Hagar Old Covenant - Temple Dispensation
"The David and Solomon of the Chronicler ... must be seen not only as the David and Solomon of history, but also as typifying the Messianic king of the Chronicler's expectation" (Kenneth Barker, General Editor, The NIV Study Bible, Introduction to 1 Chronicles, p.580).
David - Warrior King
1Ch 11:1 Then all Israel gathered themselves to David unto Hebron, saying, Behold, we are thy bone and thy flesh.
1Ch 11:2 And moreover in time past, even when Saul was king, thou wast he that leddest out and broughtest in Israel: and the LORD thy God said unto thee, Thou shalt feed my people Israel, and thou shalt be ruler over my people Israel.
1Ch 11:3 Therefore came all the elders of Israel to the king to Hebron; and David made a covenant with them in Hebron before the LORD; and they anointed David king over Israel, according to the word of the LORD by Samuel.
2Sa 5:4 David was thirty years old when he became king, and he reigned forty years.
2Sa 5:5 In Hebron he reigned over Judah seven years and six months, and in Jerusalem he reigned over all Israel and Judah thirty-three years.
"Without question, David's rule over all Israel was perceived as a healing, a melding of disparate and hostile elements into the mighty people of God. The long-delayed establishment of the chosen people nation under the chosen king had finally come to pass. Unfortunately, however, subsequent history was ro reveal that the pomp and pageantry of this glorious occasion was only a patina spread thinly over a political structure which could not rid itself of intertribalism and division" (Eugene H. Merrill, Kingdom of Priests, p.234).
Capital City for Kingdom
1Ch 11:5 ... David captured the fortress of Zion, the City of David.
1Ch 11:7 David then took up residence in the fortress, and so it was called the City of David.
1Ch 11:8 He built up the city around it, from the supporting terraces to the surrounding wall, while Joab restored the rest of the city.
"David's task was clear - he must find a central site which, at the same time, would be relatively neutral. By far the best choice was Jerusalem, the largest, most impressive, and strategically situated city in the whole central region" (Eugene H. Merrill, Kingdom of Priests, p.234).
"Israel took possession of the little hill of Ophel, which became known as Zion or the City of David. By building (or rebuilding) terrace like fortifications to the east (i.e., the Millo), David both expanded the size of the city and enhanced its defensibility" (Eugene H. Merrill, Kingdom of Priests, p.236).
2Sa 8:1 In the course of time, David defeated the Philistines
2Sa 8:2 David also defeated the Moabites ... the Moabites became subject to David and brought tribute.
2Sa 8:6 He put garrisons in the Aramean kingdom of Damascus, and the Arameans became subject to him and brought tribute. The LORD gave David victory wherever he went.
2Sa 8:9 David ... defeated the entire army of Hadadezer, [king of Zobah]
2Sa 8:11 King David ... subdued
2Sa 8:12 Edom and Moab, the Ammonites and the Philistines, and Amalek
2Sa 8:14 He put garrisons throughout Edom, and all the Edomites became subject to David. The LORD gave David victory wherever he went.
2Sa 8:11 ... the silver and gold from all the nations he had subdued [David dedicated to the LORD].
"Though Saul had defeated the Philistines and the Ammonites early in his reign, his frenetic hunt for David deflected the army from defence of the kingdom, and his death at the hand of the Philistines at Mount Gilboa, far to the north and east of their territory, indicated this supremacy at that time. David's decisive victory over this persistent enemy has already been recorded (2 Sa. 5:17-25), and 2 Samuel 8 takes up the story where 2 Samuel 5 left off" (Joyce Baldwin, 1 & 2 Samuel, TOTC, p.219).
"David had not only established the monarchy upon a firm basis, but had also exalted the Old Testament kingdom of God to such a height, that all the kingdoms around were obliged to bow before it" (C.F. Keil, 1 and 2 Kings, KD, Vol.3, p.13).
1Ki 5:3 ... because of the wars waged against ... David from all sides, he could not build a temple for the Name of the LORD his God until the LORD put his enemies under his feet.
2Sa 7:1 ... the king was settled in his palace and the LORD had given him rest from all his enemies around him. (NIV).
1Ch 22:7 ... it was in my mind to build an house unto the name of the LORD my God:
1Ch 22:8 But the word of the LORD came to me, saying, Thou hast shed blood abundantly, and hast made great wars: thou shalt not build an house unto my name, because thou hast shed much blood upon the earth in my sight. (NIV).
"God's priorities are that his own royal house, where his throne (the ark) can finally come to rest..., will wait until Israel is at rest and David's dynasty (in the person of his son) is secure" (Kenneth Barker, General Editor, The NIV Study Bible, Note on 2 Sam 7:13, p.433).
"Temple building could only be the completion and crowning effect of Yahweh's creation of a kingdom" (Walter C. Kaiser, Jr., Towards an Old Testament Theology, p.150).
2Sa 7:11 ... the LORD telleth thee that he will make thee an house.
2Sa 7:12 And when thy days be fulfilled, and thou shalt sleep with thy fathers, I will set up thy seed after thee, which shall proceed out of thy bowels, and I will establish his kingdom.
2Sa 7:13 He shall build an house for my name, and I will stablish the throne of his kingdom for ever.
2Sa 7:14 I will be his father, and he shall be my son. If he commit iniquity, I will chasten him with the rod of men, and with the stripes of the children of men:
2Sa 7:15 But my mercy shall not depart away from him, as I took it from Saul, whom I put away before thee.
2Sa 7:16 And thine house and thy kingdom shall be established for ever before thee: thy throne shall be established for ever.
"Next to the promise given to Abraham must rank the word of blessing poured out on David. The classical OT passage dealing with this new addition to the ever-expanding promise and plan of God was 2 Samuel 7 with its duplicate in 1 Chronicles 17 and commentary in Psalm 89. It was the account of David's proposal to build a "house," or temple, for the Lord and the revelation Nathan received with God's counter-proposal that he would not allow David to construct it. Instead, Yahweh would make a "house" out of David (2 Sam. 7:5-11)!" (Walter C. Kaiser, Jr., Towards an Old Testament Theology, p.149).
"... God will establish a kingdom and a throne for David's offspring (vv. 11, 12, 14). This is the major promise of the covenant. The ambiguity inherent in the Hebrew word zera' (v.11), like its English equivalents 'seed' (AV)/offspring (NIV)....), means it can apply both to the dynasty as a whole and to the individual members of it (cf. The use of the same word in Gn. 3:15; 12;7; 17:7, 16).
"... David's heirs will enjoy the privileged status of God's adopted sons, with Yahweh himself as their adoptive Father (v.13). This promise which was originally given to Israel (Ex. 4:22; cf. Is. 55:3) is now concentrated in the Davidic line (cf. Pss 2:7; 89:27). Ultimately it leads to Jesus, in whom this promise is finally and perfectly fulfilled... Through Jesus too, it has amazingly been extended by adoption to every believer, so that Jesus is 'the firstborn among many brothers' (Rom. 8:29; cf. vv.15-17)" (Martin J. Selman, 1 Chronicles, TOTC, pp.179-180).
1Ch 17:13 I will be his father, and he will be my son. I will never take my love away from him, as I took it away from your predecessor.
1Ch 17:14 I will set him over my house and my kingdom forever; his throne will be established forever.'" (NIV).
"... The most striking development of the Davidic covenant in Chronicles is its explicit association with the kingdom of God (v.14)... It is only Chronicles ... (and possibly Ps. 45:6), which see the kingdom of God expressed directly in the Davidic kingdom" (Martin J. Selman, 1 Chronicles, TOTC, p.180).
"Thus what God stood for heaven, David was appointed to be as a symbol and pledge of God's kingdom on earth" (Walter C. Kaiser, Jr., Towards an Old Testament Theology, p.161).
1 Ki 2:10 David rested with his fathers and was buried in the City of David.
1Ch 29:28 He died at a good old age, having enjoyed long life, wealth and honor.
1Ki 2:11 He had reigned forty years over Israel - seven years in Hebron and thirty-three in Jerusalem.
1Ki 2:12 So Solomon sat on the throne of his father David, and his rule was firmly established (NIV).
Solomon - King of Peace
"Not only is there idealization of David and Solomon, but the author also appears to consciously adopt the account of the succession of Moses and Joshua as a model for the succession of David and Solomon: Both David and Moses fail to attain their goals - one to build the temple and the other to enter the promised land... Both Solomon and Joshua bring the people of God into rest (22:8-9; Jos 11:23; 21:44)... Both enjoy the immediate and wholehearted support of the people (29:23-24; Dt 34:9; Jos 1:16-18)... It is twice reported that God "exalted" or "made great" Solomon and Joshua (29:25; 2Ch 1:1; Jos 3:7; 4:14). The Chronicler also uses other models from Pentateuchal history in his portrayal of David and Solomon. Like Moses, David received the plans for the temple from God (28:11-19; Ex 25:9) and called on the people to bring voluntary offerings for its construction (29:1-9; Ex 25:1-7). Solomon's relationship to Huram-Abi, the craftsman from Tyre (2Ch 2:13-14), echoes the role of Bezalel and Oholiab in the building of the tabernacle (Ex 35:30-36:7). See note on 2Ch 1:5" (Kenneth Barker, General Editor, The NIV Study Bible, Introduction to 1 Chronicles, pp.580-581).
Solomon God's Viceregent
1Ch 29:23 Then Solomon sat on the throne of the LORD as king instead of David his father, and prospered; and all Israel obeyed him.
"The expression, "throne of the kingdom of Jahve," and more briefly "throne of Jahve" (29:23, or ... 17:14), denotes that Jahve is the true King of Israel, and had chosen Solomon as He had chosen David to be holder and administrator of His kingdom" (C.F. Keil, 1 & 2 Chronicles, KD, p.569).
God was the 'true' Judge of Israel in time of the judges; now God is the 'true' King in the time of the kings. David's throne is also God throne.
1Ch 29:25 And the LORD magnified Solomon exceedingly in the sight of all Israel, and bestowed upon him such royal majesty as had not been on any king before him in Israel.
1Ki 4:25 And Judah and Israel dwelt safely, every man under his vine and under his fig tree, from Dan even to Beer-sheba, all the days of Solomon.
1Ki 4:20 Judah and Israel were many, as the sand which is by the sea in multitude, eating and drinking, and making merry.
1Ki 10:14 Now the weight of gold that came to Solomon in one year was six hundred threescore and six talents of gold,
1Ki 10:15 Beside that he had of the merchantmen, and of the traffic of the spice merchants, and of all the kings of Arabia, and of the governors of the country.
1Ki 10:23 So king Solomon exceeded all the kings of the earth for riches and for wisdom.
1Ki 10:24 And all the earth sought to Solomon, to hear his wisdom, which God had put in his heart.
1Ki 10:25 And they brought every man his present, vessels of silver, and vessels of gold, and garments, and armour, and spices, horses, and mules, a rate year by year.
2Ch 1:15 And the king made silver and gold at Jerusalem as plenteous as stones, and cedar trees made he as the sycamore trees that are in the vale for abundance.
1Ki 4:21 And Solomon reigned over all kingdoms from the river unto the land of the Philistines, and unto the border of Egypt: they brought presents, and served Solomon all the days of his life.
Solomon's Statecraft & Empire
"Spheres of Political Influence
The question arises, Is the term empire applicable to Israelite hegemony in the tenth century? If by "empire" one means sheer territorial expanse, it is not. If however, one has in view a domination over foreign lands and peoples which falls short of incorporation into the dominate state, then the situation under David and Solomon certainly qualifies. A more fruitful line of inquiry, however, might be to consider the various spheres over which David and Solomon exercised political influence. The first was the homeland itself. Israel under David had made the transition from a rather loose confederation of nearly autonomous tribes to a clearly definable national entity with a strong central government and a united diplomatic and military presence among the nations of the world. But Israel under David and Solomon was geographically coextensive with the older tribal territories; that is, she occupied only that area which had been assigned to the tribes in conquest times. Historically and eschatologically the Old Testament knows of an Israel expanded beyond the tribal borders, but this never appears to have been the case in the period of the united monarch.
"Israel under Solomon did not, then, formally incorporate under her jurisdiction lands that lay outside her traditional border. Solomon did, however, inherit from David a complex of provinces consisting of kingdoms and states immediately contiguous to Israel. These included Damascus, Ammon, Moab, Edom, and several smaller principalities. As provinces these areas were not considered integral parts of the homeland, but they nonetheless lost their independence and were ruled directly by Solomon through Israelite governors or other subordinates. They were subject to taxation and conscription and were expected to defend Israel against hostilities. In return they could expect the protection and benefits of the central government.
"The third sphere of political influence, and that makes empire applicable to the Israel of Solomon, was the more distant and less rigid collection of vassal states. These client nations - including Zobah, Hamath, Arabia, and possibly Philistia - were brought under Israelite control by military or diplomatic means, but were allowed to retain a certain measure of autonomy, including native rulers and internal fiscal policy. They were obligated, however, to recognize the suzerainty of the Israelite king, to provide tribute of goods and services to the king on stated occasions, and to maintain loyalty to the central government under all circumstances, especially in times of war. Solomon, as Great King, was responsible to defend these areas of his empire and otherwise to render such assistance as they might require.
"Finally, Solomon's imperial policy included a network of parity treaties with neighboring or even distant powers with whom he was on friendly terms. These treaties, as the name implied, recognized for equality of the contracting parties and usually contained provisions for mutual defense, trade, safe passages, extradition, and the like. The best example is the relationship between Solomon and Hiram of Tyre. Neither ruler was subordinate to the other, and the provisions of their treaty were clearly to the advantage of both..." (Eugene H. Merrill, Kingdom of Priests, pp.300-302).
See "Greater than Solomon" below.
Temple Old Covenant - Renewing the Covenant
Temple on Mount Moriah
2Ch 3:1 Then Solomon began to build the house of the LORD at Jerusalem in mount Moriah, where the LORD appeared unto David his father...
1Ch 21:28 ... David saw that the LORD had answered him on the threshing floor of Araunah the Jebusite, he offered sacrifices there.
1Ch 22:1 Then David said, "The house of the LORD God is to be here, and also the altar of burnt offering for Israel."
"This is the only biblical reference identifying the temple mount with Moriah, the place of Abraham's sacrifice, "the mount of the Lord" (Gen 22:2, 14). As the same place that Abraham held a knife above his son, David saw the destroying angel with sword drawn to plunge into Jerusalem (1 Chr 22:1-22:1..." (Raymond B. Dillard, 2 Chronicles, WBC p.25).
"It is, in both cases, a place where God revealed himself and where special sacrifice was offered, themes especially associated with the temple" (Martin J., Selman, 2 Chronicles, TOTC, p.305).
1Ki 6:11 And the word of the LORD came to Solomon, saying,
1Ki 6:12 Concerning this house which thou art in building, if thou wilt walk in my statutes, and execute my judgments, and keep all my commandments to walk in them; then will I perform my word with thee, which I spake unto David thy father:
1Ki 6:13 And I will dwell among the children of Israel, and will not forsake my people Israel.
Ark to Temple
2Ch 5:1 Thus all the work that Solomon made for the house of the LORD was finished:
2Ch 5:2 Then Solomon assembled the elders of Israel, and all the heads of the tribes, the chief of the fathers of the children of Israel, unto Jerusalem, to bring up the ark of the covenant of the LORD out of the city of David, which is Zion.
2Ch 5:7 And the priests brought in the ark of the covenant of the LORD unto his place, to the oracle of the house, into the most holy place, even under the wings of the cherubims.
2Ch 5:11 And it came to pass, when the priests were come out of the holy place: (for all the priests that were present were sanctified, and did not then wait by course:
2Ch 5:12 Also the Levites which were the singers, all of them of Asaph, of Heman, of Jeduthun, with their sons and their brethren, being arrayed in white linen, having cymbals and psalteries and harps, stood at the east end of the altar, and with them an hundred and twenty priests sounding with trumpets:)
2Ch 5:13 It came even to pass, as the trumpeters and singers were as one, to make one sound to be heard in praising and thanking the LORD; and when they lifted up their voice with the trumpets and cymbals and instruments of music, and praised the LORD, saying, For he is good; for his mercy endureth for ever: that then the house was filled with a cloud, even the house of the LORD;
2Ch 5:14 So that the priests could not stand to minister by reason of the cloud: for the glory of the LORD had filled the house of God.
Moses brought the Ark into the tabernacle - priests brought the ark into temple - the cloud /glory of the Lord filled the tabernacle and temple and both Moses and priests unable to enter.
2Ch 6:3 And the king turned his face, and blessed the whole congregation of Israel: and all the congregation of Israel stood.
2Ch 6:4 And he said, Blessed be the LORD God of Israel...
2Ch 7:1 Now when Solomon had made an end of praying, the fire came down from heaven, and consumed the burnt offering and the sacrifices; and the glory of the LORD filled the house.
2Ch 7:2 And the priests could not enter into the house of the LORD, because the glory of the LORD had filled the LORD'S house.
2Ch 7:3 And when all the children of Israel saw how the fire came down, and the glory of the LORD upon the house, they bowed themselves with their faces to the ground upon the pavement, and worshipped, and praised the LORD, saying, For he is good; for his mercy endureth for ever.
In the official public dwelling, no cloud is mentioned, but there is the fire/glory of the Lord, with the people present.
"Divine approval that rested on the temple services and Solomon's prayer of dedication in particular was shown by "fire" that "came down from heaven" on the altar. It was in the same way that God had inaugurated the sacrificial services at the Mosaic tabernacle (Lev 9:22)...
"Now all the people also "the glory of he LORD above the temple," which constituted a greater manifestation of what had already been revealed to the priests inside (5:13-14)..." (J. Barton Payne, 1,2 Chronicles, EBC, Vol.4, p.463).
"... Porter (75) observes that Solomon pronounced two different blessings at the dedication of the Temple (1 Kgs 8:14-21; 54-61). In so doing the king most likely followed precedent... [At the dedication of the Tabernacle] Aaron blessed the people before Moses and he entered the tent (v.22); upon leaving the Tent Moses and Aaron blessed the people again" (John E. Hartley, Leviticus, WBC, p.120).
2Ch 7:7 Solomon consecrated the middle part of the courtyard in front of the temple of the LORD, and there he offered burnt offerings and the fat of the fellowship offerings...
"In addition to burnt offering, there were "fellowship offering" (KJV, "peace offerings"). The latter not only symbolized, as choice parts were burned in sacrifice on the altar, but also depicted the restored fellowship with God that comes as a result of reconciliation. Most flesh from the peace offerings was eaten by the people themselves, sitting down, as it were, as guest of the God's table, in a meal celebrating the restoration of their peace with him (Lev 7:15; cf. Ex 24:11..." (J. Barton Payne, 1,2 Chronicles, EBC, Vol.4, Note on 1 Chron 16:1, p.389).
"... fellowship offerings. This type of offering was an important element in the original ceremony of covenant ratification at Sinai (Ex 24:5, 11). It represented the communion or peace between the Lord and his people when the people lived in conformity with their covenant obligations" (Kenneth Barker, General Editor, The NIV Study Bible, Note on 1 Sam 11:15, p.390).
The Covenant Meal here coincided with the fellowship meal of the Feast of Tabernacles. A dispensation later a Covenant Meal would coincide with the 'fellowship' meal of the Feast of Passover.
Lk 22:15 And he said to them, "I have eagerly desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer.
"... the Peace-offering ... in it the offerer, the priest, and God, all fed together. This was the case in no other but the peace-offering. In this they had something in common. Here each had a part. They held communion in feeding on the same offering" (Andrew Jukes, The Law of The Offerings, p.107).
House Dwelling on Earth and in Heaven
Ex 20:21 ... Moses approached the thick darkness where God was.
1Ki 8:12 Then Solomon said, "The LORD has said that he would dwell in a dark cloud;
1Ki 8:13 I have indeed built a magnificent temple for you, a place for you to dwell forever."
1Ki 8:21 I have provided a place there for the ark, in which is the covenant of the LORD that he made with our fathers when he brought them out of Egypt."
1Ki 8:27 But will God indeed dwell on the earth? behold, the heaven and heaven of heavens cannot contain thee; how much less this house that I have builded?
1Ki 8:29 That thine eyes may be open toward this house night and day, even toward the place of which thou hast said, My name shall be there...
1Ki 8:30 And hearken thou to the supplication of thy servant, and of thy people Israel, when they shall pray toward this place: and hear thou in heaven thy dwellingplace: and when thou hearest, forgive.
"Solomon's great question in 1 Kings 8:27, 'But will God really dwell on earth? is in intended to elicit the marveling answer, 'Yes indeed!'" (Alec Motyer, The Message of Exodus, BST, p.252).
"... almost the first words of Solomon at the temple's dedication ceremony are to the effect that God is in this building... it is not quite as simple as it looks to explain what sense the statement is, and is not, true. The temple is intended to be a place for God 'to dwell in for ever' (6:2), and if we are ask a reason for the curious linking of this verse with the previous one, the Lord's own declaration 'that he would dwell in thick darkness', it may not be altogether frivolous - in fact it may be the truest answer - to point to the windowless room at the heart of the temple... Solomon is perfectly aware of the ambiguity about the darkness where God is. While this preface to the ceremony calls the temple God's dwelling-place, his prayer states eight times over that God actually dwells in heaven (6:21, 23, 25, 27, 30, 33, 35, 39)" (Michael Wilcock, The Message of Chronicles, BST, p.143).
"God had condescended to allow a temple to be built for his name (5:5). He had by this means identified himself with his people. This means that God had through the temple provided a place of contact between man and God, a way for sinful man to approach a holy God, to have his sins forgiven, and to live in fellowship with him.
"... God's dwelling place, or place of enthronement (yasab), is in heaven. The temple, as the place where God's name is enthroned, is a type of the true heaven and at the same time the way of approach to God" (R. D. Patterson & Hermann J. Austel, 1,2 Kings, EBC, Vol.4, pp.85-86).
God says he will dwell on the earth, and in a sense this is true. But he is also dwells in heaven. In the time of the Judges God was the 'true' Judge of Israel and in the time of the Kings God was the 'true' King of Israel. But in these two dispensations he was heaven.
Rev 5:10 You have made them to be a kingdom and priests to serve our God and they will reign on the earth.
So when it says that the saints "will reign on the earth" the principle outlined above needs to be considered in interpreting the location of the saints during their reign - "it is not quite as simple as it looks to explain what sense the statement is, and is not, true".
Light to the Nations
1Ki 8:41 "As for the foreigner who does not belong to your people Israel but has come from a distant land because of your name -
1Ki 8:42 for men will hear of your great name and your mighty hand and your outstretched arm - when he comes and prays toward this temple,
1Ki 8:43 then hear from heaven, your dwelling place, and do whatever the foreigner asks of you, so that all the peoples of the earth may know your name and fear you, as do your own people Israel, and may know that this house I have built bears your Name.
"The prayer of Solomon at the dedication of the temple ... invites YHWH to pay attention to the prayers not only of Israelites, but also to those of foreigners... It is first of all significant in its simple expectation that foreigners will be attracted to come and worship and invoke the God of Israel for blessing. No explanation is given other than that they will have heard of his 'great name' - or reputation. Secondly it is amazing that Solomon's prays that God should do for the foreigner what God had never promised, in quite so many words, to do for the Israelites; namely 'whatever the foreigner asks'. And thirdly the motivation offered to God for answering such prayers of non-covenant people is expressly 'missional' - namely that 'all the people of the earth may know your name and fear you, as do your own people Israel'. The same chapter includes the hope, very reminiscent of Deuteronomy 4:35, 39 'that all the peoples of the earth may know that the LORD is God and that there is no other' - a hope immediately conditioned on God's own covenant people living in faithful commitment to obedience (1 Kings 8:60-61 - mission connected to ethics yet again)" (Kim Huat Tan, "Community, Kingdom and Cross: Jesus' View of Covenant", Jamie A. Grant & Alistair I. Wilson, Editors, The God of Covenant, pp.74-75).
New Priesthood Line
1Ki 2:27 So Solomon thrust out Abiathar from being priest unto the LORD; that he might fulfil the word of the LORD, which he spake concerning the house of Eli in Shiloh.
1Ch 29:22 And did eat and drink before the LORD on that day with great gladness. And they made Solomon the son of David king the second time, and anointed him unto the LORD to be the chief governor, and Zadok to be priest.
See on Ezekiel 44 below.
1Ki 8:6 And the priests brought in the ark of the covenant of the LORD unto his place, into the oracle of the house, to the most holy place, even under the wings of the cherubims.
1Ki 8:10 And it came to pass, when the priests were come out of the holy place, that the cloud filled the house of the LORD.
The "ark of the covenant" is God's throne. God is sitting on that throne through Jesus Christ. The "glory of the Lord" pictures Jesus Christ on that throne.
But God has another throne.
1Ki 7:1 It took Solomon thirteen years ... to complete the construction of his palace.
1Ki 10:18 ... the king made a great throne inlaid with ivory and overlaid with fine gold.
1Ki 10:19 The throne had six steps, and its back had a rounded top. On both sides of the seat were armrests, with a lion standing beside each of them.
1Ki 10:20 Twelve lions stood on the six steps, one at either end of each step. Nothing like it had ever been made for any other kingdom.
2Ch 9:3 When the queen of Sheba saw the wisdom of Solomon, as well as the palace he had built
2Ch 9:5 She said to the king...
2Ch 9:8 Praise be to the LORD your God, who has delighted in you and placed you on his throne as king to rule for the LORD your God. Because of the love of your God for Israel and his desire to uphold them forever, he has made you king over them, to maintain justice and righteousness." (NIV).
Solomon sat on God's throne; also known as the "throne of David".
"This "kingdom of Yahweh" which was "in the hands of the sons of David" (2 Chron. 13:8) belonged to the Lord. The king of Israel was merely God's vicegerent who owed his office to God and who symbolically continued that reign as an earnest of God's triumphal occupation of that throne. Thus to aid the sagging spirits of a down-trodden people, the chronicler revived the image of the kingdom at the height of its greatest power in order to set forth the glories of Messiah's kingdom" (Walter C. Kaiser, Jr., Towards an Old Testament Theology, p.261).
There were two thrones in Israel: (1) The temple throne, the ark of the covenant, on Mount Moriah; and (2) the palace throne, the throne of David, on Mount Zion.
These two thrones picture the thrones of God and Christ respectively.
Seeds of division
"A. Alt is probably correct in maintaining that the crowning of David as king over 'all Israel' (2 Sam 5:1-5) made him king of a dual kingdom in which Judah kept its separate identity" (H.L. Ellison,"Judah", NBD, p.628).
Jacob's favourtism towards Joseph, with his coat of many colours, turned Joseph's brothers against him; Solomon favourtism of Judah, with exemption of taxation, turned brother tribes against him.
1Ki 4:7 Solomon also had twelve district governors over all Israel, who supplied provisions for the king and the royal household. Each one had to provide supplies for one month in the year.
"Most remarkable of all is the omission of Judah and Jerusalem from the districting. This implies that Jerusalem and the surrounding area were considered a federal district exempt from the obligations which were attached to the remainder of the nation. That a line of demarcation existed between Israel and Judah even in Solomon's time is clear from the comments of the historian that "the people of Judah and Israel were as numerous as the sand on the seashore" (1 Kings 4:20) and that "Judah and Israel, from Dan to Beersheba, lived in safety, each man under his own vine and fig tree" (1 Kings 4:24). Exemption from taxation, forced labor, and other burdens can be understood given Solomon's Judahite ancestry, but it also may have been the single most important contributing factor in the division of the kingdom following his death..." (Eugene H. Merrill, Kingdom of Priests, pp.306-307).
1Ki 11:28 And the man Jeroboam [an Ephraimite] was a mighty man of valour: and Solomon seeing the young man that he was industrious, he made him ruler over all the charge of the house of Joseph.
Somewhat similar to Pharaoh, Solomon put Jeroboam from the tribe Joseph over "the house of Joseph".
1Ki 11:29 And it came to pass at that time when Jeroboam went out of Jerusalem, that the prophet Ahijah the Shilonite found him in the way...
1Ki 11:31 Then he said to Jeroboam... thus saith the LORD, the God of Israel, Behold, I will rend the kingdom out of the hand of Solomon, and will give ten tribes to thee:
1Ki 11:33 Because that they have forsaken me, and have worshipped Ashtoreth the goddess of the Zidonians, Chemosh the god of the Moabites, and Milcom the god of the children of Ammon, and have not walked in my ways, to do that which is right in mine eyes, and to keep my statutes and my judgments, as did David his father.
1Ki 11:40 Solomon sought therefore to kill Jeroboam. And Jeroboam arose, and fled into Egypt, unto Shishak king of Egypt, and was in Egypt until the death of Solomon.
Earlier Judah "sold" Joseph into Egypt to save him from being killed. Now Solomon, descendant of Judah, forces Jeroboam, descendant of Joseph, to flee to Egypt to be saved.
Jeroboam is an 'anointed' king who flees to Egypt and is there until the king who sought his life was dead; and who later returns to northern Israel and becomes king.
Jeroboam and Solomon types for Jesus and Herod. Jeroboam and Christ dwelt in the north of Israel after returning from Egypt.
"The death of Solomon paved the way for one of the most decisive and traumatic events in Israel's long history - the formal and permanent division of the kingdom between the ten tribes of the north, henceforth known as Israel or Ephraim, and the tribe of Judah in the south. Though shattering in the extreme to the national psyche, this cleavage should have come as no surprise to thoughtful people, for the political and theological roots of the schism reached deep into Israels past" (Eugene H. Merrill, Kingdom of Priests, pp.315-316).
1Ki 12:1 And Rehoboam went to Shechem: for all Israel were come to Shechem to make him king.
1Ki 12:2 And it came to pass, when Jeroboam the son of Nebat, who was yet in Egypt, heard of it, (for he was fled from the presence of king Solomon, and Jeroboam dwelt in Egypt;)
1Ki 12:3 That they sent and called him. And Jeroboam and all the congregation of Israel came, and spake unto Rehoboam, saying,
1Ki 12:4 Thy father made our yoke grievous: now therefore make thou the grievous service of thy father, and his heavy yoke which he put upon us, lighter, and we will serve thee.
1Ki 12:16 So when all Israel saw that the king hearkened not unto them, the people answered the king, saying, What portion have we in David? neither have we inheritance in the son of Jesse: to your tents, O Israel: now see to thine own house, David. So Israel departed unto their tents.
1Ki 12:19 So Israel rebelled against the house of David unto this day.
1Ki 12:20 And it came to pass, when all Israel heard that Jeroboam was come again, that they sent and called him unto the congregation, and made him king over all Israel: there was none that followed the house of David, but the tribe of Judah only.
1Ki 12:21 And when Rehoboam was come to Jerusalem, he assembled all the house of Judah, with the tribe of Benjamin...
Earlier it was Joseph and Benjamin now it is Judah and Benjamin against "ten".
Sin of Jeroboam
2Ch 11:13 The priests and Levites from all their districts throughout Israel sided with him.
2Ch 11:14 The Levites even abandoned their pasturelands and property, and came to Judah and Jerusalem because Jeroboam and his sons had rejected them as priests of the LORD.
2Ch 11:15 And he appointed his own priests for the high places and for the goat and calf idols he had made.
2Ch 11:16 Those from every tribe of Israel who set their hearts on seeking the LORD, the God of Israel, followed the Levites to Jerusalem to offer sacrifices to the LORD, the God of their fathers.
"... Jeroboam's most significant action was his establishment of an official cult to rival that of Jerusalem (1 Kings 12:26-33)..." (John Bright, A History of Israel, p.237).
"Neither the severe chastisements ... nor the love and grace ... were sufficient to induce the king or the people to relinquish the worship of the calves. This sin of Jeroboam, however, although it was Jehovah who was worshipped under the symbol of the calf, was a transgression of the fundamental law of the covenant...
"Jeroboam the son of Nebat was not content with simply introducing images of Jehovah, but had even banished from his kingdom the Levites ... and had taken men out of that great body of the people, who were not sons of Levi, and made them priests, and had gone so far as to change the time of celebrating the feast of tabernacles from the seventh month to the eighth (1 Kings 12:31,32), merely for the purpose of making the religious gulf which separated the two kingdoms as wide as possible ... Thus the worship of the people became a political institution, in direct opposition to the idea of the kingdom of God..." (C.F. Kiel, Hosea, KD, p.13).
It maybe of significance that Rachel, the mother of Joseph, took her father Laban's "household gods" when Jacob and his family fled from him. When Laban caught up with them Rachel did not "relinquish" the family idols to him.
"... So markedly different in morality and religion were the lives of the kings of Israel and Judah that David and Jeroboam became standards of piety and impiety respectively. Every northern king was condemned because he "walked in all the way of Jeroboam the son of Nebat and in the sin which he made Israel sin"... Of any good king of Judah it was said, "He walked before Me as David his father walked"..." (Walter C. Kaiser, Jr., Towards an Old Theology, p.138).
"Whatever its provocation, the consequences of the schism were disastrous. The empire was for the most part lost overnight. Neither Israel nor Judah, occupied with internal problems, had the power or the will to hold it or, apparently, even to try: it simply went by default...
"Israel and Judah had become second rate states..." (John Bright, A History of Israel, pp.231-32).
"Israel's resurgence began with Jehoash ... who came to the throne just as the Assyrians crippled Damascus... he is said to have recovered all the cities lost by his father (II Kings 13:25)" (John Bright, A History of Israel, p.258).
His contemporary Amaziah of Judah also reconquered Edom, but fell foul of Jehoash.
"The resurgence of the sister states reached its zenith in the next generation under the able and long-lived Jeroboam II, of Israel, and his equally long-lived and able younger contemporary, Uzziah of Judah... By the mid-eight century the dimensions of Israel and Judah together lacked but little of being as great as those of the empire of Solomon. Since full advantage seems to have been taken of the favorable position in which the country found itself, a prosperity unknown since Solomon ensured..." (John Bright, A History of Israel, p.256).
Geo-political Power Shift
"Though they [the two independent nations of Israel and Judah] had fought with their neighbors continually, and on occasion been humiliated, they had never lost political self-determination; nor had their fortunes, although not unaffected by the current of larger world affairs, ever been dependent upon the whim of empires far away, save indirectly. The truth is that [during] the entire history of Israel ... her existence as a people had been spun out in a great power vacuum; no empire had existed that had been in a position to trouble her deeply and permanently. As a result she had never known an emergency that she had not in some way been able to master, and so to survive. After the middle of the eighth century this was never to be the case again. Assyria took the path of empire in earnest, and the cloud long lowering on the horizon became a line storm which swept the little peoples before it like leaves. The northern state snapped before the blast and went crashing down. Though Judah managed to survive for yet a century and a half, outliving Assyria herself, she was never, save for one brief interval, to know political independence again" (John Bright, A History of Israel, p.269).
Ephraim/Israel faulty bow
Ge 49:24 But his bow abode in strength, and the arms of his hands were made strong by the hands of the mighty God of Jacob...
Hos 7:15 Though I have bound and strengthened their arms, yet do they imagine mischief against me.
Hos 7:16 They return, but not to the most High: they are like a deceitful bow: their princes shall fall by the sword for the rage of their tongue.
The End of Ephraim/Israel
2Ki 17:21 ... he rent Israel from the house of David; and they made Jeroboam the son of Nebat king: and Jeroboam drave Israel from following the LORD, and made them sin a great sin.
2Ki 17:22 For the children of Israel walked in all the sins of Jeroboam which he did; they departed not from them;
2Ki 17:23 Until the LORD removed Israel out of his sight, as he had said by all his servants the prophets. So was Israel carried away out of their own land to Assyria unto this day.
"It is little wonder that the only remedy for 210 years of covenant infidelity was to be uprooted from the land of the covenant and delivered over to the very nations for whom Israel was responsible as the servant of Yahweh. The irony is inescapable" (Eugene H. Merrill, Kingdom of Priests, p.400).
2Ki 17:18 Therefore the LORD was very angry with Israel, and removed them out of his sight: there was none left but the tribe of Judah only.
2Ki 17:19 Also Judah kept not the commandments of the LORD their God, but walked in the statutes of Israel which they made.
Warning of End for OT Temple Covenant
Jer 7:12 But go ye now unto my place which was in Shiloh, where I set my name at the first, and see what I did to it for the wickedness of my people Israel.
Jer 7:13 And now, because ye have done all these works, saith the LORD...
Jer 7:14 Therefore will I do unto this house ["temple" (NIV)], which is called by my name, wherein ye trust, and unto the place which I gave to you and to your fathers, as I have done to Shiloh.
Jer 7:15 And I will cast you out of my sight, as I have cast out all your brethren, even the whole seed of Ephraim.
"... there was a view abroad that the temple itself was a guarantee of Jerusalem's inviolability. There was evidently a very great preoccupation with the activities of the cult, but a minimal concern with the ethical demands of the covenant... Yahweh was in no way obligated either to guarantee the inviolability of the temple and the city of Jerusalem, or to remain among his people if they continued to reject his sovereignty and his covenant demands. His ancient promises belonged only to a nation which kept his commandments faithfully (cf. Deut. 7:12-15)" (J. A. Thompson, The Book of Jeremiah, NICOT, pp.274, 276).
"In a rhetorical fashion, the prophet invites the throngs of pilgrims at Jerusalem's temple to take a pilgrimage to Shiloh and see what happened there. It too had been a place where God's presence was established, but now it was in ruins. The reason for ruin was equally clear to the prophet, for its demise was "because of the evil of my people" (v.12). A temple or shrine, in other words, which was the symbolic location of God's presence among his people, provided no absolute security; God could be driven out of his temple by evil, and when that happened, sooner or later the place would collapse in ruin...
"And so the termination of Jeremiah's temple sermon rings with a funereal tone: "I will cast you out of my presence" (v 15), just as he had done before to the people of Ephraim, in whose territory the shrine of Shiloh was located. The very thing which the pilgrim crowd sought, namely, the divine presence symbolized by the temple, would be gone for ever..." (Peter C. Craigie, Page H. Kelly, Joel F. Drinkard, Jr., Jeremiah 1 -25, WBC, p.122).
End of Temple Old Covenant
Eze 8:4 And, behold, the glory of the God of Israel was there, according to the vision that I saw in the plain.
Eze 8:5 Then said he unto me, Son of man, lift up thine eyes now ... and behold northward at the gate of the altar this image of jealousy in the entry.
Eze 8:6 He said furthermore unto me, Son of man, seest thou what they do? even the great abominations that the house of Israel committeth here, that I should go far off from my sanctuary? but turn thee yet again, and thou shalt see greater abominations.
"The four scenes provide a visual recitation of evidence justifying Yahweh's radical response to Israel's infidelity. In the end Ezekiel at least will know that if Yahweh abandoned his people, it is not without cause. In betraying him they have inflamed his passion. They have violated the fundamental principle of covenant relationship and its corollary: "You have shall have no other gods before me," and "You shall not make any idolatrous images for yourselves to worship and serve" (Exod. 20:3-6; Deut. 4:1-20; 5:7-12)... The image presents a direct challenge to Yahweh's presence. Either Yahweh alone is Israel's God (cf. v.4) or he is not their God at all" (Daniel I. Block, The Book of Ezekiel Chapter 1-24, NICOT, pp.283, 288).
"He was leaving, but not because he wanted to; rather, because his own covenant people were doing things that will drive me far from my sanctuary (8:6)" (Christopher J. H. Wright, The Message of Eekiel, BST, p.100).
Eze 9:3 And the glory of the God of Israel was gone up from the cherub, whereupon he was, to the threshold of the house.
Eze 10:18 Then the glory of the LORD departed from off the threshold of the house, and stood over the cherubims.
Eze 11:23 And the glory of the LORD went up from the midst of the city, and stood upon the mountain which is on the east side of the city.
"For Ezekiel the movement of the divine glory would have had ominous significance. It signaled Yahweh's suspension of rule and raised the possibility of departure from the city... the departure of the glory signals the end of a relationship that had existed for almost four centuries. The divine king has abandoned his residence" (Daniel I. Block, The Book of Ezekiel Chapter 1-24, NICOT, pp.306, 326-27).
"This must have been one of the darkest moments of Ezekiel's ministry... He would have known the story of the departure of the glory of Yahweh from the his people when the Philistines captured the ark of the covenant - before even the temple was built - and the naming of Eli's posthumous grandson Ichabod, 'No glory', to mark that tragedy. But that was centuries ago, before all the promises that Yahweh had made in relation to his temple and this city. Yet now, in his own blighted lifetime not only had Ezekiel been expelled from his beloved city, but he had also lived to witness something even worse - the glory of his covenant God, Yahweh, leaving his temple, leaving his city, leaving his people to their destruction" (Christopher J. H. Wright, The Message of Eekiel, BST, pp.120-121).
Dt 31:16 And the LORD said unto Moses, Behold, thou shalt sleep with thy fathers; and this people will rise up, and go a-whoring after the gods of the strangers of the land, whither they go to be among them, and will forsake me, and break my covenant which I have made with them.
Dt 31:17 Then my anger shall be kindled against them in that day, and I will forsake them, and I will hide my face from them, and they shall be devoured, and many evils and troubles shall befall them; so that they will say in that day, Are not these evils come upon us, because our God is not among us?
Hos 9:11 As for Ephraim, their glory shall fly away like a bird, from the birth, and from the womb, and from the conception.
Hos 9:12 Though they bring up their children, yet will I bereave them, that there shall not be a man left: yea, woe also to them when I depart from them!
"The departure of the symbol of God's presence from the temple was preparatory to the destruction of the city. This had been foretold in Deut. 31:17. Woe to those from whom God departs (Hos. 9:12)" (A.R. Fausset, Jeremiah - Malachi, JFB, Vol.2, Pt.2, p.233).
2Ch 36:16 ... the wrath of the LORD was aroused against his people and there was no remedy.
2Ch 36:17 He brought up against them the king of the Babylonians, who ... spared neither young man nor young woman, old man or aged...
2Ch 36:18 He carried to Babylon all the articles from the temple of God, both large and small, and the treasures of the LORD'S temple and the treasures of the king and his officials.
2Ch 36:19 They set fire to God's temple and broke down the wall of Jerusalem; they burned all the palaces and destroyed everything of value there.
2Ch 36:20 He carried into exile to Babylon the remnant, who escaped from the sword, and they became servants to him and his sons until the kingdom of Persia came to power. (NIV).
Jerusalem fell in 586BC.
Promised Return and New Covenant
Zec 8:3 This is what the LORD says: "I will return to Zion and dwell in Jerusalem. Then Jerusalem will be called the City of Truth, and the mountain of the LORD Almighty will be called the Holy Mountain." (NIV).
The prophet and priest Zechariah, whose name means "Yahweh remembers", announced, in 518 B.C., to the remnant of the house of Judah who had returned from the Babylonian captivity, as they were rebuilding the temple, the good news that the LORD would return and dwell in Zion. But it would not be temple that they were building. The promised return would be in days to come.
Jer 31:31 Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel, and with the house of Judah:
Jer 31:32 Not according to the covenant that I made with their fathers in the day that I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt; which my covenant they brake, although I was an husband unto them, saith the LORD:
Jer 31:33 But this shall be the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel; After those days, saith the LORD, I will put my law in their inward parts, and write it in their hearts; and will be their God, and they shall be my people.
Jer 31:34 And they shall teach no more every man his neighbour, and every man his brother, saying, Know the LORD: for they shall all know me, from the least of them unto the greatest of them, saith the LORD: for I will forgive their iniquity, and I will remember their sin no more.
"The new covenant is made with literal Israel and Judah, not with spiritual Israel i.e., believers... With the "remnant according to the election of grace" in Israel the new covenant has already taken effect. But with regard to the whole nation, its realization is reserved for the last days, to which Paul refers this prophecy in an abridged form (Rom 11:27)" (A.R. Fausset, Jeremiah - Malachi, JFB, Vol.2, Pt. 2, p.109).
"... Jeremiah found no fault with the Sinaitic covenant... The problem was with the people, not with the covenant-making God nor with the moral law or promises reaffirmed from the patriarchs and included in that old covenant. The text of Jeremiah 31:32 explicitly pointed the finger when it said, "Which covenant of Mine they broke."...
"... Why call this covenant a "New covenant" especially since most of the content adduced in the "New" is but a repetition of those promises already known from the Abrahamic-Davidic covenant already in existence?...
"When the items of continuity found in the New covenant are tabulated in this passage, they are: (1) the same covenant-making God, "My covenant"; (2) the same law, My torah...; (3) the same divine fellowship promised in the ancient tripartite formula, "I will be your God"; (4) the same "seed" and "people," "You shall be my people"; and (5) the same forgiveness, "I will forgive their inequities."...
"Thus the word "new" in this context would mean the "renewed" or "restored" covenant... We conclude then that this covenant was the old Abrahamic-Davidic promise renewed and enlarged...
"Its Brand-New Features...[include] (1) a universal knowledge of God (Jer. 31:34); (2) a universal peace in nature and the absence of military hardware (Isa. 2:4; Hos. 218; Eze. 34:25; 37:26); (3) a universal material prosperity (Isa. 61:8; Hos. 2:22; Jer. 32:41; Ezek. 34:26-27); (4) a sanctuary lasting forever in the midst of Israel (Eze. 37:26,28); and (5) a universal possession of the Spirit of God (Joel 2:32ff)..." (Walter C. Kaiser, Jr., Towards an Old Testament Theology, pp.233-234).
"... the climax of this wonderful section comes in the revelation that the basis of the new covenant is forgiveness of sin. Thus gratitude for forgiveness will issue in spontaneous obedience. The new covenant does not envision sinlessness but forgiveness of sin resulting in restoration of fellowship with God..." (Charles L. Feinberg, Jeremiah, EBC, Vol.6, p.577).
"... the forgiveness of sins is a work of grace which annuls the demand of the law against man" (C.F. Keil, Jeremiah, KD, p.283).
"Thus the New is more comprehensive, more effective, more spiritual, and more glorious than the old - in fact, so much so that in comparison it would appear as it were totally unlike the old at all...
"The New Covenant was indeed addressed to a revived national Israel of the future, but nonetheless by virtue of its specific linkages with the Abrahamic and Davidic promises contained in them all, it was proper to speak of a Gentile participation then and in the future. The Gentiles would be adopted and grafted into God's covenant with national Israel..." (Walter C. Kaiser, Jr., Towards an Old Testament Theology, pp.233-235).
Ge 12:3 And I will bless them that bless thee, and curse him that curseth thee: and in thee shall all families of the earth be blessed.
Ge 22:18 And in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed; because thou hast obeyed my voice.