Hagar Old Covenant - Tabernacle/Joseph Dispensation
Ge 41:38 And Pharaoh said unto his servants, Can we find such a one as this is [Joseph], a man in whom the spirit of God is?
Dt 34:9 And Joshua the son of Nun was full of the spirit of wisdom; for Moses had laid his hands upon him: and the children of Israel hearkened unto him, and did as the LORD commanded Moses.
"As the last chapters of Deuteronomy show, the Pentateuch addresses itself to an audience that has seen the passing of Moses, the great prophet (Deut 34:10), and yet has not seen the fulfillment of all his great prophecies. Much lay ahead yet to be fulfilled. It is to this audience that the leadership of Joshua [of the tribe of Joseph] is presented, not as a prophet, but one "filled with the spirit of wisdom" (Deut 34:9), a "wiseman" like Joseph.
"Joseph, then, represents the kind of leadership that the readers of the Pentateuch would be called to follow ... It is hardly surprising then that one sees foreshadowed in the picture of Joseph elements that later resemble David, Solomon, and, ultimately, the Messiah himself" (John H. Sailhamer, Genesis, EBC, Vol.2, p.237).
Jos 1:1 Now after the death of Moses the servant of the LORD it came to pass, that the LORD spake unto Joshua the son of Nun, Moses' minister, saying,
Jos 1:2 ... arise, go over this Jordan, thou, and all this people, unto the land which I do give to them, even to the children of Israel.
Jos 1:4 From the wilderness and this Lebanon even unto the great river, the river Euphrates, all the land of the Hittites, and unto the great sea toward the going down of the sun, shall be your coast.
Jos 1:6 ... unto this people shalt thou divide for an inheritance the land, which I sware unto their fathers to give them.
Jos 1:7 Only be thou strong and very courageous, that thou mayest observe to do according to all the law, which Moses my servant commanded thee...
Jos 1:8 ... for then thou shalt make thy way prosperous, and then thou shalt have good success.
Jos 11:23 So Joshua took the whole land, according to all that the LORD said unto Moses; and Joshua gave it for an inheritance unto Israel according to their divisions by their tribes. And the land rested from war.
"When the writer says that "Joshua took this entire land," he means that he gained control of the whole region even though he did not take every city. The last of the Canaanites were not subjected to Israel's authority until the reign of David..."Then the land had rest from" war is a profound declaration... It is prophetic of the "rest" that will come wen all evil has been conquered and [Jesus/Joshua] Christ is made King of King and Lord of Lords (Rev 11:15; 19:16)" (Donald H. Madvig, Joshua, EBC, Vol.3, p.311).
Dt 12:10 But when ye go over Jordan, and dwell in the land which the LORD your God giveth you to inherit, and when he giveth you rest from all your enemies round about, so that ye dwell in safety;
Dt 12:11 Then there shall be a place which the LORD your God shall choose to cause his name to dwell there...
Jos 18:1 And the whole congregation of the children of Israel assembled together at Shiloh, and set up the tabernacle of the congregation there. And the land was subdued before them.
Jos 18:6 After you have written descriptions of the seven parts of the land, bring them here to me and I will cast lots for you in the presence [lit. "face"] of the LORD our God. (NIV).
"[Shiloh was a] town in Ephraim that was the center of tribal administration and worship for the twelve Israelite tribes from the time of Joshua until its destruction (probably by the Philistines) about 1050 B.C. The prominent tell of Shiloh, about 5 hectares (12 acres) in area, stands at the northern end of a large valley 31 km. (19mi.) N of Jerusalem, just east of the main road to Shechem, in the hill country of Ephraim (Jds.21:19)..." (L.T. Dolphin, "Shiloh", ISBE, Vol.4, p.477).
"The tent ['ohel] of meeting occurs here for the first time in the book. What is meant is the sacred tent in which the ark of the covenant was kept (Exodus. 25:8; 27:21). It was the appointed meeting place between God and his people...
"Israel relocation of the sanctuary at Shiloh was made possible in as much as that region was subdued before them... It may also be that motifs such as that expressed in Deut. 12:10, where the erection of a sanctuary in Palestine is connected with God's giving of "rest" to Israel, play a part in this information (see also 2 Sam. 7:1-2)" (Marten H. Woudstra, The Book of Joshua, NICOT, pp.271-72).
"... and there set up the tabernacle, in order that, as the land was conquered, the worship of Jehovah might henceforth be regularly observed in accordance with the law. The selection of Shiloh ... is to ... be found in the name of the place, viz., Shiloh, i.e., rest, which called to mind Shiloh (Gen 49:10), and therefore appeared to be pre-eminently suitable to the resting place of the sanctuary of the Lord, where his name was to dwell in Israel, until He should come who was to give true rest to His people as the Prince of Peace" (C.F. Keil, Joshua, KD, p.135).
"[Shiloh] remained the cult center during the period of tribal history recorded in Joshua and Judges (e.g. Josh. 21:2; Jgs. 21:12)" (L.T. Dolphin, "Shiloh", ISBE, Vol.4, p.477).
"After Israel was established in the promised land through the ministry of Joshua, her pilgrimage ended. Many of the covenant promises God had given the patriarchs in Canaan and to the fathers in the desert had been fulfilled. The Lord's land, where Israel was to enter into rest, lay under her feet; it remained only for her to occupy it, to displace the Canaanites and to cleanse it of paganism. The time had come for Israel to be the kingdom of God in the form of an established commonwealth on earth" (Kenneth Barker, General Editor, The NIV Study Bible, Introduction to Judges, p.325).
"To call Israel under Joshua a nation would ... be a misnomer. Joshua himself was more a covenant mediator and military leader than a politician. Real authority rested in the hands of the elders, who apparently seldom if ever acted outside very parochial limits. There was no capital city where national policy could issue, unless one think of Gilgal or even Shiloh as such. The mode of operation seemed rather to be ad hoc. Any emergency which called for intertribal response was met by Joshua's personal appeal for cooperation, sometimes with not much support or success" (Eugene H. Merrill, Kingdom of Priests, "A History of Old Testament Israel", p.225).
Jdg 2:7 And the people served the LORD all the days of Joshua, and all the days of the elders that outlived Joshua, who had seen all the great works of the LORD, that he did for Israel.
Jdg 2:10 After that whole generation had been gathered to their fathers, another generation grew up, who knew neither the LORD nor what he had done for Israel.
Jdg 2:11 And the children of Israel did evil in the sight of the LORD, and served Baalim:
Jdg 2:12 And they forsook the LORD God of their fathers...
"When Joshua's contemporaries had joined him in death, the new generation accelerated down the highway to destruction. They did not know God in a vital way. They had not seen the miracles their fathers had talked about. People cannot thrive on the spiritual powers of their parents; each generation must personally experience the reality of God" (Herbert Wolf, Judges, EBC, Vol.3, p.394).
Jdg 2:14 And the anger of the LORD was hot against Israel, and he delivered them into the hands of spoilers that spoiled them, and he sold them into the hands of their enemies round about, so that they could not any longer stand before their enemies.
Jdg 2:16 Nevertheless the LORD raised up judges, which delivered them out of the hand of those that spoiled them.
"The primary purpose of the Book of Judges is to show that Israel's spiritual condition determined its political and material situation. When the nation turned to God in obedience, God graciously sent delivers to rescue the people from oppression. When they disregarded Joshua's warnings and worshiped the gods of Canaan, the nation came under the control of tyrants and invaders" (Herbert Wolf, Judges, EBC, Vol.3, pp.378-79).
Jdg 17:6 In those days there was no king in Israel, but every man did that which was right in his own eyes.
"As the book progresses, Israel's plight worsens... By the end of the book, the stories of sin and all-out civil war depict a nation's desperate need for unity and order. The repeated references to a time when Israel had no king (18:1 et al.) emphasize the author's intention to show the advantage of a monarchy over anarchy. The implication is that a nation led by a godly king would experience prosperity under the blessing of God.
"The Book of Judges shows that Israel failed to realize her divinely intended goal without a king. Israel was unable to govern herself according to the Mosaic law and thereby proved that she needed a king..." (Herbert Wolf, Judges, EBC, Vol.3, p.379).
Preparation for international warfare
Jdg 3:1 These are the nations the LORD left to test all those Israelites who had not experienced any of the wars in Canaan
Jdg 3:2 (he did this only to teach warfare to the descendants of the Israelites who had not had previous battle experience).
"Israel would one day confront major powers like Egypt and Assyria; so the smaller wars against the nations of Canaan provided valuable training. David, for example, not only fought against the Philistines but lived among them and learned their military skills..." (Herbert Wolf, Judges, EBC, Vol.3, p.396).
Judah going their own way
Jdg 5:1 On that day Deborah and Barak son of Abinoam sang this song: "Then the men who were left came down to the nobles; the people of the LORD came to me with the mighty. (NIV).
Jdg 5:14 Out of Ephraim was there a root of them against Amalek; after thee, Benjamin, among thy people; out of Machir came down governors, and out of Zebulun they that handle the pen of the writer.
Jdg 5:15 And the princes of Issachar were with Deborah; even Issachar, and also Barak: he was sent on foot into the valley. For the divisions of Reuben there were great thoughts of heart.
Jdg 5:16 Why abodest thou among the sheepfolds, to hear the bleatings of the flocks? For the divisions of Reuben there were great searchings of heart.
Jdg 5:17 Gilead abode beyond Jordan: and why did Dan remain in ships? Asher continued on the sea shore, and abode in his breaches.
Jdg 5:18 Zebulun and Naphtali were a people that jeoparded their lives unto the death in the high places of the field.
"There was virtually no aid from the eastern tribes, none from south of Jerusalem, and only token assistance from elsewhere... If not reflecting outright intertribal hostilities, this reaction at least revealed colossal indifference" (Eugene H. Merrill, Kingdom of Priests, p.226).
"Conspicuous by their absence from the list are Judah and Simeon... distance and the beginning of sectional rivalries were already starting to undermine the nation. Judah by now may have sensed its isolation..." (Eugene H. Merrill, Kingdom of Priests, pp.165-66).
"The failure to maintain a hold on Jerusalem (Jdg.1:8,21), combined with the existence of the semi-independent Gibeonite tetrapolis (Jos.9; 2Sa.21:1-2), created a psychological frontier between Judah and the central tribes. Though there was no barrier to communication (cf. Jdg. 19:10-13)... when Judah became tributary to the Philistines (Jdg. 15:11), he appears not have appealed to the other tribes, nor do they seem to have been concerned.
1Sa 11:8 When Saul mustered them at Bezek, the men of Israel numbered three hundred thousand and the men of Judah thirty thousand.
"The fact of the division seems to have been generally recognized, for by Sauls time we find the contingent from Judah separately enumerated (1 Sa. 11:8; 15:4; 17;52; 18:16)" (H.E. Ellison, "Judah", NBD, p.268).
End of Tabernacle Old Covenant
"The age [of the Judges] ... was one marked by anarchy, an almost total breakdown of law and order on every level.
"The principle reason for this chaotic condition was, of course, covenant infidelity. The people, from the leaders down, had defected from Yahweh and begun to embrace syncretism and outright paganism" (Eugene H. Merrill, Kingdom of Priests, pp.225-26).
Failure of the Line of Eli/Abiathar
"For the first time in Israel, Eli combined in his own person the functions of high priest and judge, judging Israel for forty years (1 S. 4:18)" (A.C. Grant, "Eli", ISBE, Vol.2, p.61).
1Sa 2:12 Eli's sons were wicked men; they had no regard for the LORD. (NIV).
1Sa 2:27 And there came a man of God unto Eli, and said unto him, Thus saith the LORD, Did I plainly appear unto the house of thy father, when they were in Egypt in Pharaoh's house?
1Sa 2:28 And did I choose him out of all the tribes of Israel to be my priest, to offer upon mine altar, to burn incense, to wear an ephod before me? and did I give unto the house of thy father all the offerings made by fire of the children of Israel?
1Sa 2:29 Wherefore kick ye at my sacrifice and at mine offering, which I have commanded in my habitation; and honourest thy sons above me, to make yourselves fat with the chiefest of all the offerings of Israel my people?
1Sa 2:31 Behold, the days come, that I will cut off thine arm, and the arm of thy father's house, that there shall not be an old man in thine house.
1Sa 2:34 And this shall be a sign unto thee, that shall come upon thy two sons, on Hophni and Phinehas; in one day they shall die both of them.
1Sa 2:35 And I will raise me up a faithful priest, that shall do according to that which is in mine heart and in my mind: and I will build him a sure house; and he shall walk before mine anointed for ever.
"Though one may not find evidence of apostasy in Eli himself, his sons in effect transformed the house of Yahweh at Shiloh into a Canaanite shrine with all the corruption and immorality associated with Baal (1 Sam. 2:12-17, 22-25)" (Eugene H. Merrill, Kingdom of Priests, p.176).
God could no longer dwell in an environment of covenant infidelity.
1Sa 4:1 ... Now Israel went out against the Philistines to battle
1Sa 4:2 ...when they joined battle, Israel was smitten before the Philistines...
1Sa 4:3 ... the elders of Israel said... Let us fetch the ark of the covenant of the LORD out of Shiloh unto us, that, when it cometh among us, it may save us out of the hand of our enemies.
1Sa 4:4 So the people sent to Shiloh, that they might bring from thence the ark of the covenant of the LORD of hosts, which dwelleth between the cherubims: and the two sons of Eli, Hophni and Phinehas, were there with the ark of the covenant of God.
1Sa 4:10 And the Philistines fought, and Israel was smitten...
1Sa 4:11 And the ark of God was taken; and the two sons of Eli, Hophni and Phinehas, were slain.
1Sa 4:19 Phinehas' wife, was with child, near to be delivered: and when she heard the tidings that the ark of God was taken, and that her father-in-law and her husband were dead, she bowed herself and travailed; for her pains came upon her.
1Sa 4:21 And she named the child I-chabod, saying ...
1Sa 4:22 ... The glory is departed from Israel: for the ark of God is taken.
The Tabernacle/Joseph Dispensation ended with the failure of one line of the sons of Aaron and the failure of one line of 'Rachael rulers.
Example of non-performance
Jdg 12:1 And the men of Ephraim gathered themselves together, and went northward, and said unto Jephthah, Wherefore passedst thou over to fight against the children of Ammon, and didst not call us to go with thee? we will burn thine house upon thee with fire.
Jdg 12:2 And Jephthah said unto them, I and my people were at great strife with the children of Ammon; and when I called you, ye delivered me not out of their hands.
Jdg 12:3 And when I saw that ye delivered me not, I put my life in my hands, and passed over against the children of Ammon, and the LORD delivered them into my hand: wherefore then are ye come up unto me this day, to fight against me?
Rejection of Ephraim/Joseph
Ge 49:24 But his bow abode in strength, and the arms of his hands were made strong by the hands of the mighty God of Jacob...
Ps 78:9 The children of Ephraim, being armed, and carrying bows, turned back in the day of battle.
Ps 78:10 They kept not the covenant of God, and refused to walk in his law;
Ps 78:57 But turned back, and dealt unfaithfully like their fathers: they were turned aside like a deceitful bow.
Ps 78:60 So that he forsook the tabernacle of Shiloh, the tent ...
Ps 78:67 ... he refused the tabernacle of Joseph, and chose not the tribe of Ephraim:
Ps 78:68 But chose the tribe of Judah, the mount Zion which he loved.
Ps 78:69 And he built his sanctuary ...
"...Shiloh ... the spiritual centre for the tribes, over whom Ephraim had exercised a kind of rule so long as the central sanctuary of the nation continued in its inheritance" (C.F. Kiel, Pentateuch, KD, p.255).
"... Ephraim - which under the Judges had been the ruling tribe. "The rejection refers only to their precedency, and the presence of the sanctuary among them". God chose mount Zion "to be at once the seat of the sanctuary and of the monarch (vv. 69-71)" (A.R. Fausset, Job - Isaiah, JFB, Vol.2, pt.1, p.271).
"This verse is best understood as a metaphor for Israel's betrayal of God's covenant (see v. 10), related to the figure of the "faulty bow" (v. 57)" (Kenneth Barker, General Editor, The NIV Study Bible, Note on Ps 78:9, p.867).
"... this is probably a metaphor referring to Ephraim's failure to provide strong leadership during those years" (Bruce B. Barton, General Editor, Life Application Bible NKJV, Note on Ps 78:9, 10).
"Ephraim" may be understood in the specific sense referring to the tribe of Ephraim, as in verse 67, or in a general sense to the northern kingdom, in verse 9-10, which it led.
Earlier in Genesis it was said of Joseph, by Jacob, that "... his bow abode in strength ... by the hands of the mighty God of Jacob" (49:24).
God 'strengthening' Joseph was dependent on Joseph's being faithful to the covenant. The 'strong' bow appears to be a metaphor for covenant fidelity and a "deceitful" bow a metaphor for covenant infidelity.
The argument hear is that the failure of the tribe of Ephraim to live up to its covenental responsibilities, that is, they sinned against the LORD, resulted in Joseph losing its "rulership" of Israel, but kept the birthright. Now the baton of leadership passed to the tribe of Benjamin, descended from the youngest son of Rachael.
Return of the ark
The hand of the LORD was against the Philistines until they returned the ark to Israel.
1Sa 7:1 And the men of Kirjath-jearim came, and fetched up the ark of the LORD, and brought it into the house of Abinadab in the hill, and sanctified Eleazar his son to keep the ark of the LORD.
"After the destruction of Shiloh, God had no dwelling among the people. The ark, which survived the battle was returned by the Philistines and housed at Kiriath-jearim (1 Samuel 6:1-7:2), but there was no shrine there to take the place of the one at Shiloh" (Marvin E. Tate, Psalms 51-100, WBC, p.294).
1Sa 7:2 And it came to pass, while the ark abode in Kirjath-jearim, that the time was long; for it was twenty years: and all the house of Israel lamented after the LORD.
1Sa 7:3 And Samuel spake unto all the house of Israel, saying, If ye do return unto the LORD with all your hearts, then put away the strange gods and Ashtaroth from among you, and prepare your hearts unto the LORD, and serve him only: and he will deliver you out of the hand of the Philistines.
1Sa 7:13 So the Philistines were subdued, and they came no more into the coast of Israel: and the hand of the LORD was against the Philistines all the days of Samuel.
1Sa 7:14 And the cities which the Philistines had taken from Israel were restored to Israel, from Ekron even unto Gath; and the coasts thereof did Israel deliver out of the hands of the Philistines. And there was peace between Israel and the Amorites.
1Sa 7:15 And Samuel judged Israel all the days of his life.
The 'True' Judge
Jdg 11:27 I have not wronged you, but you are doing me wrong by waging war against me. Let the LORD, the Judge, decide the dispute this day between the Israelites and the Ammonites. (NIV).
"In 11:27, in the context of the Ammonite oppression, the Lord is described as a sopet. This concept may be said to form the background of the book: the Lord is the real Judge of His people; it is He who gives them into the hands of their oppressors; it is He who raises up deliverers for them; it is His Spirit coming upon men, which equips them for their tasks (3:10; 6:34; 11:29; 14,6,19; 15:14)" (Arthur E. Cundall, Judges, TOTC, p.15).
"The judges (shophetim) were men who procured justice or right for the people of Israel, not only by delivering them out of the power of their foes, but also by administering the laws and rights of the Lord (ch. 2:16-19). Judging in this sense was different from the administration of civil jurisprudence, and included the idea of government such as would be expected from a king. Thus in 1 Sam. 8:5, 6 the people are said to have asked Samuel to give them a king "to judge us," to procure us right, i.e., to govern us; and 2 Kings 15:5 Jotham is said to have judged, i.e., governed the nation during the illness of his father. The name given to these men (shophetim, judges) was evidently founded upon Deut. 17:9 and 19:17, where it is assumed that in after-times there would be a shophet, who would stand by the side of the high priest as the supreme judge or leader of the state in Israel..." (C.F. Keil, Judges, KD, p.177).
God was the Judge of Israel. God was judging Israel in the Tabernacle/Joseph Dispensation. But God judged Israel through delegated human judges. While His glory dwelt in the Tabernacle He was not personally present with the people. Delegated 'rulership' is also the mode for the other Covenant Dispensations.
Judge to King
1Sa 8:1 And it came to pass, when Samuel was old, that he made his sons judges over Israel.
1Sa 8:3 And his sons walked not in his ways, but turned aside after lucre, and took bribes, and perverted judgment.
1Sa 8:4 Then all the elders of Israel gathered themselves together, and came to Samuel unto Ramah,
1Sa 8:5 And said unto him, Behold, thou art old, and thy sons walk not in thy ways: now make us a king to judge us like all the nations.
1Sa 8:22 And the LORD said to Samuel, Hearken unto their voice, and make them a king.
"The limited and occasional authority of the judges, the disunion and jealousy of the tribes under the administration of those rulers, had been creating a desire for a united and permanent form of government; while the advanced age of Samuel, together with the risk of his death happening in the then unsettled state of the people, was the occasion of calling forth an expression of this desire now" (Robert Jamieson, Joshua - Esther, JFB, Vol.1, Pt.2, p.152).
"Kingship, far from being antithetical to the purposes of God for Israel, was fundamental to his salvific design. Man was created as the image of God in order to "rule over the fish of the sea and the birds of the air and over every living creature that moves on the ground" (Gen. 1:26-28). He was placed in the Garden of Eden to exercise his sovereignty over it and all other things. Abraham and Sarah were told that they would produce kings (Gen. 17:6, 16), and the same covenant promise was reaffirmed to Jacob (Gen. 35:11). In his patriarchal blessing Jacob announced that "the scepter will not depart from Judah, / nor the ruler's staff from between his feet, / until he comes to whom it belongs / and the obedience of the nations is his" (Gen. 49:10)" (Eugene H. Merrill, Kingdom of Priests, p.190).
"The permitted monarchy was - even as foreseen in Deuteronomy 17:14-20 - to be bound by certain restrictions. The people were not to approve anyone who was not chosen by God, and the king was not to do his own will and pleasure; he was to rule according to the law of God. Thus Israel still had a theocracy of sorts where the king merely reigned as a viceroy of Yahweh, the heavenly Sovereign" (Walter C. Kaiser, Jr., Towards an Old Testament Theology, p.147).
1Sa 10:20 And when Samuel had caused all the tribes of Israel to come near, the tribe of Benjamin was taken.
1Sa 10:21 When he had caused the tribe of Benjamin to come near by their families, the family of Matri was taken, and Saul the son of Kish was taken...
1Sa 10:23 ... and when he stood among the people, he was higher than any of the people from his shoulders and upward.
1Sa 10:24 And Samuel said to all the people, See ye him whom the LORD hath chosen, that there is none like him among all the people? And all the people shouted, and said, God save the king.
"... Samuel gathered Israel together at Mizpah for the public ceremony of coronation and investiture (1 Sam. 10:17-27)... Saul accepted the protocols of kingship, which presumably reflected Moses' stipulations in Deuteronomy 17:14-20. Thus before Yahweh and the people a covenant had, in effect, been sworn binding Saul, the anointed shepherd of his people, to a proper course of action" (Eugene H. Merrill, Kingdom of Priests, p.199).
1Sa 14:47 After Saul had assumed rule over Israel, he fought against their enemies on every side: Moab, the Ammonites, Edom, the kings of Zobah, and the Philistines. Wherever he turned, he inflicted punishment on them.
1Sa 14:48 He fought valiantly and defeated the Amalekites, delivering Israel from the hands of those who had plundered them. (NIV).
"The problem was not with the request for a king, but with the motivation that triggered it: they wanted to have a king so they could be "like other nations." Graciously God yielded to their request and indeed Saul had marvelous success in his first twenty years or so (1 Sam. 14:47). But after he turned away from the Lord, the Lord turned away from him" (Walter C. Kaiser Jr., Mission in the Old Testament, p.25).
Failure of Saul/Benjamin
1Sa 13:13 And Samuel said to Saul, Thou hast done foolishly: thou hast not kept the commandment of the LORD thy God, which he commanded thee: for now would the LORD have established thy kingdom upon Israel for ever.
1Sa 13:14 But now thy kingdom shall not continue: the LORD hath sought him a man after his own heart, and the LORD hath commanded him to be captain over his people, because thou hast not kept that which the LORD commanded thee.
"Saul was to recognize the word of the prophet Samuel as the word of the Lord... In disobeying Samuel's instructions, Saul violated a fundamental requirement of his theocratic office. His kingship was not to function independently of the law and the prophets" (Kenneth Barker, General Editor, The NIV Study Bible, p.392, Note on 1 Sam 13:13).
"Saul's punishment consisted of a rejection of his dynastic succession... Only in 1 Samuel 15:28 do we hear of the rejection of Saul's kingship itself" (Ralph W. Klein, 1 Samuel, WBC, p.127).
"... the rejection of Saul on the part of God, which was announced by Samuel, was not followed by immediate deposition, ... Saul remained king until his death" (C.F. Keil, 1 & 2 Samuel, KD, p.471).
1Ch 10:13 So Saul died for his transgression which he committed against the LORD, even against the word of the LORD, which he kept not, and also for asking counsel of one that had a familiar spirit, to inquire of it;
1Ch 10:14 And inquired not of the LORD: therefore he slew him, and turned the kingdom unto David the son of Jesse.
The covenant infidelity of Saul/Benjamin resulted in the 'rulership' of the 'great' nation being returned to the sons of Leah. With the 'sin' of Reuben, Simeon and Levi, Leah's three oldest sons, the baton of leadership passed to Judah.
"The rise of the monarchy under Saul did little to heal the ever-widening breach between Judah and the northern tribes... we are told that after David had slain Goliath, "the men of Israel and Judah" pursued the Philistines (1 Sam. 11:18). It is clear that Israel and Judah were perceived as two entities following their own separate interests" (Eugene H. Merrill, Kingdom of Priests, pp.227-28).