metonymy occurs early in Scripture in the patriarchal blessings, in which these heroes of Genesis speak repeatedly of the later tribes and nations that will be descendant from them in terms of their individual children at the time" (J. Barton Payne, Encyclopedia of Biblical Prophecy, p.19).
While the Bible calls the end-time descendants of the northern tribes of Israel Ephraim, the end-time world calls the two most prominent tribes/nations of Ephraim, England and America. So if the Bible, by prophetic metonymy, refers to the end-time oppressors of Israel as Assyria, what peoples does the 'world' call the end-time Assyrians?
Typology: Assyria and Nazi Germany
Isa 8:7 Now therefore, behold, the Lord bringeth up upon them the waters of the river, strong and many, even the king of Assyria [Tiglath-pilser III?], and all his glory:...
Isa 8:8 And he [Sennacherib] shall pass through Judah; he shall overflow and go over, he shall reach even to the neck;...
Da 9:26 And after threescore and two weeks shall Messiah be cut off, but not for himself: and the people of the prince that shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary; and the end thereof shall be with a flood, and unto the end of the war desolations are determined.
"The use of the Euphrates as the metaphor here is very satisfying for two reasons. Assyria came from across the Euphrates; it was a mighty river compared to anything the Israelites had seen in their territory; its floods are swift and devastating. So was Assyria. Like Germany in 1939 and 1940, the Assyrians seemed almost superhuman. They could strike anywhere, it seemed, with speed and power. The majesty of these massive armies must have been stunning in itself" (John N. Oswalt, The Book of Isaiah - Chapters 1-39, NICOT, p.227)
Whether the prophecy of Isa 8:7-8 was a two-part fulfilment (i.e., telescopic), first by Tiglath-pilser and later by Sennacherib; or a single fulfilment by Sennacherib, depending on how the people's reaction and time frame in verse 6 is to be understood, Ahaz's 'alliance' with Assyria would turn out disastrous for his son Hezekiah.
"But such rejoicing will be short lived. Although God's help seems like nothing but a spring while Assyria looks like a great river, that river can quickly "overflow its ... banks," and the edges ("channels") of its floodwaters will reach to the farthest corners of the land. Of course, this is exactly what happened some thirty years later when the Assyrian king Sennacherib came against Judah (Isa. 36-37). Any alliance with Assyria was like an alliance with Nazi Germany. They were simply waiting for the day when they could take you too, as Stalin learned to his chagrin in 1941" (John N. Oswalt, Isaiah, NIVAC, p.150).
Isa 10:6 I will send him against an hypocritical nation, and against the people of my wrath will I give him a charge, to take the spoil, and to take the prey, and to tread them down like the mire of the streets.
Isa 10:7 Howbeit he meaneth not so, neither doth his heart think so; but it is in his heart to destroy and cut off nations not a few.
"Any nation that attempts to put itself in the place of God cannot survive... [an] example in the lifetime of many of us that must not be overlooked... is Nazi Germany. The parallel to what Isaiah is talking about here is startling enough that many do not like to bring it up. By the fact is that the Holocaust may well be seen as a modern parallel to the Exile. Then, as now, a mighty power set itself to destroy the people of God. In the case of Assyria and Babylon, they were allowed to succeed to the extent they did only because God permitted it as a source of discipline and punishment for the unbelief of those people. May this perhaps be the case with Nazi Germany? Yet if Germany was a tool in the hand of God, it certainly did not see itself as such. Like Babylon and Assyria, it saw itself as supreme in itself, with the power and therefore the right to destroy whomever it wished. But like Assyria and Babylon, Germany was terribly destroyed and God's Jewish people not only survive but prospered. No nation can set itself up as superior to god and survive" (John N. Oswalt, Isaiah, NIVAC, p.181).
"With the possible exception of the Huns, or the wild hordes of Tamerlane, there has probably never existed, in the history of the world, a power so purely and solely destructive, so utterly devoid of the slightest desire to make any real contribution to the welfare of the human race, as Assyria. But the Huns and the hordes of Tamerlane were untaught savages. In the case of Assyria you have a highly organized and civilized people, skilled to an astounding degree in the arts... If you can imagine a man with no small amount of learning, with all the externals of civilization, with a fine taste in certain aspects of art, and a tremendous aptitude for organization and discipline, and then imagine such a man imbued with the ruthless spirit of a Red Indian brave and an absolute delight in witnessing the most ghastly forms of human suffering, you will have a fairly accurate conception of the ordinary Assyrian... the outside, a splendid specimen of highly developed humanity the inside a mere ravening tiger" (James Baikie, Lands and Peoples of the Bible, (New York: MacMillian Company, 1923), p.97).
"Other regimes had perpetrated mass murder... Even more people were murdered for political reasons in Stalin's Soviet Union; and many aspects of life and death in the Nazi concentration camps - especially the vile sadism of the lower ranks - clearly had their analogues in the Gulag. More people would perish as a result Mao's tyranny in China. Yet there was something qualitatively different about the Nazis' war against the Jews and the other unfortunate minorities they considered to be 'unworthy of life'. It was the fact that it was carried out by such a well-educated people, the products of what had been, at least until 1933, one of the most advanced educational systems in the world. It was the fact that it was perpetrated under the leadership of a man who had come to power by primarily democratic means. The Nazi death machine worked economically, scientifically and euphemistically. In a word, it was very, very modern... The overwhelming impression is of professionals turned into psychopaths..." (Niall Ferguson, The War of the Worlds, (New York: The Penguin Press, 2006), pp.508-09).
John Oswalt draws parallels with Nazi Germany to illustrate what Assyria was like - the Nazis are 'types' of the Assyrians. But are they more than types? Are the modern-day descendants of the ancient Assyrians now known as Germans?
Babylon and her daughters
Ge 10:8 ... Nimrod ... grew to be a mighty warrior on the earth.
Ge 10:10 The first centers of his kingdom were Babylon, Erech, Akkad and Calneh, in Shinar.
Ge 10:11 From that land he went to Assyria, where he built Nineveh, Rehoboth Ir, Calah (NIV).
"By means of this narrative insertion ... the author has not only introduced a key city, Babylon, but has taken Assyria out of its natural associations ... and given it a new identification with the city of Babylon. Thus the author has opened the way for an association and identification of any city with the city of Babylon. These appear to be the initial stirrings of a "larger than life" symbolic value for the city of Babylon..." (John H. Sailhamer, Genesis, EBC, (Grand Rapids: Zonervan, 1990), Vol.2, pp.100-01).
Babylon to Rome
Typology suggests that the Babylonians ended up in Italy, and Rome became the 'new' Babylon both literally and typologically. The following is an argument for this position.
Babylon-on- the-Euphrates - Seleucia-on-the-Tigris - Antioch-on-the-Orontes - Rome-on-the-Tiber
Babylon to Seleucia
"In process of time two great monarchical states shaped themselves: a northern one, whose centre was first at Asshur and then at Nineveh that we know as the Assyrian kingdom and a more southern one, in the alluvial country about the lower Euphrates, whose centre was in Babylon. In the day of their greatness the northern Semites, the Assyrians, were able to subjugate their cousins of the south; but the yoke was impatiently borne. At last it was finally broken. About 607 B.C. the Assyrian kingdom succumbed to a combined attack of Babylonians and Medes. Nineveh fell. Under Nabopolassar (625-605) and Nebuchadnezzar (605-562) Babylon had a new period (brief enough) of independence and glory.
Rev 18:10 ... that great city Babylon...
Rev 18:12 The merchandise of gold, and silver, and precious stones, and of pearls, and fine linen, and purple, and silk, and scarlet, and all thyine wood, and all manner vessels of ivory, and all manner vessels of most precious wood, and of brass, and iron, and marble,
Rev 18:13 And cinnamon, and odours, and ointments, and frankincense, and wine, and oil, and fine flour, and wheat, and beasts, and sheep, and horses, and chariots, and slaves, and souls of men.
"During all these centuries the Semitic kingdoms on the Euphrates and Tigris had been the focus of civilization in the East. They were to the peoples of mountain and desert round about them what the Roman Empire was afterwards to the peoples of Central Europe. There was no other area of cultivation in Western Asia so wide and productive as Babylonia; there were no other cities so large and populous as those on the banks of the two rivers; no centres of industry to compare with those great hives of labour; no wisdom like the wisdom of the Chaldaeans; no king so exalted as the "King of kings." The influence of Babylon radiated as far as the Mediterranean on the west and India on the east. From all parts of the world there was a demand for its wares, especially for its embroideries and rich tissues, "goodly Babylonish garments." The river, which created its fertility, made at the same time a great highway through the desert, by which it communicated with the lands to the north and west, with Syria and Asia Minor and Egypt; on the east roads ran from it through Assyria or through Elam up to the Iranian plateau. And by these routes Babylon not only exported its own products; it was the central mart, through which the products of one end of the world found their way to the other. In its bazaars merchants perhaps chaffered for wares of India which were destined to be used by the peoples of the far-away Aegean. Babylon was thus the commercial capital of the world, the heart in which all the arteries of traffic met. Its unit of weight, the manah, set the standard for all nations; the Greeks measured by the mna, the Indians of the Rigveda by the mana - a witness to the universal authority of Babylon...
"It was not commerce only which brought Babylon into contact with foreigners, but in a lesser degree war as well. The Babylonians, being an industrial not a martial people, were obliged to have most of their fighting done for them, like the Carthaginians. Hard by on the east the lower slopes of the Iranian border range nourished a people who made excellent soldiers, and could be hired for money, predecessors of the modern Bakhtiaris...
"Men from every quarter were thus drawn to Babylon and the other great cities of the Euphrates and Tigris, Phoenician merchantmen, nomads of the desert, and hardy fighting men from the hills of Asia Minor and Iran. Before their eyes were displayed the riches and glory, the handicraft and science of these settled kingdoms. It is no wonder that many nations learnt in their infancy from Babylon, that traces of Babylonian influence may be found in the primitive traditions of Canaan and India and Iran.
"In the sixth century B.C. the long dominion of the Semites in Western Asia came to an end. Kurush, whom we call Cyrus, the chief of a Persian clan, led his countrymen forth from their mountains to seize, first the hegemony of the Iranian race, and then the empire of the world. On the 3rd of Marheshwan (about October 20) 539 Cyrus entered Babylon as a conqueror. But Babylon did not thereby lose its imperial dignity. Its greatness was too well based on its old renown, its geographical position, its immense population, its commercial and industrial supremacy. It could not but be still the capital of the world, the seat of the "King of kings," even though that title now belonged to a foreigner. During the hot Babylonian summer indeed the Iranian monarch used to withdraw to his own high country, to Persepolis or Ecbatana; but for the seven cooler months of the year the Persian court resided at Babylon.
"... But although under unsympathetic rule, Babylon continued to be the greatest of cities... The population of Babylonia was the densest known (Aristole, Politics. ii. 6.), with elements drawn from every nation under heaven (Aeschylus, Persians. 52). Agriculture, manufactures and trade, three unfailing springs of wealth, made Babylonia the richest province of the Empire...
Rev 18:17 For in one hour so great riches is come to nought. And every shipmaster, and all the company in ships, and sailors, and as many as trade by sea, stood afar off,
Rev 18:19 And they cast dust on their heads, and cried, weeping and wailing, saying, Alas, alas, that great city, wherein were made rich all that had ships in the sea by reason of her costliness! for in one hour is she made desolate.
"Herodotus tells us what Babylonia was like in the middle of the fifth century, after a hundred years or so of Persian role. He saw its flat expanse, intersected by canals, stretching away in endless fields of wheat and millet and sesame, dotted with clumps of palm... The industries of Babylon were still busily plied... With regard to trade, Babylon held its place as the great mart of Asia. Herodotus (Histories i. 194) describes the boats which regularly brought merchandise down the river and unloaded in Babylon... The traffic with India naturally continued under an empire which extended over all the intervening country. There are nevertheless indications that the conditions were not as favourable to trade under Persian rule as they might have been..." (Edwyn Robert Bevan, The House of Seleucus, (New York: Barnes & Noble, Inc., 1966), Vol.1, pp.239-243).
Da 8:20 The two-horned ram that you saw represents the kings of Media and Persia.
Da 8:21 The shaggy goat is the king of Greece, and the large horn between his eyes is the first king.
Da 8:22 The four horns that replaced the one that was broken off represent four kingdoms that will emerge from his nation but will not have the same power. (NIV).
"Seleucus I ... was a leading officer of Alexander the Great's League of Corinth and one of the Diadochi ("Successors"). In the Wars of the Diadochi that took place after Alexander's death, Seleucus established the Seleucid dynasty and the Seleucid Empire. His kingdom would be one of the last holdouts of Alexander's former empire to Roman rule..." (Seleucus I Nicator, Wikipedia).
"There was one respect in which Seleucid rule left a conspicuous and lasting impress upon ... Babylon. Sennacherib had razed it to the soil, and it had risen again to new glory. Cyrus and Alexander had conquered it, and it was still the capital of the world. But Seleucus Nicator brought its doom upon Babylon at last. It had subsisted ... through all changes of empire owing to a prerogative which was founded upon natural conditions. But the prerogative belonged to the land rather than the particular city. It was a natural necessity that there should be in this alluvial region a great centre of human life, and if Babylon were merely dispersed, as by Sennacherib, the human swarm again gathered. There was only one way by which Babylon could really be undone by the creation of another centre. This was what Seleucus did. Forty miles north of Babylon, on the Tigris, about fifteen miles below Baghdad, Seleucus marked the foundations of a new city, Seleucia-on-the-Tigris. It was a favourable position for commanding the traffic of both rivers, for it was here that the space between the rivers narrows to twenty -five miles. It was a better "focus of continental trade" than a city on the Euphrates (D. G. Hogarth, The Nearer East (1902), p.261)..." (Edwyn Bevan, The House of Seleucus, Vol.1, pp.252-53).
"... when he founded Seleucea on the river Tigris and brought to it Babylonian colonists he spared the wall of Babylon as well as the sanctuary of Bel, near which he permitted the Chaldeans to live" (Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 1, chapter 16, section 3, English Translation by W.H.S. Jones, Litt.D., and H.A. Ormerod, M.A., in 4 Volumes, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1918, (perseus.tufts.edu).
"Seleucia, chosen for the capital of the eastern half of the Empire, grew apace. It was soon what Babylon had been, one of the largest cities of the world... Elements from all quarters must have entered into the human mass which jostled in its streets. Its prevailing tone, no doubt, was Greek; in later times, under barbarian rule, it prided itself on keeping the Hellenic tradition (Tacitus, Annals, Book vi, 42). But the native population of old Babylon, no doubt, were driven or drifted into the new city (Paus. i. 16, 3)" (Edwyn Bevan, The House of Seleucus, Vol.1, p.253).
"In a way, therefore, what Seleucus did was less to destroy Babylon than transfer it to another site. It was usual, as Strabo observes, to describe a man of Seleucia as a "Babylonian" (Geographica, Book xvi. 743)" (Edwyn Bevan, The House of Seleucus, Vol.1, pp.253-54).
"As we call the country Babylonia, so we call the people Babylonians, not from the name of the city, but of the country; the case is not precisely the same, however, as regards even natives of Seleuceia, as, for instance, Diogenes, the stoic philosopher [who had the appellation of the Babylonian, and not the Seleucian]" (Strabo, Geography, Book 16, Chapter 1, Section 16, ed. H.C. Hamilton, Esq., W. Falconer, M.A, literally translated, with notes, in three volumes. (London George Bell & Sons, 1903), perseus.tufts.edu.
"Babylon's attraction as a "holy city" continued..." (D. J. Wiseman, "Babylon," ISBE, (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans, 1979), Vol.1, p.390).
"The policy of Alexander in honouring the gods of the nations was followed by Seleucus and his house. In March 268 Antiochus I laid the foundation for the rebuilding of the temple of Nebo at Borsippa. His inscription proclaims: "I am Antiochus, the Great King, the Mighty King, the King of the armies, the King of Babylon, the King of the lands, the restorer of the E-sagila and E-zida, the princely son of Seleucus, the Macedonian King, the King of Babylon" (Keilscriftl. JBiblioth. in. 2, 136 f.)" (Edwyn Bevan, The House of Seleucus, Vol.1, p.255).
Seleucia to Antioch
"The battle of Ipsus is one of the landmarks of the period after Alexander... "The victorious kings proceeded to cut up the empire of Antigonus like a great carcase, taking slices for themselves and adding its provinces to those they already ruled" (Plutarch, Demetrius. 30). It was Seleucus and Lysimachus who gained the most in territory. Seleucus now annexed Syria..." (Edwyn Bevan, The House of Seleucus, Vol.1, p.61).
"The years following Ipsus were, no doubt, fruitful in the internal development of the Empire of Seleucus. Seated now in Antioch, the new city he had built on the Orontes ... Seleucus could survey both East and West and consolidate his power throughout the vast regions he had come to rule ... the division of the Empire into an eastern and western part, the former with its capital in Babylonia, in the new city of Seleucia on-the-Tigris [and in the later, with its capital in Syria, in the new city of Antioch on-the-Orontes]..." (Edwyn Bevan, The House of Seleucus, Vol.1, pp.63-64).
"The character of the inhabitants of Antioch may be easily described. The climate made them effeminate and luxurious. A high Greek civilisation was mixed with various Oriental elements, and especially with the superstitions of Chaldaean astrology, to which Chrysostom complains that even the Christians of his day were addicted..." (J. S. Howson, "Antiocheia," William Smith Editor, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, (Boston: Little, Brown & Company, 1870), Vol.1, p.143).
It would appear that the Babylonians, suggested by typology, migrated west into Syria. It would follow that as Seleucus I brought Babylonian colonists to Seleuceia he would also bring Babylonian colonists, along with their "Chaldean astrology" to Anticoh; and or the Babylonians "drifted into the new city".
Ezr 4:9 Then wrote Rehum the chancellor, and Shimshai the scribe, and the rest of their companions; the Dinaites, the Apharsathchites, the Tarpelites, the Apharsites, the Archevites, the Babylonians, the Susanchites, the Dehavites, and the Elamites,
Ezr 4:10 And the rest of the nations whom the great and noble Asnapper brought over, and set in the cities of Samaria, and the rest that are on this side the river, and at such a time.
There were Babylonians, with their Babylonians customs, "this side [of] the river" even in the time of the Assyrians. Accompanied by the migration under the Seleucid it would follow that a substantial Babylonian presence would be on the eastern side of the Mediterranean Sea that the Romans could exploit and also for the Romans to be exploited by the Babylonians.
Antioch to Rome
"... what of the enormous change in intellectual outlook and spiritual atmosphere between Augustus and Constantine? Is not the result something much more Oriental than Greek or Roman in type and temper? And could not a shift in religious ideas be at least a contributory cause for such a transformation?... the crucial issue was ... not cults or race but men. The Syrian Orontes did, as Juvenal says, flow into the Tiber, and even non-Oriental elements, as they entered the ruling class, did not show as sensitive a repugnance to Oriental cults as their predecessors had done. But race is not everything;..." (A. D. Nock, The Development of Paganism in the Roman Empire, S. A. Cook, et al., Editors, Cambridge Ancient History, (Cambridge, At The University Press, 1939), Vol.12, pp.448-49).
"... it is evident that the whole empire was a melting pot and that the Oriental was always and everywhere a very large part of the ore" (Tenny Frank, Race Mixture in the Roman Empire, The American Historical Review, The Chicago University Press, July, 1916, Vol.21, No.4, pp.702-3).
"That race most acceptable now to our wealthy Romans, That race I principally wish to flee, I'll swiftly reveal, And without embarrassment. My friends, I can't stand A Rome full of Greeks, yet few of the dregs are Greek! For the Syrian Orontes has long since polluted the Tiber, Bringing its language and customs,..." (Juvenal [Roman poet active in the late 1st and early 2nd century AD, author of the Satires], Satire III: Fleeing Rome, Lines 56-63, poetryintranslation.com).
"Under the empire the importation of slaves increased. Depopulated Italy needed more and more foreign hands, and Syria furnished a large quota of the forced immigration of cultivators. But those Syrians, quick and intelligent as they were strong and industrious, performed many other functions. They filled the countless domestic positions in the palaces of the aristocracy and were especially appreciated as litter-bearers. The imperial and municipal administrations, as well as the big contractors to whom customs and the mines were farmed out, hired or bought them in large numbers, and even in the remotest border provinces the Syrus was found serving princes, cities or private individuals" (Franz Cumont, The Oriental Religions in Roman Paganism, (Chicago: The Open Court Publishing Company, 1911), p.106).
"This Orientalization of Rome's populace has a more important bearing than is usually accorded it upon the larger question of why the spirit and acts of imperial Rome are totally different from those of the republic. There was a complete change in the temperament! There is today a healthy activity in the study of the economic factors that contributed to Rome's decline. But what lay behind and constantly reacted upon all such causes of Rome's disintegration was, after all, to a considerable extent, the fact that the people who had built Rome had given way to a different race" (Tenny Frank, Race Mixture in the Roman Empire, p.705).
"It would be illuminating by way of illustration of this change to study the spread of the mystery religions... is it not the success of the cults in great measure an expression of the religious feelings of the new people themselves
"In short, the mystery cults permeated the city, Italy, and the western provinces only to such an extent as the city, Italy, and the provinces were permeated by the stock that had created those religions...
"... in the third and fourth centuries A.D., when even the aristocracy at Rome was almost completely foreign, these Eastern cults, rather than those of old Rome, became the centers of 'patrician' opposition to Christianity. In other words, the western invasion of the mystery cults is hardly a miraculous conversion of the even-tempered, practical-minded Indo-European to an orgiastic emotionalism foreign to his nature. These religions came with their peoples, and so far as they gained new converts, they attracted for the most part people of Oriental extraction who had temporarily fallen away from native ways in the western world. [Traditional] Christianity, which contained enough Oriental mysticism to appeal to the herd of Easterners in the West, and enough Hellenic sanity to captivate the rationalsitic Westerner, found, even if one reckons only with social forces, the most congenial soil for the growth in the conglomeration of Europeans, Asiatics, and Africans that filled the western Roman Empire in the second century" (Tenny Frank, Race Mixture in the Roman Empire, pp.706-088).
"The religious and mystical spirit of the Orient had slowly overcome the whole social organism and had prepared all nations to unite in the bosom of a universal church" (Franz Cumont, The Oriental Religions in Roman Paganism, p.211).
Over time, Rome, in the West replaced Babylon, in the East. Rome became the representative city of Babylon down to the present day. Not only did Babylon give birth to a new representative city, Babylon also gave birth a new representative religious system. The Roman Catholic Church is a Babylonian counterfeit of God's Church - outwardly Christian, but Babylonian at its core.
(Rome was a representative city of Babylon before the Babylonians replaced the Italians in Italy; if the typology is correct Rome, after the original Romans were replaced, is not only representative of Babylon, it is Babylon herself in her 'western' manifestation).
But a 'church' is not the ultimate representative of a Babylonian religious system. A true Babylonian religious system 'worships' a human as God. But that is getting ahead of the story.
"It is beyond all dispute that Rome found the point of support of its military power in the Occident. The legions from the Danube and the Rhine were always braver, stronger and better disciplined than those from the Euphrates and the Nile" (Franz Cumont, The Oriental Religions in Roman Paganism, p.2).
"The Holy Roman Emperor saw himself as the chief defender of the church indeed of all Christendom" (Friedrich Heer, The Holy Roman Empire, (London: Orion Books Ltd, 1996), p.2).
With the 'Babylonians' established in central and southern Italy, along with a Babylonian Church, a defender of the 'new' realm and 'new' faith was required after the fall of the Western Roman Empire.
A new Assyria and Babylon Nexus in the West?
Ge 10:10 The first centers of his [Nimrod's] kingdom were Babylon, Erech, Akkad and Calneh, in Shinar.
Ge 10:11 From that land he went to Assyria, where he built Nineveh, Rehoboth Ir, Calah (NIV).
"The deliberate association of Assyria with Babylon (vv.10-12) is also significant... By means of this narrative insertion, then, the author has not only introduced a key city, Babylon, but has taken Assyria out of its natural associations ... and given it a new identification with the city of Babylon. Thus the author has opened the way for an association and identification of any city with the city of Babylon. These appear to be the initial stirrings of a "larger than life" symbolic value for the city of Babylon, one known in the Book of Isaiah (chs.13-14, where Assyria is identified with Babylon) and fully developed in the image of "MYSTERY BABYLON THE GREAT" in Revelation 17:5). The prophet Micah can already speak of Assyria as the "land of Nimrod" (Micah 5:6)" (John H. Sailhamer, Genesis, EBC, Vol.2, pp.100-01).
The Holy Roman Empire
"The Western Roman Empire, that began its terminal collapse in 408, was notionally reborn nearly four centuries later through translatio imperii, the transfer of its lands, to Charlemagne, Charles the Great, King of the Franks who had been crowned Emperor of the Romans on Christmas Day 800 by Pope Leo III...
"The Holy Roman Empire explicitly proclaimed itself to be the continuation of the Western Roman Empire under the doctrine of translatio imperii ("transfer of rule" via a succession of singular rulers vested with supreme power).
"The empire's territory lay predominantly in Central Europe and at its peak included territories of the Kingdom of Germany, Kingdom of Bohemia, Kingdom of Italy and the Kingdom of Burgundy.
"In 962 Otto I was crowned Holy Roman Emperor (Latin: Imperator Romanus Sacer), although the Roman imperial title was first restored to Charlemagne by Pope Leo III in 800. Otto was the first emperor of the realm who was not a member of the earlier Carolingian dynasty. The last Holy Roman Emperor was Francis II, who abdicated and dissolved the Empire in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars.
"A prospective Emperor had first to be elected King of the Romans (Latin: Rex romanorum; German: römischer König). German kings had been elected since the 9th century; at that point they were chosen by the leaders of the five most important tribes (the Salian Franks of Lorraine, Ripuarian Franks of Franconia, Saxons, Bavarians and Swabians). In the Holy Roman Empire, the main dukes and bishops of the kingdom elected the King of the Romans. In 1356, Emperor Charles IV issued the Golden Bull, which limited the electors to seven: the Count Palatine of the Rhine, the King of Bohemia, the Duke of Saxony, the Margrave of Brandenburg and the archbishops of Cologne, Mainz, and Trier. During the Thirty Years' War, the Duke of Bavaria was given the right to vote as the eighth elector" (Holy Roman Empire, Wikipedia).
Rev 17:12 And the ten horns which thou sawest are ten kings, which have received no kingdom as yet; but receive power as kings one hour with the beast.
Rev 17:13 These have one mind, and shall give their power and strength unto the beast.
"A candidate for election would be expected to offer concessions of land or money to the electors in order to secure their vote.
Da 11:39 He will attack the mightiest fortresses with the help of a foreign god and will greatly honor those who acknowledge him. He will make them rulers over many people and will distribute the land at a price. (NIV).
Crowning by the Pope
"After being elected, the King of the Romans could theoretically claim the title of "Emperor" only after being crowned by the Pope. In many cases, this took several years while the King was held up by other tasks: frequently he first had to resolve conflicts in rebellious northern Italy, or was in quarrel with the Pope himself. Later Emperors dispensed with the papal coronation altogether, being content with the styling Emperor-Elect: the last Emperor to be crowned by the Pope was Charles V in 1530" (Holy Roman Empire, Wikipedia).
"The Holy Roman Emperor saw himself as the chief defender of the church indeed of all Christendom. For all that, Empire and Emperor had no more formidable rival, or indeed enemy, than the Roman Pope. What was more, this papal hostility weighed most heavily in the balance at precisely those moments when the Empire was in greatest danger, whether from the Turks, the French or the Protestants" (Friedrich Heer, The Holy Roman Empire, p.2).
Type: Taking the hand of Bel
"From 911 BC with the founding of the Neo-Assyrian Empire by Adad-nirari II, Babylon found itself under the domination and rule of its fellow Mesopotamian state for the next three centuries...
"... with the accession of Tiglath-Pileser III (745-727 BC) Babylonia came under renewed attack. Babylon was invaded and sacked and Nabonassar reduced to vassalage. His successors Nabu-nadin-zeri, Nabu-suma-ukin II and Nabu-mukin-zeri were also in servitude to Tiglath-Pileser III, until in 729 BC the Assyrian king decided to rule Babylon directly as its king ... and having himself crowned as "King Pulu of Babylon" ... instead of allowing Babylonian kings to remain as vassals of Assyria as his predecessors had done for two hundred years" (Babylonia & Tiglath-Pileser III, Wikipedia).
"Right through the history of the Babylonian and Assyrian empires no monarch seems to have felt his tenure of power secure in Babylon until he had "taken the hand of Bel" that is to say, that he had been adopted by the priesthood of "Bel" as the god's son and representative. As our knowledge of Assyrian and Babylonian history grows clearer, it becomes plainer that the politics of that world, the revolutions, usurpations, changes of dynasty, intrigues with foreign powers, turned largely upon issues between the great wealthy priesthoods and the growing but still inadequate power of the monarchy. The king relied on his army, and this was usually a mercenary army of foreigners, speedily mutinous if there was no pay or plunder, and easily bribed..." (H. G. Wells, The Outline of History: Being a Plain History of Life and Mankind, (Barnes & Noble Publishing, Inc, 1920), Vol.1, p.197).
Rev 17:16 And the ten horns which thou sawest upon the beast, these shall hate the whore, and shall make her desolate and naked, and shall eat her flesh, and burn her with fire.
"Sennacherib was involved in a violent quarrel with the priesthood of Babylon; he never "took the hand of Bel"; and finally struck at that power by destroying altogether the holy part of the city of Babylon (691 B. C.) and removing the statue of Bel-Marduk to Assyria... his successor, Esar-haddon ... found it expedient to restore Bel-Marduk and rebuild his temple, and make his peace with the god" (H. G. Wells, The Outline of History: Being a Plain History of Life and Mankind, Vol.1, p.197).
Typology suggests that the German/Italian Axis is the old Assyrian/Babylonian Nexus revived.
Central Asia to Central Europe
"The Greeks ... inhabiting the SE. corner of Europe, and watching the movements of their own colonies alone, or at most gleaning the reports of Phoenician and Etruscan mariners, often purposely involved in fable, always, it is probable, exaggerated, imagined that the main stream of European population had flowed generally across the Aegean sea from the coasts of Asia Minor, with occasional interruptions or admixtures from Phoenicia and Egypt. They were unaware of the fact which modern ethnology has brought to light [see map below], that the course of immigration was rather from central Asia to central Europe, by a route lying north of the Euxine sea and intersecting the great rivers which flow eastward and southward from the Alps and Russia... Three main streams of population intermingling with each other in certain localities, yet sufficiently distinct for definition, maybe discerned: (1). The Celts and Cimmerians, who entered our continent from the steppes of the Caucasus, and, passing round the head of the Black sea, spread themselves over the whole of Europe, and permanently settled in the west. (2). The Sclavonians, or, as the ancients denominated them, Scythians and Sarmatians, who occupied the east of Europe, where they are found beside the earliest Celtic colonies. The river Oder, however, seems to have been the western limit of the Sclavonians. Thence, without establishing themselves in the Alps, they turned in a southerly direction, since they contributed largely to the population of both Greece and Italy. (3). The Teutons - who arrived at different epochs: (1). as Low Germans, from the regions between the Oxus and Jaxartes, and established themselves in the NW. of Europe, and (2) as High Germans, who, displacing the Celts and Sclavonians, occupied the middle-highlands of Germany, and in the historic period are found east of the Rhine and north of the Danube. The whole plateau of central Europe, however, was perpetually undergoing a change in its population from the flux and reflux of these principal elements; and when towards the close of the 1st century B.C. the Roman legions passed the Rhine and entered the Hercynian forest, they found both Celts and High and Low Germans arrayed against them from the Helvetian pagi to the frontiers of Bohemia..." (William Bodham, "Europa," William Smith, Editor, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1870), Vol.1, p.882).
"This map shows the hypothesized homeland and spread of the Indo-European languages. No direct evidence exists to prove that the original Proto-Indo-European language was spoken in this area, nor that there even was a single such language" (Dan Short, The Origin and Spread of the Indo-European Languages, danshort.com/ie/mapmaker.php?Map=sprea).
It is suggested here that the tribes of Israel and the Assyrians migrated "from central Asia to central Europe," and instead of being 'lost' they are now known by different names.
"Of the three original [Germanic] tribes, the Franks, the Saxon, and the Bavarians, the Franks went too far too fast. Those who went too far west became French, those who went too far south became Italians (that is northen Italians), those who went too far south west became Spaniards. A few centuries later some of the Saxons and their outlying cousins went northwest overseas and became the English. Those who stayed in the heartland of Europe, between the Alps and the North Sea, but gradually moving beyond the Rhine and the Elbe westward or eastward, became the Germans - without anybody's ever having been able to figure out to the general satisfaction what a German is or even where precisely he should be" (George Bailey, Germans: Biography of an Obsession, (New York: Avon Books, 1972), p.341).
Note on maps
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland is used here as representative of Israel. It is not all Israel as it doesn't include North America, Australia, New Zealand and other Related Israelite Nations.
Typological Israel in the West
"... I will not cease from Mental Fight
Nor shall my Sword sleep in my hand:
Till we have built Jerusalem, In England's green and pleasant land.
"When William Blake wrote these lines in the early 1800s, he was employing for his own mystical and political purposes a set of images that had been at the centre of Protestant thought in Britain since the early seventeenth century. They were a chosen people struggling towards the light... Superimposing the language of the Bible on their own countrymen's progress through life and towards redemption...
"One of the most powerful transmitters of the idea of Britain as Israel, for instance, took the form of the sung rather than the printed word. From the moment he settled in London, George Frederick Handel flattered his new surroundings, and especially his patrons in court, by inserting into his music regular comparisons between events in British history and the endeavours of the prophets and heroes of the Old Testament. The anthem he composed for George II's coronation in 1727, which has played at every subsequent coronation, is a case in point: 'And Zadok the priest and Nathan the prophet anointed Solomon King.' But it was in the oratorios that he exploited the parallel between Britain and Israel to the full. Esther, Deborah, Athalia, Judas Maccabaeus (which was composed in honour of the Duke of Cumberland victory over the Jacobites at Culloden), Joshua, Susannah, Jephtha, and self-evidently, Israel in Egypt all have as their theme the deliverance of Israel from danger by leaders inspired by God. The moral Handel wanted his listeners to draw was an obvious one. In Great Britain, second and better Israel, a violent and uncertain past was to be redeemed by the newly and stoutly Protestant Hanoverian dynasty, resulting in an age of unparallel abundance..." (Linda Colley, Britons - Forging the Nation 1707-1837, (London: Yale University Press, 1992), pp.30-33).
God also said to him: I am God Almighty. Be fruitful and multiply. A nation, indeed an assembly of nations, will come from you, and kings will descend from you. (CSB).
"Britain ... is an assembly of nations..." (The Economist, Integrating minorities - The war of headscarfs, February 7, 2004, p.25).
It has been argued that the cental and southern Italians and Germans are, at the minimum, typological in the west, Babylonians and Assyrians respectively. Typology would then suggest that a United Kingdom of Israel, that is a group of some tribes of Israel, would also be in the West, and also west of the modern Babylonians and Assyrians.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801-1922)
"After Acts of Union between England and Scotland as Great Britain in 1707 and between Great Britain and Ireland in 1801, the United Kingdom was a unitary state of the British Isles. Until 1920, it was the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland with only one parliament at Westminster for the whole nation which then included all of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1920, a separate parliament was set up in Northern Ireland, overseen by a Governor, though it continued to be represented at Westminster also. In 1921, the southern part of Ireland seceded from the United Kingdom to become the Irish Free State - a self-governing Dominion. In 1927, the United Kingdom was restyled as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to reflect these changes. Great Britain continued to be governed under a single parliament at Westminster while Northern Ireland had self-government. The Irish Free State was renamed as Eire in 1937 as it had adopted a quasi-republican constitution. In 1949, it became the Republic of Ireland and it severed all links with the British Empire. In 1972, owing to an escalating violent situation, self-government in Northern Ireland was suspended and replaced with direct rule from Westminster. The United Kingdom had once again become a single unitary state with only one parliament at Westminster. This changed in 1999, in a response to growing nationalist aspirations, as self-government was restored to Northern Ireland and given to Scotland and Wales. For the first time since 1707, Scotland was given a full parliament while Wales and Northern Ireland received less powerful assemblies. However, they all continued to be represented in the United Kingdom parliament at Westminster also. The United Kingdom, though officially still a unitary state, is now looking more like a federation, though England still does not have its own self-government" (James B. Alcock, Historical Atlas of the British Empire and the Commonwealth, atlasofbritempire.com).
Reading the above the UK looks like it is moving from a federal monarchy to a national/tribal federation, the reverse, in type, of the tribal federation of the tribes of Israel, of the time of the Judges, to a federal
monarchy, of the times of David and Solomon.
"While the changes introduced by David brought the country peace and prosperity, they also completed the destruction of the old regime - but not entirely. David realized, either out of choice or out of necessity, that Israel had to remain a federation in which the tribal institutions retained considerable political power, hence what emerged from his reconstitution was a federal monarchy with the tribes in place but the overall thrust was inexorable centralization" (Daniel J. Elazar, Dealing with Fundamental Regime Change: The Biblical Paradigm of the Transition from Tribal Federation to Federal Monarchy Under David, jcpa.org).
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland had a number of typological parallels with the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah and with the United Kingdom of the Ten-tribe of Israel - the latter was also a federal monarchy.
Union of Nations
"Scottish nationalists mourn their union with Britain. Misguidedly so...
"To some Scottish patriots, March 24th 1603, when James VI of Scotland also became James I of England, marked the start of a slide that ended with the subjugation of the country by its larger southern neighbour...
"Admittedly, the Stuarts [male-line] were not a great success, and were binned in 1688 for another import, this time from Holland. But, with the Jamestown settlement in Virginia, they launched the empire, which was largely run by Scots. And Scottish dominance of today's cabinet suggests they have retained much of that power..." (The Economist, Anglo-Scots Union: Who won?, March 29, 2003, p.51).
Kings - Davidics and Stewarts
2Sa 5:3 When all the elders of Israel had come to King David at Hebron, the king made a compact with them at Hebron before the LORD, and they anointed David king over Israel.
2Sa 5:4 David was thirty years old when he became king, and he reigned forty years.
2Sa 5:5 In Hebron he reigned over Judah seven years and six months, and in Jerusalem he reigned over all Israel and Judah thirty-three years.
"The Union of the Crowns (March 1603) was the accession of James VI King of Scots, to the thrones of England and Ireland, and the consequential unification of Scotland with both realms under a single monarch. The Union of Crowns followed the death of Queen Elizabeth I of England - the last monarch of the Tudor dynasty, who was James' unmarried and childless first cousin twice removed.
"The Union was a personal or dynastic union, with the Crown of Scotland remaining both distinct and separate - despite James's best efforts to create a new "imperial" throne of "Great Britain". However, England and Scotland would only continue to be sovereign states, sharing a monarch, until the Acts of Union in 1707 during the reign of the last Stuart monarch, Queen Anne" (Union of the Crowns, Wikipedia).
Somewhat similar to David, James I was king of Scotland and later king of both Scotland and England.
"Elizabeth Stuart (19 August 1596 - 13 February 1662) ... was the third child and eldest daughter of James VI and I, King of Scotland, England and Ireland, and his wife Anne of Denmark.
"With the demise of the Stuart dynasty in 1714, her descendants, the Hanoverian rulers, succeeded to the British throne [George I was Elizabeth's grandson]. The current reigning British monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, is Elizabeth Stuart's ninth great-granddaughter" (Elizabeth Stuart, Queen of Bohemia, Wikipeidia).
The Stuarts were monarchs of Scotland, England, Wales and Ireland, until Queen Ann's time, when the monarchs became Kings and Queens of Great Britain and Ireland.
Synecdoche (from above)
"Synecdoche is the figure of speech that puts the part for the whole...
"... It is common for the term 'England' to be used as a synecdoche for the 'United Kingdom', giving offence to Scots, Welsh, and Northern Irish" (Gordon Jarvie, Bloomsbury Grammar, p.282).
How can I give you up, Ephraim?
How can I hand you over, Israel?
Hosea 11:8 (NIV).
Just as 'England', the leading nation, is used, by synecdoche, as a designation of the United Kingdom, so 'Ephraim,' the leading tribe, is used, by synecdoche, as a designation of the (northern) Kingdom of Israel.
Capital Cities - Samaria and London
Just as the capital of Israel, that is Samaria, was located in the leading tribe, that is Ephraim, so the capital of Great Britain and the UK, that is London, is located in the leading nation, that is England.
Working relationship - Judah/Joseph and Scotland/England
Ge 46:28 Now Jacob sent Judah ahead of him to Joseph to get directions to Goshen... (NIV).
"Curiously, in the narrative itself it was Judah, not Joseph, who led the sons of Israel into the land of Goshen... it appears that the writer has singled out Judah for special attention over against Joseph. Although in the Joseph story as a whole it was Joseph who was responsible for the preservation of the sons in Egypt, here, within the detail of the passage, it was Judah who "pointed out the way" (lehorot; NIV, "to get directions," v.28) to the land of Goshen...
"The chapter ends with Joseph's plan to secure the land of Goshen as a dwelling place for the sons of Israel (vv.31-34). In the next chapter, Joseph's plan succeeded, and the people were given the land of Goshen. In these two brief narratives, Joseph and Judah are placed in marked contrast. Judah led the brothers to the land of Goshen, but it was Joseph's wise plan that resulted in their being able to live there" (John H. Sailhamer, Genesis, EBC, Vol.2, p.263).
"... the Scots were important to the development of the Empire in diverse ways: as businessmen, as educators, as missionaries, as imperial administrators and soldiers. Their contribution was so substantial that it has led some historians to refer to 'the Scottish empire'. While the Scots were hugely important to the global growth of British influence, to argue that the Empire was essentially their creation would be to ignore the role of the British state and other national groupings such as the English and the Irish. The Scots may have run the Empire, and profited by it, but at the end of the day it was London that decided its fate. It was English laws and civil institutions that the Scot was to uphold and live by" (W W J Knox, Institute of Scottish Historical Research, Migration and Empire, educationscotland.gov.uk. University of St Andrews, 2009).
The Lost Jews?
"200,150 people [of Judah], great and small, male and female, horses, mules, asses, camels, cattle and sheep without number, I brought away from them and counted as spoil... as well as his [Hezekiah's] daughters, his harem, his male and female musicians, (which) he had (them) bring after me to Nineveh, my royal city" (D. D. Luckenbill, The Annals of Sennacherib, (Oriental Institute Publications, No.2), pp.11-12).
("...the number of captives is seen today widely as exaggeration" (Wikipedia, Lachish reliefs).
In light of the Judah/Scotland typology above could the Normans, Bretons and Flemish emigrants to Scotland be descended from the Jews that Sennacherib took captive? A highly speculative question, but one prompted by typology.
Ge 49:8 "Judah, your brothers will praise you; your hand will be on the neck of your enemies; your father's sons will bow down to you.
Ge 49:10 The scepter will not depart from Judah, nor the ruler's staff from between his feet, until he comes to whom it belongs and the obedience of the nations is his. (NIV).
"Jacob blessed Judah, raising the next in line to leader. Judah would be praised by his brothers and acclaimed as leader for having decisively defeated his enemies... Rulership would be the right of this tribe as the symbols, the scepter and the ruler's staff, indicate... His power would be over his brothers, or those in the tribal league, as well as over the nations. This blessing anticipated the Davidic kingdom; David, in turn, became the type for the Messiah. It expressed a way that God would fulfill the Abrahamic blessing; other nations would come under the rule of the house of Judah and thus participate in the Abrahamic blessing (12:2-3)" (John E. Hartley, Genesis, NIBC, pp.357-58).
"To speak of the 'differences' between English and Norman society is to start from the wrong standpoint. We should never forget that the Normans and the Anglo-Saxons came from the same basic stock.
"At rock bottom, they were each Scandinavian immigrants who had settled in another land and taken over from its ruling aristocracy. It should therefore not surprise us that on a fundamental level, English and Norman social structures were very similar. What is interesting is the way these similarities received different shadings because of the time and place in which each side had finally settled down" (Mike Ibeji, English and Norman Society, bbc.co.uk, February 17, 2013).
"After the invasion of 1066, the Normans set about introducing their laws and customs to Britain, first in the south of England, formalising land ownership, reforming religion and increasing trade. Land was granted to Norman, Breton and Flemish nobles who had been part of the conquest. In addition to the nobles, there was a large migration of the minor officials needed to run and administer the new systems and clerks, tailors, sergeants and others travelled from the Norman lands to Britain.
"Although the Normans did not invade Scotland, Norman influence was introduced to Scotland under David I where it had as great an impact as south of the Border. David established Abbeys, promoted trade and introduced changes to the legal system, all of which were to have an impact on the future of Scotland. Equally importantly, he granted lands to Norman nobles who would form the new ruling class of Scotland, the descendents of whom were to play important roles in the struggle for independence...
"David brought this structure to Scotland, and granted land to nobles who had been part of the conquest and who understood the administration of such a system. In doing so he created a new ruling elite in Scotland. Oliphant, de Bourneville, de Graham, Fitzalan, Comyn, de Bailleul (Balliol), and de Brus (Bruce) are amongst the names of the early landlords and are mostly of French or Flemish origin. In later centuries several of the members of families became associated with the struggle for Scottish independence, including most famously, Robert the Bruce" (David I and the impact of the Norman Conquest, bbc.co.uk/legacies/immig_emig/scotland/borders).
"The House of Stewart, or Stuart, is a European royal house. Founded by Robert II of Scotland, the Stewarts first became monarchs of the Kingdom of Scotland during the late 14th century, and subsequently held the position of the Kings of England, Ireland, and Great Britain...
"The ancestral origins of the Stewart family are quite obscure - what is known for certain is that they can trace their ancestry back to Alan FitzFlaad, a Breton who came over to Great Britain not long after the Norman conquest" (House of Stuart, Wikipedia).
A final future Germanic Holy Roman Empire?
"So the dream of the Holy Roman Empire has remained. It has bemused every generation of Germans since Charlemagne. It has beckoned and bewitched every German leader worth or not worth his salt, ranging in terms of merit and ability all the way from Barbarossa to "Kaiser Bill." The dream has proved to be an irresistible attraction and by no means only to Germans and their far-flung relatives. It has also appealed to Swedes, Spaniards, and Corsicans among others. Those captains and commanders who had no original conscious desire to travel the road to empire sooner or later discovered themselves moving along the railbed of historic progression that had been laid in the time of Charlemagne. Napoleon realized this early in his career and accepted it. Indeed, the empire was virtually thrust upon Napoleon as a matter of course by German princes...
"Even when institutions are disintegrating and decaying, their leading ideas sometimes live on. And remerge, often in distorted and even horrendous forms. So it was the Berlin-Rome axis came into being; the link was the Church. So it was that the Concordat between the Vatican and the Third Reich was signed. There was perhaps no basic differences between the attitudes of Pius XII to Hitler and Leo III to Charlemagne. "Heresies," as Sir Thomas Browne wrote,
do not perish with their Authors, but like the river Arethusa, though they lose their currents in one place, they rise up again in another... Opinions do find, after certain Revolutions, men and minds like those that first begat them. To see ourselves again, we need not look for Plato's year: every man is not only himself; there have been many Diogenes, and as many Timons, though but few of that name; men are lived over again, the world is now as it was in Ages past, there was none then, but there hath been someone since that parallels him, and is, as it were, his revived self.
"If this is true then can we be sure that history has written finis to what was perhaps the grandest design ever conceived by man: the Holy Roman Empire?
"It was not by mere chance that the words "of the German Nation came to be added to the title. Germany was the country best fitted to be the home base of the empire. In the very center of the European land mass it formed, then as now, the geographical, economic, and political heart of Europe. Germany was, then as now, a network of roads and waterways knotted together at its intersections by the great commercial clearinghouses at Cologne, Frankfurt am Main, Leipzig, Frankfurt an der Oder, Nuremburg, Augsburg. Inevitably, this central position meant, through all history, pressure from all sides and the corollary of concentric pressure: pivotal influence; both centrifugal and centripetal force. Germany was naturally, and still is, at the center of all east-west and north-south conflicts, between Habsburg and Bourbon, between Spain and the Netherlands, between Catholics and Protestants, between capitalists and columnists. It has always been clear to all concerned that the role of Germany - or the role played in Germany by others - would be decisive. Consequently the governments of major governments nations have always tried to establish and promote their interests (whatever they might be) in Germany. For this reason the country of the Germans has been invaded, divided, subdivided, bought, sold partitioned, and occupied by foreign governments since the dawn of European history. It was because of this situation that the lateral transfer of the Roman Empire to the Germans was bound to be calamitous. The transfer imposed form, gave direction, and imparted thrust to the German natural inclination to believe: it harnessed a griffin to the sacred imperial dream. Within the dream it generated the most mystical of all political concepts: the Reich.
"The Reich is not a kingdom; a kingdom is a qualified Reich, a Konigreich. It is not a res publica - a republic - which is best summed up in the term state. It is nothing so clearly constituted, so definite in its basis and in the articulated structure of its laws. Etymologically the word "Reich" is cognate with the English "rich." But there is nothing crassly material about the Reich: it is mantled in a vague solemn dignity that is otherworldly. To call the Reich holy (helig) is most repetitious. Reich is a semantic and conceptual bridge to "Himmelreich," the Heavenly Kingdom. With the lateral transfer of the Holy Roman Empire to Germany the Germans became the people chosen by God to implement the Christianization of the world, beginning with Europe. "Germany" became synonymous with the Reich, with the Kingdom of God on earth (a development that made the confrontation between Germans and Jews all but inevitable: one chosen people verses another chosen people)..." (George Bailey, Germans: Biography of an Obsession, pp.363 & 360-61).
The application of Sir Thomas Brownes "Certain Revolution" for the future is the coming Great Depression of the Twenty-first Century. The depression will lay the grounds for a "revived" Holy Roman Empire as a means of salvation - economic, political and religious - for Europe, and by extension for the world.
As contained in the argument around the Anglo-America Hegemonic Cycle it is noted that the leaders and administrations/regimes that led Germany into both "great depressions" were not the leaders and administrations/regimes that emerged from the "great depressions". History, therefore, suggests that a new system will emerge from, or after, the coming Great Depression - a Holy Roman Empire of the Twenty-first Century.
Rod of God's Anger
Isa 10:5 O Assyrian, the rod of mine anger, and the staff in their hand is mine indignation.
Isa 10:6 I will send him against an hypocritical nation, and against the people of my wrath will I give him a charge, to take the spoil, and to take the prey, and to tread them down like the mire of the streets.
Isa 10:7 Howbeit he meaneth not so, neither doth his heart think so; but it is in his heart to destroy and cut off nations not a few.
"There was ... more than mere diplomatic convenience underpinning the Tripartite Pact of September 27, 1940, which formalized the German-Italian-Japanese Axis and its members' shared interest in a 'new world order of things'. For all their differences between them ... Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy and Imperial Japan shared certain fundamental assumptions about the character of the world they hoped to forge in the fires of war. It was a world ruled by three empire-states... a world shared between three master races: the Aryan, the Roman and the Yamato. As one of the Pact's Japanese architects put it: 'World totalitarianism will take the place of Anglo-Saxonism, which is bankrupt and will be wiped out'...
"The Axis armies were not content to defeat their enemies in the field. They treated prisoners of war with murderous contempt... Nor did they hesitate to extend the purview of warfare to menace, molest and murder defenceless civilians. Entire cities laid waste whole populations wiped out. Their notoriously violent character ... [was] not necessarily the reason why the Axis empires failed to endure. On the contrary; the remarkable thing is that their ruthless employment of physical force did not prevent the Japanese - any more than it prevented the Germans - from acquiring in large quantities the one vital ingredient upon which all empires depend: collaborators" (Niall Ferguson, The War of the Worlds, pp.473-74).
A new world order, with the nations 'collaborating' with a German-led Europe, will try to wipe out - "menace, molest and murder" - the Anglo-Saxon and Related Peoples.
Isa 30:17 One thousand shall flee at the rebuke of one; at the rebuke of five shall ye flee: till ye be left as a beacon upon the top of a mountain, and as an ensign on an hill.
Isa 30:18 And therefore will the LORD wait, that he may be gracious unto you, and therefore will he be exalted, that he may have mercy upon you: for the LORD is a God of judgment: blessed are all they that wait for him.
"...the Lord must wait to show his grace until they are in a position to receive it. So to the repeated cry of "How long, O Lord?" his answer is, "Whenever you are ready" (John N. Oswalt, The Book of Isaiah - Chapters 1-39, NICOT, p.557).
"It is precisely because God's justice must be expressed - and therefore punishment must fall on his rebellious people - the manifestation of his mercy is delayed. As so often in the prophets, God's judgment falls first of all; but a remnant preserved through the judgment experiences the blessings of his grace and the fulfilment of his positive purpose for them. Those who wait for him will be identified with this remnant..." (Geoffrey W. Grogan, Isaiah, EBC, Vol.6, p.197).
"Without taking poetic speech too literally, one is tempted to see in the mention of the pole on the hilltop a reference to the fact that Jerusalem would survive the coming onslaught, although alone. If that is correct, it certainly was not understood to be a great cause for rejoicing. Isaiah was speaking of humiliation and destruction, so that only scraps would remain" (John N. Oswalt, The Book of Isaiah - Chapters 1-39, NICOT, p.556).
"... Isaiah could see only too clearly where this sin (13) was leading - to disaster, compared in verse 13 and 14 to the collapse of a wall and the shattering of a clay pot. One day there would be nothing left of the rebels' grand plan: the Assyrians would stand at the door with all Judah in ruins behind them" (Barry Webb, The Message of Isaiah, BST, p.128).
"The nation, which had hitherto resembled a thick forest, would become like a lofty pine ... standing solitary upon the top of a mountain, and like a flagstaff planted upon a hill - a miserable remnant in the broad land so fearfully devastated by war" (F. Delitzsch, Isaiah, KD, Vol.7, p.321).
Zec 12:1a This is the word of the LORD concerning Israel...
Zec 12:2b Judah will be besieged as well as Jerusalem.
"It is hard to image siegeworks laid against a province or a population" (Ben C. Ollenburger, The Book of Zechariah, NIB, Vol.7, p.826).
Zec 11:14b that I might break the brotherhood between Judah and Israel.
Isa 11:13b Ephraim shall not envy Judah, and Judah shall not vex Ephraim.
Zec 12:6a In that day will I make the governors of Judah like an hearth of fire among the wood, and like a torch of fire in a sheaf; and they shall devour all the people round about, on the right hand and on the left:
Isa 11:14 But they shall fly upon the shoulders of the Philistines toward the west; they shall spoil them of the east together: they shall lay their hand upon Edom and Moab; and the children of Ammon shall obey them.
"Concerning Israel is unexpected in view of the concentration of interest on Judah and Jerusalem, but there is no difficulty if "Israel" is taken to refer to the whole people, and not merely to the northern kingdom as it is in 11:14. The conflict between Israel and Judah does not feature in chapters 12-14" (Joyce G. Baldwin, Haggai Zechariah Malachi, TOTC, p.188).
"The message concerning Israel (1) in these two chapters is focused on Judah and Jerusalem in particular. There is an obvious reason for this, of course. By Zechariah's day, what had once been the nation of Israel, made up twelve tribes descended from Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, had been reduced to a small Persian province centred on Jerusalem. Judah was no longer the kingdom or tribe of that name from earlier times, but the people of this province (Yehud). In a sense it was all that was left of Israel..." (Barry Webb, The Message of Zechariah, BST, p.157).
In Zechariah it is the people of Judah, led by her leaders, that engage the surrounding nations; in Isaiah it is the peoples of Judah and the peoples of Ephraim/Israel that engage the surrounding nations.
Using Frank Delitzsch principle - "the prophet turns and addresses the people of the future in the people of his own time" - (Isaiah, KD, Vol.7, p.532) - the prophecy concerning Judah in the time of Sennacherib is to be understood as the type for what is to happen to the land of Judah and the tribes of Israel in the future.
Zec 14:1a Behold, the day of the LORD cometh...
Zec 14:2 For I will gather all nations against Jerusalem to battle; and the city shall be taken, and the houses rifled, and the women ravished; and half of the city shall go forth into captivity, and the residue of the people shall not be cut off from the city.
Zec 13:8 And it shall come to pass, that in all the land, saith the LORD, two parts therein shall be cut off and die; but the third shall be left therein.
Zec 13:9a And I will bring the third part through the fire, and will refine them as silver is refined, and will try them as gold is tried...
Zec 14:3 Then shall the LORD go forth, and fight against those nations, as when he fought in the day of battle.
"... [Zec 14] v.2 delineates some of the horrors that still await Jerusalem and its people. Chambers (p.110) correctly observes "only a part of the inhabitants are to be driven into exile, the rest remain. It was different at the Chaldean conquest of Jerusalem, for then the greater portion were carried away, and afterwards even the remnant that was left (2 Kings xxv. 11). The verse cannot therefore refer to that subjugation. Nor can it be applied to the overthrow of the holy city by Titus, who neither had all nations under his banner, nor left half of the population in possession of their homes." The fulfillment, then, must still lie in the future. At that time all this will happen to fulfill the curses pronounced against covenant disobedience (Deut 28:30)" (Kenneth L. Barker, Zechariah, EBC, Vol.7, p.689).
"Zechariah takes Ezekiel's prophetic description of what did happen, in 587 BCE, as paradigmatic of what will happen in the future. However, he modifies the image..." (Ben C. Ollenburger, The Book of Zechariah, NIB, Vol.7, p.833).
"The process of purification is described in [Zec 13] verses 8-9 as the community is divided into thirds (cf. Ezek. 5, where the prophets hair is divided into thirds, with a third burnt [representing those who die in the plague or perish by famine in the city], a third struck with the sword [representing those who fall by the sword outside the city], and a third scattered to the wind [representing those exiled]). Both passages reveal that the majority of the flock will be eliminated from the outset as two-thirds "will be struck down and perish" " (Mark J. Boda, Haggai, Zechariah, NIVAC, p.513).
"The city will be captured, the houses plundered, and the women raped (v.2). These , too, are the common and deplorable accompaniments of war, and in Israel's experience and Judah's, so was exile. Here, half of the city will go into exile, while the rest remain. The text offer no reason why some people will be exiled and others not: it does not characterize either group..." (Ben C. Ollenburger, the Book of Zechariah, NIB, Vol.7, p.836).
"The final third in both cases survive but then undergoes further discipline. In Ezekiel 5 a sword pursues this final third. In Zechariah 13:9, this final third is refined using terminology from the practice of metallurgy, a common image in prophetic literature (e.g., Isa. 1:25; Jer. 6:27-30; Eze. 22:18-22). The process involves the powerful agent of "fire," will "refine ... test" (Ps. 17:3; 26:2; 66:10; Jer. 9:7) as "silver" and "gold." Such a process removes the impurities form deposits containing these precious metals.
"The second half of Zechariah 13:9 reveals the result of this process..." (Mark J. Boda, Haggai, Zechariah, NIVAC, p.513).
Zec 13:9b ... they shall call on my name, and I will hear them: I will say, It is my people: and they shall say, The LORD is my God.
Lev 26:11 I will put my dwelling place among you, and I will not abhor you.
Lev 26:12 I will walk among you and be your God, and you will be my people.
"The closing words of the poem [13:7-9] echo the classical way in which the covenant relationship between God and Israel was expressed in the law of Moses: 'I will walk among you and be your God, and you will be my people.' Historically that relationship turned out to be a very troubled one, constantly marred - especially in idolatry and false prophecy on Israel's part. But this poem ends on a note of tremendous confidence. Out of the suffering that will usher in the kingdom of God will emerge a new, cleansed, people of God, who will truly know him. Out of the last battle will a renewal, the restoration at last of God's covenant with Israel. So looking back we can now see how fittingly the poem concludes the whole of chapters 12 and 13. It picks up the themes of battle (12:2-9) and cleansing (13:1-6), and weaves them together under the heading of covenant renewal" (Barry Webb, The Message of Zechariah, BST, p.169).
"The existence of a remnant guarantees the continuation of God's ancient promise to Abraham" (Thomas McComiskey, "The Minor Prophets," Vol.3, p.1224).
Eze 43:4 And the glory of the LORD came into the house by the way of the gate whose prospect is toward the east.
Eze 43:7a And he said unto me, Son of man, the place of my throne, and the place of the soles of my feet, where I will dwell in the midst of the children of Israel for ever, and my holy name, shall the house of Israel no more defile...
Jesus Christ's presence in the Mosaic Tabernacle (Lev 26:11-12) is the type for His presence in the Millennial Temple:
"The laws given in Exodus ... were important, but it was the sanctuary that was to be the "nuclear power plant," energizing the Israelites' faith and thereby transforming them into a potent, unified channel of divine revelation. While the physical structure of the sanctuary was crucial ... it was the resident Presence of God that made the place powerful, and it was through dynamic interaction with him in worship that the Israelites accessed his holy power" (Roy Gane, Leviticus, Numbers, NIVAC, (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2004), p.54).
With Christ and the Saints replacing Satan and the Demons in the 'heavenlies' - ruling the earth as kings, from there, and appearing in the heavenly holy place as priests mediating between God and man; with Christ's 'shekinak' glory in the earthly Most Holy Place; and Israel accessing His holy power, then the nation of Israel will fulfil God's promise to Abraham:
Ge 12:2 And I will make of thee a great nation, and I will bless thee, and make thy name great; and thou shalt be a blessing:
Ge 12:3 And I will bless them that bless thee, and curse him that curseth thee: and in thee shall all families of the earth be blessed.
The United Kingdom of Israel and Judah is that 'great nation,' which includes, as argued, the peoples of England, America, Scotland, Wales, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and other Related Peoples.
Earlier, in Isaiah 30 the figures for those left after the decimation of 'Israel' were "a beacon upon the top of a mountain, and as an ensign on an hill".
Yet this "beacon/ensign" would be the elect people that would be the foundation of a United Kingdom of Israel and Judah.
Am 5:3 For thus saith the Lord GOD; The city that went out by a thousand shall leave an hundred, and that which went forth by an hundred shall leave ten, to the house of Israel.
Lev 27:32 And concerning the tithe of the herd, or of the flock, even of whatsoever passeth under the rod, the tenth shall be holy unto the LORD.
Using the information from Zechariah 13:8-9 and the 'tenth' concept, two possible figures for the remnant that survive could be 1/10 of the total, that is 10%; or 1/10 of the third that survive the beginning of the Great Tribulation, that is 3.3%.
Using these statistics with a guestimate of the descendant of Jacob in the world, along with a guestimate of the number of descendants Jacob in the United Kingdom, America and Australia the possible numbers that survive WW3 are presented below.
The numbers may be lower as a result of the "beginning of sorrows".
Mt 24:6 And ye shall hear of wars and rumours of wars: see that ye be not troubled: for all these things must come to pass, but the end is not yet.
Mt 24:7 For nation shall rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom: and there shall be famines, and pestilences, and earthquakes, in divers places.
Mt 24:8 All these are the beginning of sorrows.
Being generous, say that there are 300 million Israelites in the world; two-thirds, that is 200 million, will die at the beginning of the Great Tribulation. That leaves 100 million to suffer in Jacob's trouble.
If the tenth to survive is taken from the total prior to the tribulation then 30 million descendants of Jacob will survive; if it is the tenth of the population to suffer in the three and a half years of Jacob's trouble, then 10 million Israelites will survive and live on into the Kingdom of God. (See "Return" below).
1/10 of 1/3
40% = 126m
80% = 49m
60% = 14m
The remnant of Jacob will be resettled in their tribal allocations in the promised land, see chart below. Judah is now a part of northern Israel. Ephraim will have the same social status us Issachar, while Manasseh will have the same social status as Zebulun.
(Map/Diagram based on (1) Bob Pickle, Calculating the Circumference of the Earth, pickle-publishing.com/papers/ezekiels-city-circumference-of-the-earth.htm; and (2) Philip Peter Jenson, Graded Holiness - A Key to the Priestly Conception of the World, p.136).
For all the tribes to inherit their Millennial tribal 'portions' they must exist today. Where are they? "They" would include the so-called lost ten tribes of the Northern Kingdom and those lost - Judah, Levi and Benjamin - from the Southern Kingdom.
The first key would be to identify the end-time descendants of the two leading tribes - Ephraim and Manasseh - of the former northern kingdom. It would then follow that the other tribes would be located near the tribes of Joseph, especially Ephraim.
The second key would be to draw typological connections between ancient and modern Israelites utilizing the tribal blessings of Genesis 49 and Deuteronomy 33.
"Its [Gen 49] language, aphorisms, metaphors, word plays, and other poetic features make for many difficulties in text, translation, and interpretation... One confronts difficulties is assessing the literary ... relationships with a similar list of tribal sayings in Deuteronomy 33 (cf. Judg 5:14-18)" (Terence E. Fretheim, The Book of Genesis, NIB, Vol.1, p.664).
Numerous constructions have been put forward for the identity of end-time Israelites. One of these constructions follows. An observation will follow it, but anything more, at present, is beyond the scope of this booklet.
"The Anglo-Saxon-Keltic-Nordic peoples are directly genetically closely related and are of the same human family. The nations [and/or peoples] descended from Israel are: Irish [mainly Dan but also some mixes with Canaanites]; Scottish [mainly Judah; many in north Simeon; some mixes with Vikings]; Welsh and Cornish [mainly Levi but some Canaanite mixes]; English [mainly Ephraim]; Western Swiss [Gad]; Northern French [Reuben]; Northern Belgians [Asher]; Dutch [Zebulon]; Danish [probably Benjamin]; Swedish [Naphatali]; Norwegians [Benjamin]; Western Finns [possibly Issachar or Benjamin/Naphtali]. Plus the above's descendants all over the world, but particularly in North America, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa.
"The peoples comprising the central and southern French, central and eastern Finns are not Israelites..." (C. M. White, In Search of ... The Origins of Nations, (History Research Projects, 2003), p.399).
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:12_Tribes_of_Israel_Map.svg & vacationrentalbuddy.com/weurope1a.gif
If the northern tribes of Israel are divided into groups it could entail: (1) Reuben, Gad and Eastern Manasseh; (2) Issachar, Zebulun, Asher and Naphtali; and (3) Ephraim, Dan and Western Manasseh; which then could correspond - highly arbitrary may be the objection - to (1) the Northern French, Western Swiss and those Germans (Eastern Mannasseh) who migrated to America; (2) Northern Belgians; Dutch; Swedish; Norwegians; and Western Finns; and (3) England, Ireland and those English (Western Manasseh) who migrated to America.
Eze 47:14 You are to divide it equally among them. Because I swore with uplifted hand to give it to your forefathers, this land will become your inheritance. (NIV).
Zec 14:10a All the land shall be turned as a plain from Geba to Rimmon south of Jerusalem: and it shall be lifted up, and inhabited in her place...
"The geographical dimensions and tribal allotments of the land are certainly not feasible today, nor have they ever been followed in time past. Geographical changes will be necessary prior to the fulfillment of chapters 45, 47-48P (Ralph H. Alexander, Ezekiel, EBC, Vol.6, p.943).
As noted above the high and low figures of 'Israelite' survival are around 30 million and 12 million respectively.
With the present population of Israel, the West Bank and Gaza at around 13.5 million, along with the future topological changes the land of the 'forefathers' will easily accommodate the lower figure. For the higher figure:
Ge 12:3 And I will bless them that bless thee, and curse him that curseth thee: and in thee shall all families of the earth be blessed.
Zec 8:13 And it shall come to pass, that as ye were a curse among the heathen, O house of Judah, and house of Israel; so will I save you, and ye shall be a blessing: fear not, but let your hands be strong.
Ps 72:8 He [the Messiah, through human Davidic vice-regents] shall have dominion also from sea to sea, and from the river unto the ends of the earth.
With Israel to rule the nations, typology may suggest that not all Israel will return to the Promised Land.
Ezr 8:15 And I gathered them together to the river that runneth to Ahava; and there abode we in tents three days: and I viewed the people, and the priests, and found there none of the sons of Levi.
"The Babylonians were cruel conquerors. They executed the leaders of a conquered people. They sometimes kept men in prison for many long years; sometimes they sold their captives into slavery. But the Babylonians were not cruel masters" (Solomon Grayzel, A History of the Jews, Rev Ed, p.20).
"... they [the exiles] became so comfortable that the majority did not return to Judah once the way had been cleared by the decree of Cyrus" (Eugene H. Merrill, Kingdom of Priests, p.482).
Jer 5:20 Declare this in the house of Jacob, and
publish it in Judah...
While the time of Jacob's trouble in the earlier Babylonian captivity - the type - was vastly different to the time of Jacob's trouble in the future Babylonian captivity - antitype, it is suggested that a good number, perhaps "the majority" will not return to the land of the forefathers, but will return (from the wilderness, Eze 20:35-36?) to their, strategically placed, modern homelands to begin Israel's 'blessing' of the nations.